§ 8. Architecture, Fine and dekoratyvnouzhytkoveArts
1. As developed in the Ukrainian city planninglands in the second half of XIV-XV centuries.? 2. What was the most significant monumentsarchitecture in Ukraine in the second half of the XIV-XV centuries. 3. What wasachievements of the Ukrainian art of this period?
1. Architectureand Urban Development. In the XVI century. in Ukrainianlands observed high flowering architecture. Restoration of damagedCity, introduced in new activities consisted of temples, monasteries, and built defensiveresidential buildings. Contemporary builders trying to preserve old traditions andcombine them with new features of the European Renaissance. Mainbecame the object of artistic attention to the building facade that decorated the warrant dekoratyvnoornamentalnemodeling and more.
Terms and concepts
Order - A kind of architectural composition thatconsists of vertical columns and horizontal parts in the correspondingstylistic treatment.
Watch this architecture preserved in Lutsk, Kamenetz-Podolsk,Zhovkva, Brody and Lviv. The unique monument of Renaissance architectureconsidered building on Market Square in the center of the city - Black stone, house Kornyakta, Attractions related tothe Lviv Brotherhood - Assumption Church, the towerKornyakta, Three Saints Chapel, created during the 60'sXVI-XVII centuries.
Constant threat of hostile attacks indicationneed for construction of public and private fortresses or castles on the wallswhich could find their protection not only residents but also the population of neighboring lands.
Most Ukrainian castles in the XVI century.were wooden, have not survived to this day known only by descriptions.The largest wooden castle, according to contemporaries, was of Kyiv,newly built of pine trees in 1542 It was onerectangular and hexagonal fourteen towers. The walls and towers were on the outsideobmazani thick layer of clay and whitewashed. Inside the castle were many differentbuildings - building for garrison house captain and the headman, one churchand four Orthodox churches. Diverse riding churches and church towers, sophisticatedSongs porches, room with vezhechkamy galleries and created the scenicpicture.
Many castles, built in the Middle Ages, did not meetrequirements of time and in the first half of XVI century. were rebuilt. Considerablereconstruction of the locks were Lutsk, Kremenets, Justo, Mukachevo, Vinnitsa, Mezhybozhu,Kamenetz-Podolsk and other cities.
Some Orthodox monastery at Westernwere surrounded by walls with towers and served as fortresses. In Volyn suchfortresses were monasteries in Mesopotamia, near the jail, and Derman, nearDubno. Derman Monastery stood on a high hill and was surrounded wallheight of seven meters. The walls of the trench was filled with water through which wasbuilt flying bridge. Go to the fortress-monastery could get throughthree-storey tower, which also rules on the tower.
Epiphany Church in jail
By the famous monuments of the Orthodox church architectureXVI century. are Epiphany Church in jail andTrinity Church in Mesopotamia. Both temples arehrestovokupolnymy Old Rus and continue building and architectural traditions.However, the then living conditions have caused that both churches were adaptedto the defense.
2. Visualart. Ukrainian painting of this period enjoyed greatrecognition. The vast majority of paintings was the subject of church (murals,icons). Painting portraits or domestic nature are rarely met. Artistscontinued to develop traditions of Old Rus. However, in portraiture wassignificant influence of Western European, Italian and German art.
In the XVI century. Ukrainian artists, still manyworked in Poland. In particular, many remained frescoes scenes from the Gospels, executed them in temples and buildingsWawel in Krakow. However, from the end of the XVI century. vytyskaty them were from PolishCities Italian and German influence. This conviction helped Catholicclergy that work in the church of the Orthodox "schismatics".
At that time Ukrainian iconography ruling remained the tradition of Kievan Rus, but beganappear as new features. Wizards were more focused on mundane detailsthereby contributing to the realistic elements. Poses depicted became more natural,and details of the clothes have gained specificity. Most recognition at this time tookLviv and Peremyshlskaya school of icon painting. Outstanding works the middleXVI century. Icons were "Adoration of the Magi" from Busovyska, near the OldSambora, and "Christmas" from the village Trushevych near Dobromyl.
In the XVI century. successfully developed Ukrainian chasingTo be replaced tooOld Road and luxurious mosaic. The predominant wood carvings and rarelyfaced in marble. Basically it was grave monuments and slabs. Tosamples of such art is sepulchral monument to Grand Prince KonstantinOstrozky, built by his son at the grave site of his father in AssumptionChurch of Kiev Pechersk Lavra.
High level of development reached portrait miniature - Painted small color imagesin handwritten books. A special place finish in their ranks PeresopnitskeGospel. It also screensavers and initials skillfully executed in traditional formsgeometric ornament, there are four miniatures depicting the evangelists. Eachthumbnail decorated with lush floral motifs. Special celebrations andzhyttyeradisnosti provide miniatures and ornaments Peresopnytsia Gospelgold background and juicy colors - blue, red, green.
In the XVI century. the design of manuscripts substantiallyenhanced influence of folk art - often used motifsborrowed from folk weaving, woodcarving and wall paintings.
In the second half of XVI century. the prevalence ofprinting, the development of art engravings.
Terms and concepts
Engraving - Printed on paper with a fingerprint image,carved on the board.
Engraving on lvskoho "Apostle" printedI. Federovym (1574r.)
The firstUkrainian engravings believed to illustrate the "Apostle" and "primer", issued1574 Lviv I. Fedorov. They differ with beautiful songsvegetable items (magnificently wide-entangled, stylized flowers and fruitsetc.), inherent design of the book of Italian Renaissance masters.
In the secondhalf of the XVI century. in Ukrainian painting is separate portrait transformation of iconography andit into an independent genre of art. This was associated with a new interpretationimage of man, the spread of Renaissance humanistic ideas and shifts thattook place in Ukrainian society. Unfortunately, the names of mostportrait artists of this time remain unknown. The most famous portraits,created by Ukrainian artists of the time, considered a portrait Galiciantycoon and scientist Jan Herburta, K. Ostrozhskogo portrait, a portrait of AnastasiaLisovska with fork, known as Roksolana.
A talented artist-portraitist was WojciechStefanovic from the city. During the visit to the King of the CommonwealthStefan Batory Foundation in 1578 he fulfilled his portrait, for which won the titleroyal court painter. Portrait written without pomposity, almostdocumentary authenticity, it perceived inherent master sharpobservation in the study of nature.
Portrait of King C. Batory
3. Craftsart. In the XVI century. in Ukrainian dekoratyvnouzhytkovomuart as new features associated with the penetration of Renaissanceornamental motifs. However, Ukrainian artists are making them muchunique features, combining new forms with traditional techniques and motifsproduced in folk art.
Terms and concepts
Arts and crafts - Art form, which serves domestic problems of the person and simultaneously satisfiesits aesthetic needs, bringing to life the beauty.
During this period revival glass manufacturing,which declined in the past century. In many cities of Ukraine along with weavingcarpet begins to develop. L'craftsmen have mastered the artmanufacture of furniture upholstery imprinted with the skin. It vkryvalasya multicoloredpattern that combined elements of oriental ornament and sumptuous Renaissance patterns.
The most widely inXVI century. in Ukraine had the following dekoratyvnouzhytkovoho art, as localfurniture, art and casting metal, ceramic vyrobnytsvo andas old areas - embroidery and embroidery.
In the metal Ukrainian art masters famous for theircasting guns, watches, production of new weapons. Long afterwere known outside of Ukraine Lviv yuvelirivzolotariv products. Theyproduced tableware, religious items appointment, tableware, weapons,jewelry, etc., decorating them with paint, carving, inlaid with gold andsilver, precious stones finish.
In the XVI century. integral fixturedress nobleman and a wealthy burgher was considered "Lvov fold. It was quitewide leather belt, concealed row of silver, often gildedornamental plates in the shape of circles or ovals that alternated with rectangularplates. Its buckle or clasp, had a rectangular box in whichsometimes wore money. It depicted mythological scenes and images of kings,knights and more. These figures and ornament in sheets were engraved or chased.Prykriplyuvalysya lining to the waist, made way openwork casting.Manufacture of such zones only Lviv masters.
Ceramic products of Ukrainian artists of the XVI century.mostly covered with geometric ornament made by a special roller, whichreminiscent of embroidery motifs. At the same time more and more distributed coloringmineral paints glassware, gold and green enamel. Songs prettyoften resemble the then book pattern, showed a good introductionwith his master potters.
Terms and concepts
Embroidery - Silk embroidery items coated with a thinlayer of gold or silver threads.
Masters of embroidery worked in many Ukrainiancities, aristocratic and monastic estates. Made their wayin great demand among the wealthy citizens. There are manymention of the sale "of Rus' (Ukrainian) products abroad - in countriesBalkan Peninsula, Italy and other lands.
Ukrainian achieved great successmasters in manufacturing furniture. For the needs of local gentry and nobility were made carved,decorated with inlaid (ivory, semiprecious stones) or decoratedornaments painted furniture. Most valuable carved furniture made of walnut,but most often mentioned furniture linden. One of the most common itemsfurnishings in the XVI century. was still chest. Vyhotovlyalosya as manytypes of beds, tables, chairs, couches.
- In the XVI century. appear in the Ukrainian architecturefeatures of the European Renaissance. Needs of time was dueconstruction of protective structures - the fortresses and castles.
- In the Ukrainian fine arts along withtraditional genres (frescoes, icons, miniature book) there are new -engraving and portrait painting. In iconography and society portraitthere is a tendency to realism in depicting characters.
- In dekoratyvnouzhytkovomu Ukrainian art mastersskillfully combine traditional techniques and motifs with the new trends thatspread from Europe.
1. What are the architectural monuments belong to the ensemble Market SquareLviv? 2. Of what material built in the XVI century. majoritylocks? 3. Name of Orthodox church architecture of the XVI century.,you know. 4. Name the main types of Ukrainian Fine ArtsXVI century. 5. What is a miniature portrait, engraving? 6. What kind dekoratyvnouzhytkovohoart developed in the Ukrainian lands in the XVI century.? Give some exampleshigh technology dekoratyvnouzhytkovoho Ukrainian masters of art.
9. As developed in architecture and urban planning in Ukrainein the XVI century.? 10. Describe the major achievements of the UkrainianArt. What evidence about the influence of European ideasRenaissance of Ukrainian art? 11. Have progressed inXVI century. Ukrainian dekoratyvnouzhytkovoho masters of art?
12. End of Table "The development of Ukrainianculture in the XVI century. "launched by material § 8.
13. Visit a local art museum and preparenotice of the fine works of Ukrainian and dekoratyvnouzhytkovohoart XVI century. which is in its exposition.
Generalization on "Ukrainian lands in the XVI century."
1. Foldlist of events in the history of Ukraine the XVI century. that you consider most important.Justify your choice.
2. Explainvalue terms and concepts at ground Cossacks "," Registered Cossacks. "ZaporizhzhyaSich, "Regalia", "Cossack republic," "Brotherhood", "national liberationmovement.
3. Namenames of prominent historical figures of this era. What do you see their contributionsUkraine's history of the XVI century.
4. Dotask for historical maps:
1) Follow,changed as Ukrainian territory settlement in the XVI century. Compare it withmodern borders of Ukraine;
2) aschanged during the XVI century. nationality of the Ukrainian lands?Determine which Ukrainian lands under the authority of which were;
3) nameprovince, formed in the Ukrainian lands within the Commonwealth and theircenters;
4) showZaporizhzhya Sich, location and ownership of Zaporizhia Army in the XVIArt.;
5) thatterritory covered Cossack uprising 90 years of the XVI century.;
6) show,which created the most significant cultural monuments of this period.
5. What wasstructure of Ukrainian society in the XVI century.? Compare the situation of its statesand layers.
6. Describecauses and consequences of the Ukrainian Cossacks.
7. Whatwere prerequisites for the conclusion and the reasons the Union of Lublin? Analyze changesoccurred by the Union of Lublin in Ukrainian lands.
8. Asdeveloping church life in Ukraine in the XVI century.? Explain the causes andconsequences of Brest Church Union.
Tests to topic "Ukrainian lands in the XVI century.
1. WhichUkrainian society are as the XVI century. napivpryvileyovanym considered?
2. When wasadopted the "Charter for drawing dies?
3. Whatadministrative-territorial units divided Ukrainian lands within SpeechesCommonwealth?
4. In each of theUkrainian cities in 1542 and 1544 have the first church fraternity?
5. Nameone of the first Orthodox writers, polemicists, author of the "keyKingdom of Heaven "and" new Roman calendar.
6. Homemention of the Ukrainian Cossacks in written sources dated:
7. Ascalled the flood plain of the Dnieper, which stretched on both sides of it about. Khortytsya about100 km and a width of 3 to 25 km?
8. What is the nameZaporizhzhya Sich was that emerged in the late 70's - early 80's XVIArt.?
9. WhichKing of the Commonwealth agreed to take the civil service and to writeRegistry 500 Cossacks, defining the special "Resolution of nyzovtsiv" theirrights and responsibilities?
б) SigismundAugustus II;
10. Name the yearOstrog Bible editions:
11. Whichsubject, except for grammar, rhetoric, arithmetic, geometry, astronomy and musicwas a "seven free science?
г) natural science.
12. Namefirst building of the ensemble of Assumption Church in Lviv, which was built in 1564-1578 biennium
а) Blackstone house;
г) chapelThree Saints.
Encyclopedia page to the topic "Ukrainian lands in the XVI century."
1489 - The first written mention in historical sources aboutUkrainian Cossacks
1529 - Adoption of the First Lithuanian Statute
50-ies of the XVI century. - Construction of Prince DmitryVyshnevetsky castle on the island. Small Khortytsya
1556-1561 biennium - Creating Peresopnytsia Gospel
1557 - Adoption of Sigismund II Augustus "risendrawing dies "
1564-1578 biennium - Construction Kornyakta tower - the firststructures of the ensemble of Assumption Church in Lviv
1566 - Adoption of the Second Lithuanian Statute
1569 - Union of Lublin. Association of PolishKingdom and Grand Duchy of Lithuania into one state - Rzeczpospolita
1572 - Establishment on behalf of the Polish kingSigismund II Augustus Regiment Ukrainian registered Cossacks
1578 - Opening in jail Slavic-Greek-LatinSchools
Late 70's - early 80's the XVI century. - OriginationZaporizhzhya Sich on about. Tomakivka
1581 - Ostrog Bible Edition
1585 - Establishment of Ukraine's first sister school inLviv
1591-1593 biennium - Cossack rebellion led by K. Kosynsky
1594-1596 biennium - Cossack rebellion led by S.Nalyvaika
1596 - The conclusion of the Brest Church Union