Theme II

UKRAINIAN LAND within the Russian Empire at the end of XVIII - THE FIRST Half of the nineteenth century.

 

§ 2. The inclusion of the Ukrainian lands Russian Empire

Remember: 1. As the Russian government destroyed Hetmanate and Zaporozhye in January? 2. As a result of events that Russian and Austrian empires seized the Black Sea, Azov, the Right Bank and western land?

 

1. Features of development of Ukrainian lands for a new era

Modern Ukraine is major European powers. In Transcarpathia is geodesic center Europe. Features location and determined the specificity of civilization development Ukrainian lands. They were both below the division of spheres of influence and territory mutual influences of two Christian civilizations: Western Catholic and Eastern Orthodox. Attempts to expand the scope of the two civilizations its impact causing them to fight the Ukrainian lands, which pulled the permanent absence peace and tranquility for the Ukrainian people.

The decline of old forms Ukrainian life and the beginning of a new period of the Ukrainian national revival coincided with significant territorial changes in Central and Eastern Europe. While Europeans were impressed by the French Revolution, three powerful monarchy of the time Europe destroyed statehood weaker neighbors. At first the Russian Empire finally destroyed Hetmanate (1781), then attaching due Russo-Turkish wars of southern Ukraine, the state destroyed the Tatar People - The Crimean Khanate (1783). Then the result of three divisions (1772, 1793, 1795) Austria, Prussia and Russia were divided among themselves lands of the Commonwealth. Ukrainian lands captured the Austrian Empire (Eastern Galicia) and the Russian Empire (Right Bank). Taking advantage of weakness Ottoman Empire after its defeat in the Russo-Turkish War 1768-1774 biennium, Austria took over as Bukovina.

 

Ukrainian lands end XVIII Art.

 

As a result of these events formed divisions that no significant changes existed during more than a hundred years. Russian empire owned Slobodian Left Bank, Right Bank and South, which was about 85% of the land inhabited by Ukrainian. In stock Austrian Empire, there were approximately 15% of Ukrainian lands, and namely - Eastern Galicia, Northern Bukovina and Transcarpathia. Land area were under the authority of Russia, called the Dnieper Ukraine, and subject Austria - the western lands.

 

Ukrainian lands in the Austrian and the Russian empires at the beginning XIХ Art.

 

For the Ukrainian people the nineteenth century. was the first era of modern Ukrainian nation. Term "Ukrainian revival of" first began to use well-known historian Vladimir Antonovich, Hrushevsky, Dmitry Bagaley, Dmytro Doroshenko, Ivan Krypjakevych. The contents of this concept, they believed the complex events and phenomena, associated with the spread of mass national identity, the development of all spheres of cultural life of the Ukrainian people. The process of Ukrainian sense formation of nation they looked like two parallel streams - the same in content, synchronous in some chronological framework, but geographically separated. One stream was place in Dnieper Ukraine, the second - at Western. By content and process stages of the Ukrainian national revival meet similar European processes.

 

2. Population

The people of Ukrainian lands, belonged to the Austrian and the Russian Empire at the End of XVIII - early twentieth century. increased threefold. In the Dnieper it increased from 7.7 to 23.5 million souls in the Western states - from 2,5 to 6,4 million, however, This was due not only to natural population growth and migration and representatives of other nations to Ukrainian lands.

 

The population of the Ukrainian lands in the early XIХ Art.

 

At the end of XVIII century. Ukrainian ethnos, the number of which reached almost 10 million people, most zaselyav after the Russian territory in Europe. Unfortunately, the lack of their own state caused that he could not take its proper place in a number of community European nations.

The population of the Ukrainian lands end of the XVIII century.

Region Name

In the state which was

Area Blvd. km

Population, thousand people.   (Approx.)

Hetman

Russian Empire

102 400

2300

Sloboda Ukraine

Russian Empire

54 500

1000

South Ukraine

Russian Empire

194 600

1000

Right-Bank Ukraine

Rzeczpospolita
(To 1793)

164 700

3400

Eastern Galicia

Rzeczpospolita
(To 1772)

55 000

180

Transcarpathia

Austrian Empire

14 700

250

Northern Bukovina

Ottoman Empire
(To 1774)

5300

75

Together

 

59 1200

9825

Judge: 1. Which regions Ukrainian lands was the most and the least populated? 2. As a result of events which changed the nationality of the Right Bank, Eastern Galicia and Northern Bukovina in these years?

 

On the religious plane Ukrainian professed Christianity and were divided into Orthodox (mostly Dnieper and Northern Bukovina) and Greek Catholics (Galicia and Transcarpathia).

Being ruled by two caused empires that representatives of one of the Ukrainian people called different names. In the Russian Empire on them used the name "Little Russians", although in the contemporary scientific publications and literature rather were common definition of "Ukrainian" and "Ukraine". In the Western Ukrainian Habsburg Empire, then called in official documents "Ruthenians", and they themselves - Rusyns. In the late nineteenth century. Galician and Bukovina Rusyns started to use the new national name - Ukrainian. However, in the Transcarpathian Ukrainian population still call themselves Rusyns.

 

3. Left-bank Ukraine

On the left bank of the Dnieper were two of the Dnieper area - Left and Sloboda Ukraine. The name "Left­бе­Supervisory Ukraine "became known as the eastern part of Hetman, Moscow State and Poland (by contract Andrusovo 1667) peredilyly river Dnipro into right and left bank. Last annexed by Muscovy.

During the second half XVIII century. Ukrainian statehood in the Left Bank of the Hetman was gradually destroyed. First canceled hetman (1764), then eliminated regimental administrative system (1781) and created Kiev, Chernigov and Novgorod-Sivers'k province. After elimination viceroy (1796) and the introduction of the Russian Empire province Left Bank division was called Little Russian provinces by 1802 divided in Chernihiv and Poltava province. In the first half of the nineteenth century. to suppress the national liberation movement of the imperial government created new military-administrative unit - the governor-general. Chernihiv and Poltava province Little Russia joined the governor-general.

 

Farmers Poltava. Nineteenth century.

 

Governor-General was a great territorial-administrative unit, consisting of several provinces. Power of governor general, especially in the conquered lands of the Empire, had nature of the military dictatorship. Governor-General had almost unlimited authority, leading the entire military, administrative, judicial and financial authorities on the subject area. Appoint and dismiss him could only emperor.

Liquidation Hetmanate caused significant changes in the situation of the population left bank. Free peasants in 1783 were enslaved. Instead liquidated Cossack troops established regular karabinerski Cavalry Regiment, subject to the imperial government. All the Cossacks, who did not want serve in these regiments, the peasants turned to state and military inhabitants. Cossack officers received in 1785 rights and privileges of the Russian nobility. Next year we secularization (converting state church property to secular) monastic lands. This act imperial government greatly weakened the position of Ukrainian Orthodox clergy - spiritual elite of society and undermined the foundations of cultural activities of the church.

National composition of population Left Bank different from other regions the largest number of Ukrainian: in 1795 they constituted 95% of the population. Most of the population were Cossacks and peasants - Eternal guards and speakers, spiritual and material Ukrainian culture. On the left bank there were many large and small bridge, but daily life and occupation of most of their residents hardly differed from agriculture. Crafts and merchants after the reorientation of trade ties in Russia are increasingly degraded.

The most numerous national minority were Jews. At the end of XVIII century. imperial government, introduced for Jewish "Pale of Settlement - the area of compact residence of Jews in Russia beyond which they were forbidden to settle. Dnieper almost completely, except Kharkiv, was a residential zone.

 

Monument representative "Pale of Settlement" Sholem Aleichem

 

"Strip Settlement was first identified in 1791 by the Russian government to prevent the entry of Jews in the province and protect the Great Russian Enterprise from Jewish competition. The event was one of the violations natural rights, including rights to free choice of residence. Nicholas And added to these limitations of Jews in residence ban cities, particularly in Kiev, Nikolaev, Sevastopol, Cossack villages and state Poltava. Many towns were established neighborhoods, they had only live Jewish. In the early twentieth century. line of settlement remained, but Many Jews living abroad. It lasted until 1917

After the liquidation of Hetman Left rapidly growing number of Russian officials and military personnel mainly settled in cities. Consequently, the urban population of the Left gradually lost Ukrainian character and was Russian.

The changes undertaken by the imperial power, causing the formation of new social structures:

·   free peasants become serfs. Although serfdom of the Left does not have such a scale as in Russian peasants were serfs 40-45% of the population;

·   Cossacks granted the status of peasants. They were able to maintain its own economy, Paying a quarter of its profits as tax to the state;

·   commoners increasingly more oppressed imperial administration. Freedom of the city government formally kept to 1831 but actually ignored;

·   Cossack officers into a Little Russian nobility. Own nobility was a feature that distinguished the social structure of other Left Bank regions. Among the left bank of the nobility was widespread positive attitude to folk language and culture. It is from among the nobility-patriots came first representatives nationally conscious intellectuals who initiated the revival of Ukrainian Left.

 

4. Sloboda Ukraine

In the territory between the borders of Russia, Poland and the Crimean Khanate during the XVIII century. Sloboda was formed. The name itself resembled a primary feature of the settlement of these lands - freedom granted by the local population, which was formed mainly by by Cossacks and peasants, who fled from Poland which belonged to Ukrainian lands. Consequently, the end of the XVIII century. Ukrainian accounted for about 86% of the population edge. The Russians dominated in the eastern Slobozhanshchina. Jewish population was little, because these lands were not included to the Pale of Settlement Jews.

Ukrainian immigrants found Slobozhanschine in regimental system of government. When the Empress Catherine II began destroying the autonomy of the Ukrainian lands, regimental division here was eliminated and created Sloboda-Ukrainian provinces. Instead of Cossack military units were formed five hussar regiment in stock imperial army. It happened in 1765 Province and later eliminated transformed into the Kharkiv viceroyalty (1780). At the end of XVIII century. Sloboda-Ukrainian provinces restored (1796), and from 1835 it called Kharkiv.

Activities of the imperial government significantly changed the situation of the population Slobozhanshchina:

·   ordinary villagers Commonwealth or the end of XVIII century. turned into serfs;

·   Cossacks, who refused to join a hussar regiment, turned into state peasants;

·   Cossack officers who remained in the service of hussar regiment, received military ranks of the Russian army, which was a step to equalize the rights of the Russian nobility. Those who remained in the service of lost rights and the Cossack become a state peasants. The new nobility rusyfikuvalosya quickly, however were those who kept the memory of old times. That left them with those launched in Slobozhanschyna Ukrainian renaissance.

During the nineteenth century. Slobidska and called the Left Bank Left Bank Ukraine, because both regions were on the left bank. In imperial circles on these lands used name "Little".

 

5. Right-Bank Ukraine

Right bank of Naddniprianshchyna were Hetmanate western lands, which, after 1667 was part of the Commonwealth. Due to the second division Poland, the Russian Empire conquered the land. Right Bank empire viewed as only Russian region that only a result of unfavorable historical circumstances was for some time beyond. This was the embodiment imprinted in honor of the association of these lands medal of Catherine II, the expression: "I turned what was Transcarpathian region was separated. Officially called the Right Bank "South-Western countries. Since 1796 he divided into the Kyiv, Volyn and Podolsk province, which in 1832 was atdisconnected in Kiev General Governorate.

The population in Right Bank 1795 Ukrainian accounted for 85%. The majority of Ukrainian population were peasants, serfs, who suffered from uncontrolled exploitation of the landlords. The relationship between Polish landlords and Ukrainian peasants on the Right Bank acquired the character of open hatred.

During the stay in these lands stock Commonwealth Cossack officers under pressure Poles moved to Left Bank, or to retain their social position, came in Catholicism and spolonizuvalasya.

Poles within the population of the region constituted only 5%, but sat a leading position in society. They proceed Polonization Ukrainian population. The Russian government after the accession Right Bank confirmed all the rights of Poles and even expanded them considerably. But villagers could no longer, as had run away to Kiev or uprising.

The second largest national minority were Jews. They settled mainly in cities and towns, where were 70-80% of the population. As the number of Jewish communities exceeded the economic ability of cities, most Jews suffered hardships. Polish lords often handed over her property to rent or hire Jews to their administrators. Consequently, the growing hostility of the peasants, serfs and tenants is to steward, whom they considered guilty of all of their iniquity. Poles and Russian authorities to this suit, and they sometimes deliberately natskovuvaly two oppressed peoples against each other.

After the suppression of the Polish Uprising 1830-1831 biennium the imperial government launched a Russification of the country. Consequently, the Polish domination in the cultural and political sphere gave way to Russia. Kyiv has evolved from a town where the early nineteenth century. among higher social strata dominated the Polish language, in Russian language city. People's culture, customs and language preserved a large Ukrainian peasantry.

Prevalence Polish influences led to what became the Right Bank area, which were actively representatives of the Polish national movement.

 

6. South Ukraine

The members of the Southern Ukraine (Steppe) were killed by the possession of Zaporozhye Sech, and Black Sea region land seized by Russia as a result of the Russo-Turkish wars of the second half of XVIII - early nineteenth century. The Russian government took on the name of these lands "New Russia" - from Novorossiysk province, established here in 1797 In 1802 large area Novorossiysk province peredilyly three Parts: Nicholas (from 1803 - Kherson), and Katerynoslav Taurian Province. As a result of the Russo-Turkish War of 1806-1812 biennium Russian Empire conquered the territory between the Prut and Nistru, from which the formed bessarabian area included in the New Russia. All these administrative units were part of the established in 1828 Novorossiysk-Bessarabskogo governor-general.

For the imperial government was the South the most attractive region from among the lands attached at the end XVIII century. As a result of becoming an industrial society in Western countries and increased demand for grain and other agricultural products South with its fertile soils could become a major supplier of.

Ability to get rich quick, and also that the villagers did not return runaway hence their old masters, contributed rapid colonization of land. During the first half of the nineteenth century. population Southern provinces has doubled and in 1851 numbered 2.3 million souls. The main a lot of immigrants were Ukrainian peasants, much less - in Russian.

The imperial government also encouraged move to vacant land south of foreign colonists. Among those who moved here in the first half of the nineteenth century. most were Germans.

As a result of immigration processes ethnic composition of the population of the South was quite motley. Ukrainian accounted for about 74% of the population, Russians - 12%, Moldovans - 9%. Among other nations, who inhabited the South, were Serbs, Poles, Germans, Bulgarians, Hungarians, Jews and others.

The social structure of South Ukraine significantly different from other regions:

·   most able-bodied state population were peasants, settlers, military, foreign colonists Cossacks. They were personally free, have owned plots of land could sell and buy land, pay taxes to the state;

·   serfs constituted a small part of the population;

·   large landowners have here the largest of all Ukrainian lands ownership. Yes say, German barons Faltsfayny owned 100 thousand acres, graph Kankriny - 60 thousand, Count Vorontsov-Shuvalov - 59 thousand;

·   number of townspeople growing together with the establishment of new towns, trade and local industry. Ethnic composition of the urban population was very motley, Ukrainian there were a minority.

The contribution of the South in Ukrainian national movement was small. Much more importance was for the South drawing up a new system of economic relations between Ukrainian lands and illustrate the benefits of "free labor.

 

Questions and Tasks

1. Identify the features of Ukrainian land for a new era?

2. Identify similarities and particular situation of different rehionivukrayinskyh lands by the Russian empires.

3. Describe the system management in the Ukrainian lands within the Russian Empire. Identify primary goal of creating this system imperial government.

4. What was the policy of the Russian government concerning the national minorities living in the Dnieper Ukraine?