Remember: 1. When and how occurred Ukrainian Cossack state - Hetman? 2. What is industrialization? When and how she started in Europe?
Before you book, which narrates a new period of Ukrainian history, events which occurred in the second half of XVIII - Early XIXArt. This period of our history put a lot of events. Pm XVIII Art. was the time when the Ukrainian lands were in of Russian and Austrian empires. Destruction of Russian tsarism Hetman and the Zaporizhzhya Sich was the final event in the history of the Cossack Ukraine, a tangible loss to the progressive development of the Ukrainian state tradition.
These sad events in our history coincided in time with important changes. What rozpochynalysya in Europe at that time. The new era of European history is, among other things, the deployment of era national liberation movements and the emergence of new nation-states.
Main focus of the next "Ukrainian XIX century. "as he called this period Ukrainian historian IvanIL RudnytskyIs Ukrainian national revival of the ultimate goal was to create a modern Ukrainian state. The way that he overcame Ukrainian during this time while under authorities of the two empires, was difficult and complicated. But our people have managed to adequately pass it: do not lose their culture, language, history, and laid pidvaleny industrial society, has proved its right to rightful place among the new European nations.
"The Power of Ukraine is - Ukrainian historian Ivan wrote Kryp `yakevych - that she always supported ties with Western Europe and from there all adopted the living cultural trends. That it was decisive in the development of European civilization in the new and historic day?
For Europe it was time Comprehensive modernization (from French. moderne- Present), a result which emerged industrial society, which occupied the top spot machine industry, determining its economic prosperity and international prestige.
One of the products of a new era is the emergence of modern nations. The most common notion of nation is that it any group of people having common institutions and customs, a sense of social homogeneity and common interests. Most characteristic features of the nation generally considered its own self-esteem, the only common language or similar dialects, common religion, tradition and history, their own historic territory, common understanding truth and injustice, a common mass civic culture, a common economy. But one or more of these items might be missing, which does not prevent this group claim to the nation.
Excerpt from essay Ernest Renan "What is a Nation?"
"Our nation - this is a consequence Long, sacrifice and commitment. Joint glory in the past and striving together again to make big in today - is the main condition in order to be a nation ... Our nation - this is a great community, creating understanding, awareness of victims, once offering, and readiness for new offerings. It existed in the past, it is restored in the present real action and understanding clearly expressed desire to extend the life of the community. ... The existence of the nation - is a daily plebiscite ... "
Consider: 1. To understand process by the emergence of the nation's essay? 2.Why the existence of the nation is "a daily plebiscite"? 3. Due to this nation existed in the past and restored in the present?
Modern era some scientists have called "Era of nationalism", as Premodern civilization not aware of human communities at the national principle.
In XIXArt. Europeans living environment has undergone significant changes. Previously most of the population European countries lived in rural areas, where concentrated economic life. In the modern era began the process of urbanization (from Lat. urbanus- City) - concentration of population and economic life in big cities. The main reasons for increasing the Urbanization in Europe were:
· appearance of large number of peasants who could not find work in the village and had to look it up cities;
· significant increase population in Europe. Population (including Russia) increased during XIXArt. with 190 million 420 million shower;
· deployment Industrial Revolution;
· small decline trade, handicraft production and, consequently, cause the disappearance of small cities with a population of 10-15 thousand souls.
Became a symbol of a new era of migration (From Lat. migratio- Relocation) - mass displacement of people associated with the change of residence. Simultaneously with the immigration in large cities land spread emigration (from Lat. emigratio- Check-out ") - forced or voluntary resettlement of people from their country to another for economic, political or religious reasons, and immigration (from Lat. immigratio- settling) - entry of foreigners into the country on long-term or permanent residence.
Deploying migration evidence of changes in the perception of most people. Now, they were in search of better living conditions are no longer afraid to leave their usual place and seek happiness in a foreign land.
Changes in the structure of the population, associated with becoming an industrial society, caused an increase demand for food. This, in turn, caused the phenomenon, it is called agricultural revolution. Still, the pace and extent of these changes were significantly less than that of industrial production. In the village appeared Steam reaper, thresher, mower, etc.. This technique facilitated the work of a peasant, and at the same time led to the emergence of excess labor. For XIXArt. number of people engaged in agriculture, constantly decreased.
By the middle XIXArt. feudal relationships that non-economic means "tied" to the peasant land and forced it to work, missing virtually all of Western Europe. European peasants worked the land to meet their own needs, paying any taxes determined state. In the Russian Empire feudal and feudal relations in 1861 kept
Progress in agricultural development was associated with the deployment of the Industrial Revolution, and later industrialization. Agriculture has provided new industrial Enterprise workforce due to its abundance, and at the same time was a consumer market industrial products. Industrial revolution unfolding in Europe from the west continent to the east. It was initiated, as you already know, 60's XVIIIArt. in England. Spread over the continent on the brink 30-40-ies she reached the Austrian and Russian empires, to the which at that time consisted of Ukrainian lands. The net effect of industrial Revolution was the replacement of agricultural society to industrial. Processes deployed in agriculture and industry, led to significant changes in the social structure of European countries. Has quite a large average class - the bourgeoisie, officials and intellectuals. Often these people have good education, work, and was the basis of social stability. At the same time middle class were industrial workers, living conditions most of which at first were very severe.
The Industrial Revolution dramatically influenced public life, had led to a whole new wave of theories opinions and movements.
For ideological quest beginning XIXArt. were characterized by attempts to understand and assimilate lessons of the French Revolution end XVIIIc. .. Disillusionment with the ideals of the Enlightenment, when in the name of freedom, equality and fraternity originally been established bloody Jacobin dictatorship, and later Empire Napoleon, led to the formation of new ideological and political trends:
· liberalism - united supporters of the parliamentary system, freedom of establishment civil and political rights and freedoms of individuals. At first put forward needs of individuals who were considered more important than the interests of the collective;
· conservatism - reflected the political views of those who advocated the preservation of traditional values and the foundations of social life, and the need to implement radical changes in life society categorically denied bending to progressive transformation;
· radicalism - united supporters of radical changes in society, radical measures and extreme views. Make this they demanded immediately.
The debate between advocates of these views, in one form or the form was part of the political day life of European countries becoming industrialized society.
Along with detailed above has another current, which proponents believe the priority factor social development life of the nation. Based on these views emerged nationalism which became, according to some scholars, one of the most influential and most sustainable ideas of human history. Nationalism was upstream, which proponents believe the nation one of the largest values considered that it should be free and live his own political life, with autonomy or an independent country. Right, in their opinion, was one of the essential, natural rights.
Start spreading these views in Europe marked the end of the French Revolution XVIIIArt., which replaced memorized call "Long live the king!" new, coming from the heart and heart: "Long live the nation!". This event has finished donatsionalnuera in human history and launched a new era of national existence.
It was during the revolution into the arena political life has a new entity, a nation that in the struggle for "a place under sun "have adopted the national idea. During the Revolution appeared that was named humane or revival. In this a nationalism not mean anything other than love for the nation, readiness for any sacrifice for the sake of its existence and prosperity. His role was limited exclusively to the formation of nations, the formation of national states and their protection. Nationalism preached the equality of peoples, respect for their rights and freedoms, demonstrating tolerance to other nationalism.
French Revolution, and too - Napoleonic wars caused a wave of rising nationalism or national liberation struggle virtually all European nations especially among those who attacked the French army. Then finally vykrystalizuvavsya nationality principle by which every nation is bearer of supreme power and has the right to establish their own national state. Since then, this principle was one of the major components of the national idea.
Further development of ideas revival nationalism was associated with activity German philosophers. As a result of the defeat of Prussia in the war against Napoleon philosopher Johann Gottlieb Fichte(1762-1814) called on Germans to national revival. Germans Hope unite in one state after the Congress of Vienna (1815) were failure. This resulted in the deployment of German lands romantic youth movement. His goal was national unification and the formation of the German state. The theoretical basis of this movement was romanticism- direction of the spiritual culture of the first half XIXArt., who supported the desire of man to freedom, her desire to cultivate, maintained a large value of national traditions and language.
One of the theorists of Romanticism, German philosopher Johann Gottfried Herder (1744-1803) special attention paid to the Slavic peoples, predicting a great future for them. Especially vyriznyav it from other Ukrainian people. "Ukraine -asserted philosopher - will once the new Greece. Perfect pidsonnya this country, people, sweet temper, his musical talent, fertile land oburyatsya once. From the small tribes that were once the Greeks face the great cultural nation. Its boundaries prostyahnutsya to the Black Sea and from there into the wide world ".
Spreading the ideas of nationalism in Eastern Europe, including Ukraine, largely contributed to the Poles. Because of Partitions of Poland, they lost their state at the moment that considered a time of birth of nationalism.
Desperate battle for Poles restore the lost state had a significant influence on young intellectuals Central and Eastern European nations, among which were the Ukrainian, which at that time also experienced a period of national awakening. The activity of Polish patriots them was the example model, they used in view of their historical context.
Excerpts from works by Jean-Jacques Rousseau's "Reflections on the Government of Poland"
"You [poles] can not prevent [Your enemies] swallow you, but if you comply with order to none Pole never became a Russian, I guarantee: Russia can not serve, Poland.
Consider: 1. Under what conditions nation can survive under the imperial domination? 2. What was supposed to make the Ukrainian elite, to protect Ukrainian denationalization of the power of two empires?
However, the Polish national movement was very limited in the social and the national levels. In long time the Poles did not serve to improve the status of serf peasants, demanded restoration of Poland is not settling within the ethnic Polish people, and within the borders of the Commonwealth. This feature is defined, in particular, at least indifference (and sometimes hostility) Ukrainian to fight the Poles.
National awakening of stateless peoples became part of European social and political life XIXArt. One of the European national movements of the oppressed people stood and Ukrainian.
The term "national revival" became an ideological invention XIXArt. contemporary intelligent elites (Elite - top layer) people who fought for the creation of a new state. Its formation contained the idea that in the historical past, there was a nation that result unfavorable historical conditions declined and now aims to be reborn.
The first example of the term "revival" to the Italian national enthusiasm was national movement. In 1847 Piedmont came out in the magazine "Renaissance", by and what were called this movement. Subsequently, the term "national revival" or match - the awakening of nations "came to characterize the distribution of other national movements.
But the real meaning of this concept in the modern era was somewhat different. By content and form of national revival removed form the creation of new nations as subjects of modern European history. National revival in modern and every day as complicated and lengthy historical process in time, you can redistribute into several stages.
Czech scientist Miroslav Soviet Writer, researcher of the history of national movements of the Slavic nations, offered three conventional stages, namely:
· folklore-ethnographic, when some researchers enthusiasts "invent" nationality, collected and published folk songs, history, customs, language of his people. As a result, they find the arguments to prove the idea that some ethnographic group is a separate community from the perspective of ethnography, philology and history;
· cultural, literary or when research undertaken at the first stage, translated into specific ideas that spread among the educated classes. Main Language revival is the struggle for expansion of its use;
· political, when cohesive understanding of their history and common language of a nation deploys struggle for national liberation. Having political organizations created political programs to the requirements of obtaining government, autonomy and, eventually, independence.
In real life these people perehreschuvalysya stage often - sometimes within the second emerging elements of the third or there were signs of the first stage. Comply with this scheme and processes of the Ukrainian sense formation of nation in the modern day.
Important role in bringing new ideas XIXArt. played a new social group, that in Western European countries called intellectuals, and East - the intellectuals. In a broader sense, this concept united representatives of various groups who had higher education. However, the main feature characteristic of intellectuals, was that it united people dedicate themselves to serving the people, the struggle for improvement of its cultural, social and political situation.
The emergence of intellectuals had important importance for further development of European nations. Especially important was for such societies, as Ukrainian, as a result of imperial acquisitions structures lost its old national elites. Intelligentsia hiding it was a new cultural and political elite of society in the modern day.
1. How do you understand the phrase: "From old to the new Ukraine. "
2. Specify features civilization of Europe in a new era?
3. What is a Nation? What were the signs modern nation?
4. Describe Population changes in Europe during XIXArt.
5. How did socio-economic life of Europe?
6. That led to the emergence of ideological and political trends? What were their characteristics?
7. Discover the meaning of the notion national revival.
8. What differed stage national revival.
9. What role was played in social and political life of European intellectuals?
10. In XIXArt. acquired distribution ironic statement: "Our nation is a group of people united common mistake regarding its past and a common aversion to its neighbors. Identify supporters whose ideological and political trend could be followed views? What is your attitude towards such an assessment of the nation?