§ 6. Zaporizhzhya Army. The first Cossack rebellion
1. What were the causes of the UkrainianCossacks? 2. Who and when built on the island. Small Khortytsya castle, which wasZaporizhzhya Sich inspiration? 3. How to treat the work of UkrainianCossacks Lithuanian and Polish authorities?
1. OccurrenceZaporizhzhya Sich. At the turn of 70-80's XVI century. occurred in Ukrainesituation that prompted the Cossacks to form their unified military andorganization. In the middle of the XVI century. on the Lower Dnieper already formedwhole network of small towns and the Cossack Sich. Cossack bands lived in them astemporarily or permanently. If you need to respond to attackers orget under way in march for prey individual Cossack bands played together, ledelected Ataman. It helped to create awareness of the need Cossacksown military organization.
Combining disparate Cossack small towns and smallSich also contributed to the quantitative growth of the Cossacks in the 70's XVI century.If until then, according to contemporaries, in the Lower Dnieper were year-roundSeveral hundred Cossacks, now has thousands. Growth was supported by strong Cossacksdeterioration of the situation of peasants in the Ukrainian lands after the Union of Lublin.It was at this time fall mention of the mass escape (pivsela, the whole village, a fewvillages) in Zaporozhye. The Cossacks also became boyars, who were unable to documenttheir rights to land and nobility. Farmstead has contributed not only to experience the Cossacksprofessional soldiers, but also prompted him to expand the struggle for recognitionauthority of the Commonwealth of interest their.
Union of Cossack Sich of Zaporizhia accelerated policyKing of the Commonwealth Stefan Batory,who tried to subjugate the Cossacks against their constant struggle withTurkish-Tatar invaders.
In the late 70's - early 80's XVI century.down the rapids of the Dnieper, on the big island and unapproachable Tomakivka, oplutanomuzusibich rivers and lakes, among the broad smooth first emerged in January GreatLug - Tomakivs'ka. Its called ZaporozhianSich, and Cossacks - Sich or Cossacks. It was a despotic military organization,Cossacks founded the soldiers or, as contemporaries called them, "knights-men." Byestimates of researchers, Tomakivsky Sich some 5 thousandCossacks. In total Ukrainian Cossacks during the First Host was probablynot less than 10 thousand soldiers.
Terms and concepts
Zaporizhzhya January - OrganizationUkrainian Cossacks, which originated and developed by Rapids infirst half of XVI century. Host Centre was mistofortetsya that through variouscircumstances changed its position, but was always on the rapids.
2. MilitaryArt Cossacks. Cossacks have developed an effective and original martial arts,that helped them win on land and at sea. Cossack army basewas infantry, armed with hand guns. To increaseskorostrilnosti Cossacks in fight lined up several ranks. Cossacks firstranks fired, and the rear rank - zaryadzhaly weapons. Much attentionpaid Artillery, which supported the infantry in combat action. Preference will providegalloper by their maneuverability in battle.
Cossacks have developed their own tactics (organization and management)battle: noise - Cossacks went to war in any order,mixed with the enemy, and each demonstrated Cossack own bravery in battleand military prowess; camp - Army movedderivative parade as mobile fortresses of several rows of carts, fastened betweenchain. With carts Cossacks fired from enemy guns and rifles. Before the battleinfantry out of the camp out, and then returned under the protection of mobilefortifications; samoobkopuvannya - PERSONALprotection of the Cossacks fired during a fight.
Scheme bry Cossacks noise
Cossacks also carried out raids deep into the territory of the cavalryenemy, suddenly took fortresses, arranged the ambush, attacked the enemynight and so on. There was intelligence and guarding. Special units carriedpatrol service in the steppe, where Tatar ran routes in case of dangerinformed about it through a system of smoke alarms. Cossacks gathered informationabout the enemy in his possession by means of special intelligence and on the basisdevelop plans for their messages of their campaigns.
High level reached the Cossack Art ofsea battle. Their fleet consisted of Gulls - Lightweightmaneuverable boats that had two steering (sharps and nasal), moving as oars,and by sail. Gulls placed 50-70 Cossacks, armed with rifles andSabres, and small cannon.
3. FormationRegistered Cossacks. Transformation of the Ukrainian Cossacks essential factor in publicLife in Ukraine and complication of relations with the Crimean Khanate and OttomanEmpire through clashes with the Cossacks indication aspirations of the Lithuanian and Polishauthorities to establish control over them.
1524 was first made an attempt to attractCossacks on the civil service. Polish King and Grand Duke of Lithuania Sigismund I instructed naverbuvaty 2.1 thousand Cossacks to protectSouthern border. However, due to lack of funds this project is done.
Commonwealth Authorities stepped up efforts tosubordination of the Cossacks. 1572 on behalf of the King ZygmuntAugustus II was taken to the civil service and entered into a speciallist-"register" 300 Cossacks. Registered Cossacks, as theirwere called, received a special group rights and privileges. In particular,own administrative power and the Cossack proceedings. This contributed to the isolationCossacks from other segments of the population and its transformation into a new social status.
Further measures as recognition of Ukrainian Cossacksmade a separate state of King Stefan Batory. He agreed to take onPublic Service 500 Cossacks, defining the special "Resolution of nyzovtsiv"their rights and responsibilities.
With the "Regulation on nyzovtsiv" approvedKing Stefan Batory September 16, 1578
... Before the same lord mayor must passoath of allegiance to him and be obedient ... ie have no land to fightHairs not do it no harm and devastation, but if someone like it did, hadwould hamuvaty, seize and beat the enemy as our crown. Just havestick to Belgorod, Ochakov, Tyahyni, their villages and grasslands to there shkodno not do, nor do pozvolyaly Crimean king, his lands,people ulus .. but have to give us to know about the king's men, at allwill act in accordance with our orders.
1. What responsibilities were to perform inPublic Service Registered Cossacks? 2. What facts show that the authorities SpeechesCommonwealth sought to use against the Cossacks Registered Zaporizhzhya Sich?
Registered Cossacks were exempted from taxes andperformance of all duties, except compulsory military service on their ownfunds. For their service they have the right to own land, which could transmitinherited. Instead they were subject to local authority officers and Hetman,which elected at the Cossack Council.
The army was called kozakivreyestrovtsiv Zaporozhian Host. His residence wasannounced Trakhtemirov city, where there was also Cossack hospital. Assymbol of independence from government troops Cossacks received from the Stefan Batoryown flag and seal.
Adoption of the rights and privileges of registered government soughtsplit the Cossacks, to prevent its growth and the number of subordinateSich. However, this policy has failed. In fact, registered andunregistrated Cossacks formed a military and organization - Zaporizhzhya Army. They played together as prohibitedMarine marches, fought for the expansion of the Cossack rights and protect the rights of the Orthodox.
4. The device of troopsZaporizhzhya. Zaporozhian Host of the time, there ZaporizhzhyaJan, to the middle of XVII century. was for military organizationUkrainian Cossacks. It was a kind of political system, soResearchers call it Ukrainian Cossackrepublic.
SystemZaporizhia Army (30's of the XVII century.)
Zaporozhian Kish (January) (38hovel)
Military officers: ARCHITECTURE,clerk, judge, captain (two)
Registered Territorial regiments
Army (shelves, hundreds, tens)
Colonels, captains, gaffer(Atamans)
Cossack Council played a role zakonodavchorozporyadchoho collectionZaporizhia Army, where every Cossack had the right to express their opinion. Decisionswhich were mandatory for all Cossacks, and taken shoutstossing caps. Disobedience was punished ruling Cossack Council of death.
Cossack Council elected Hetman and Military officers. Getmannadilyavsya higher judiciary and the executive, was chief of ArmyZaporozhye and represented his interests in diplomatic negotiations. InHetman was available elected military officers, whichbelonged ARCHITECTURE (Directed artillery) clerk (Head office of the military and knew all the record keepingSich) judge (Did the court) and captain(Two rail Hetman).
With the system was placing KoshCossacks in basket - Field camp during the warwalks and on the very Sich. In a basket of 38 Cossacks rozpodilyalosya hovel - Viyskovoadministratyvnyhseveral units of Cossacks and, simultaneously, their inhabitants. Led the life,economic and military life in huts elective smoking atamans.
Terytorialnoviyskovyy regimental order registryCossacks as a part of Zaporizhia Army began to take shape in 1625,when it signed an agreement establishing a territory assigned toRegistered regiments. The centers of these bands, where the officers stayed Registered becomeWhite Church, Kano, Cherkassy, Pereyaslav and Korsun.
The army was divided into regiments Zaporozhian (from 500 toseveral thousand Cossacks), and tens of hundreds as a military unit.
Army Zaporozhian little jewelry -special military signs, and regaliaattributes. During the Stefan Batory them the flag, seal, mace and horsetail.Banner (banners) Zaporizhia Army always wore cornet ahead troopsnext to the hetman. Zaporizhia Army seal rozporyadzhavsya judge. Itwas round, vyhotovlyalasya silver. It was shown in Cossackgabled cap and caftan with a sword, powder on the side and a musket onleft shoulder. Hetman of authority was mace. Hetman also grantedhorsetail - stick length 2-2,5 m, with a bullet or the top edge at whichprykriplyuvalysya brush or hair from the horse or veal tail. He pointedHetman location during the fight. Later, each regiment also received hisflag and seal and sign of power colonel was a small battle mace -pirnach (shestoper).
5. CossackUprising 1591-1596 biennium At the end of the XVI century. in Ukrainian lands aggravatedsocial contradictions. Parliament of the Commonwealth at that time enabled the king to hand outto "eternity" Polish nobility "wilderness" in the Dnipro, and not onlypristine, but also inhabited by peasants and Cossacks land. Free were considered as thoseland, to own petty Ukrainian gentry could not give enoughevidence.
Farmers lost their personal freedom and zakripachuvalysya.The government of the Commonwealth tried to take control of Ukrainian Cossacks and notwanted to reckon with it is of interest. All this caused outbreak in 90 yearsXVI century. on the Ukrainian land the first Cossack revolts.
У August 1591 raised onHetman rebellion kozakivreyestrovtsiv Krzysztof Kosinski. Hedecided to use the frustration of Cossacks, who have not received the promised wagePolish authorities in order to avenge Ukrainian magnate Janusz Ostrozkyand Alexander Vyshnevetsky they took from him his living.
Getman K. Kosinski
Speech Kosynsky supported many unmet andduring 1592 uprising swept Kiev, Bratslav and partiallyPodolsk province. Residents Bilhorodky, White Church, and other PereiaslavCities oath Kosinski. There are exempted from the Polish authoritiesHe introduced the Cossack orders. It embarrassed the Polish government, by order of ato fight the rebels were gathered a large army headed by Kievpalatine Constantine-Basil Ostrog.
In the decisive battle 23-31 January1593 under the heel settlement in Zhytomyr rebels were defeatedand retreated to Zaporozhye. Spring 1593 Kosinski went from Host tocontinue the war, but died near Cherkasy or, in another version, wasmurdered by the local headman Vishnevetskogo O. Prince. The rebels,remained without a leader, troops were defeated Cherkasy outdoor feast.
K. Kosynsky Prydushyvshy speech, the Polish government does notdid nothing to solve the problems it caused, and that causedbeginning of a new rebellion led by Severin (Semeriya)Nalivayko. In July 1594, gathering a squad looking kilkatysyachnyyCossacks, he became a smash on noble estates tail and called Cossackssupport it. By rebelling Cossacks joined the squad, led byHetman Gregory Loboda. In October, 1594 revolt spread throughoutBratslav, Kiev and Volhynia. Many peasants and townspeople were Cossacks.Insurgent troops counted 12 thousand Cossacks. Support population indicationpossibility of long struggle.
In February, 1596 to suppress the rebellion set sailgreat Polish-Lithuanian army, led by Crown Hetman Pol'na Stanislaw Zolkiewski. 22-24 May 1586 himmanaged to besiege the Cossack camp in the tract Solonytsianear Lubny. Cunning possession camp, the soldiers slaughtered some Zolkiewskithousands of rebels, their wives and children. Nalyvaika was captured,sent to Warsaw after terrible tortures and executions.
- Origination Tomakivsky Sich as a new form of militaryCossack organizations contributed to its consolidation and cohesion. Zaporizhzhya Sichplayed an important role in subsequent events in Ukrainian history.
- Formation of the Registered Cossacks became the impetus fordesign a new state of the Cossacks in the Ukrainian society of their rightsprivileges and responsibilities.
- Army Zaporozhian as for military organizationUkrainian Cossacks contributed approval in Cossackdemocratic traditions and principles. During the war of the Ukrainian Natsionalnovyzvolnoyipeople of the mid XVII century. based on its structure shaped bodiesof Ukrainian Cossack state.
- The first Cossack uprising 90 years XVI century.nature of the Cossacks were fighting for their state of interest. Ukrainian liberation sloganspeople and protect his rights natsionalnorelihiynyh not nominated. However, theyCossacks experience contributed to acquiring the rebel fighting and managing largeterritories.
1. When and where there Tomakivs'ka January? 2. What isZaporizhzhya Sich? 3. Who are the Registered Cossacks? 4. What city did the seatStefan Batory registered Cossacks? 5. What role the system Zaporizhia Armyplayed cossacks advice? 6. What are the major jewelry Zaporizhia Army. 7.Who led the rebellion of Cossacks in 1591? 8. Name the date of the uprising S.Nalivayko. 9. What were the causes of the Cossack rebellions of 90's XVI century.?
10. What were the basic reasons ZaporozhianHost? 11. What evidence suggests that the occurrence of registered Cossacks helpedCossacks becoming a separate state of Ukrainian society? 12.Describe the structure of Zaporizhia Army. 13. Tell us about the first Cossackuprising 90 years XVI century.
14. Define a map by name and years of ZaporizhzhyaSich in XVI-XVII centuries.