§ 1. Social structure of Ukrainian society and economic life (textbook)

Theme II Ukrainian lands in the XVI century.

§ 1. Social structure of Ukrainian society andeconomic life

1. What is the social structure of society?2. What were the main population of the Ukrainian lands in the secondhalf of the XIV-XV centuries.? What was remarkable for their plight? 3. What you knowthe development of economy, bridge, crafts and trade in the second halfXIV-XV centuries.?

 

1.   Privilegedstates. In the first half of XVI century. Social StructureUkrainian society had bower character.

 

Terms and concepts

Social states - Large groups of people who have legally enshrined rights and obligationsdiffer in their political position and privilege.

Privilege - Privilege, a right granted to an individual ownerindividuals, groups, states.

 

Ground state at that time in Ukraine were nobility, clergy, burghers and peasants.For their rights states were divided into preferred,napivpryvileyovani and unprivileged.

 

Bowerdivision of Ukrainian society in the early XVI century.

Favored status

 

Napivpryvileyovanyy state

 

Privileged status

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nobility

 

Clergy

 

Burghers

 

Farmers

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Princes

Masters

Zem'yany

Boyars

 

The church hierarchy

Priests

 

Bourgeasy

Burghers

Plebs

 

"Is similar" ("free")

"Nepohozhi (" occupied the small ")

 

Dominating the top of - the nobility - sat descendantsautonomous prince Rurik dynasty and Hedyminovychiv. They were a closed group,which could not enter because of wealth or the highest office.Princely families were divided into "major princes" which belonged Ostroz'ki,Zaslavsky, Sangushky, Czartoryski, Koretskaya, Hol'shans'kyj-Dubrovyts'kyy and"Princes povitovnykiv. The first is exposed to the local administration had the rightcome to the great advice and act with their military campaignstroops as family coat of arms. They belonged to the hereditary estate, where theyhad a right to judge his subjects, set taxes and duties, to providesubordinate to the ground with their service condition. Others such rights and privileges not possessedand their armed units were within the county militia, subordinatedlocal administration.

Lords belonged to wealthy gentry who had princelytitles, but distinguished by prescription origin, ancestral land tenure andcertain privileges.

 

Terms and concepts

Nobility - Ruling privileged status in PolandLithuania, Ukrainian and Belarusian lands, which in XIV-XVIII centuries. belongedGrand Duchy of Lithuania or Poland.

 

By the middle and petty nobility belonged zem'yany and boyars.It was dependent on the princes and lords state, whose winningnobility and the right to land ownership, military happening (boyar) servicehorsemen with their armies or in person.

1528 was conducted "popys provincial (censusnobility). A link to the "popys" was from this time proof of nobility.However, the terms "zem'yanyn" and "boyar" replaced by a single - "nobleman." Those withnobility who was not recognized, lost rights and privileges of the mergedpeasantry.

The rights and privileges of the nobility were fixed taking collectionsLaws - Statute of Lithuania. First Lithuanian Statute1529 legitimize the division of nobility to the gentry, who received landof services and tycoons - the princes and lords, who ruled the cities, towns andhuge land by hereditary right, subject only Grand Dukeand had their own troops. Second Lithuanian Statute1566 increased the rights of official nobility, comparing it with the magnates.The nobility had the opportunity to participate in the management of the state through participation incounty work dietines (stanovopredstavnytskyh local authorities) and the Greatentangle (general) policies.

Privileged positionUkrainian society was clergy,that was almost a tenth of the total population. Clergy are not subject tosecular court, if necessary it had been tried in special courtbishop. It was divided into higher Church hierarchy (metropolitan bishopsarchbishops and others.) that covered their positions only by permission of Grand DukesLithuanian and Polish kings, and these parish clergy. Situationlower clergy were dependent on the nobility and barons, on whose land locatedtheir parish.

 

2.   Napivpryvileyovaniand unprivileged groups. To napivpryvileyovanoho state belonged philistinismThat there has been a privilege for city governments, separatebower court sessions crafts and trade. However, commoners wererequired to pay taxes, perform duties in favor of privateOwners of cities or states.

The richest part of the urban population was bourgeasy,consisting of the richest merchants, moneylenders and artisans.Go to the burghers or the average of the level of affluence of burghers belongedguild masters and most merchants. The basis of the social pyramid, the urban populationa mob, which consisted of small artisans and merchants.

The vast majority of Ukrainian lands (about80%) was peasantryThat was privileged status.According to its legal position, it was divided into "nepohozhyh" (or "occupied the small") and"Is similar" (or "free") peasants. Right to freely move from onelandowner to another use only the last. "Nepohozhi" peasants forciblyunpaid work in the enterprise master.

 

I wonder

At the insistence of magnates and gentry powerestablished a variety of restrictions on transfer of peasants. In particular, in Galiciamove from one master to another farmer could only days of Christmas by payingForeclosure - Cops money, measures of wheat, four "Rus" cheese and more. It was laterfound that the peasant could leave Mr. estate, only set him on the groundinstead of a different owner.

 

By the nature of duties performed by farmers dividedinto three groups. The servants were personally free peasants, who by their serviceruler of the land and got rid of other duties. From peasant servantscame some minor gentry. Most peasants were Danes. These werefree peasants, who paid tribute to the state (chynsh) in kind or money.Tyaglyy peasants called those who did not own land and for usingworking off the ground serving duties in favor of the state or landownerswith its "pulled" (ox). They were both free and attachedto their holdings.

 

3.   Developmentagriculture. The basis of agriculture in the Ukrainian landswas agriculture. The level of development in different areas was not the same.In Galicia, Volhynia, Podolia and Kiev region in the central regions dominatedtrypilna farming system, and Polesie, south of Kyiv and Pereyaslavkept low-dvopilna and fallow system. Gradually extendmore advanced tools. Apart from SoHo were used to plowOral iron, in which harnessed oxen. Trypilna Plugova tillage system andmainly used in farming magnates and gentry.

In agriculture, developing animal husbandry, farming,gardening and beekeeping. Not lost its importance in economic lifeas fishing and hunting.

On the Ukrainian lands in the Grand DuchyLithuanian agriculture was predominantly natural character.Agricultural products produced mainly for own use. Tradethem, especially with other countries, hardly conducted.

Agriculture Ukrainian lands inPolish kingdom gradually pereoriyentovuvalosya the needs of Europeanmarket, where growing demand for handicrafts and agriculture. InWestern Europe in the XVI century. because of the great geographical discoveriesthere was "price revolution" (you'll learn about it from world history).She hardly touched the Central and Eastern Europe, where food pricesmeals were smaller. This helped increase the nobility ofgrain for sale in Ukrainian lands. The nobility was to create Filvarky, Enlarged and serfdomtake away land from peasants. Simultaneously, the growing number of "nepohozhyh" peasants.

 

Terms and concepts

Filvarok - Farm, estate, great gentryeconomy, market-oriented. He was a multi-economy in whichall land belonged to Mr. and based on the work of farmers who vidroblyaly tractionservice or serfdom.

 

Filvarkovoyi distribution system for managingUkrainian lands in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania facilitated implementationevents with "Replace the drawing dies"(1557), signed by Polish king and Lithuanian grand dukeSigismund II Augustus. According to the document all the great landholdingsPrince measured and divided into the same area - drawing dies. Most arable landvidvodylysya Filvarky under the great, the rest was distributed among peasants.Traction peasants from all adult family members for the use of drawing dieshad to work out two days of serfdom in the manor.

Volochna reform destroyed the ancient forms of userural community land and replaced it Podvirna. Increased dutiespeasants, limited the rights of conversion. Villagers were actually deprived of the rightuse of forests, reduced area of land in common use (pasture,meadows). In the second half of XVI century. volochna tenure wasextended to the nobility and the church lands.

 

4.   City developmentcrafts and commerce. In the XVI century. the Ukrainian lands and developed increasedcity. Most cities have at Western. In Eastern and tailKyiv region were much less through constant threat of Tatar raids.Kyiv was the biggest town in which lived about 6 million people. Large and medium-sizedcities (200-700 houses) were considered Bratslav, Kremenets, Vinnitsa, Zhitomir,Luck, jail, etc. Lions.

Many cities were based on the magnates andchurch. There were also a city subordinated to the Polish king and a greatDuke of Lithuania. State authorities tried to promote their development,because of high taxes paid and protected from the attacks of Tatars. EndXV - early XVI century. on Ukrainian land became subject toMagdeburg Law.

 

Terms and concepts

Magdeburg rights - German medieval city law,by which the city rid of management and owners of private or courtgovernment officials and created their own local government.

 

Cities gained Magdeburg law, operated magistrate - Is an elected bodygovernment, which consisted of Council (administrative authority and the court in civilcases) and lava (the court in criminal cases). Council headed burmister and bench- Voit.

Magdeburg law gave cities the king of Poland,Grand Duke of Lithuania and later the big tycoons. During the XV - firsthalf of the XVI century. this right has most major cities in Ukraine.

Cities were centers of handicrafts and trade. In the middleXVI century. there were more than 130 different specialties, includingabout 80 were directly artisan. However, most residents of citiesalso did not stop to farm.

On the Ukrainian lands in the Polish Kingdomthe vast majority of urban artisans united in workshops. Thus forOrthodox burghers access to shops complicated. Pozatsehovyh artisans, nothave the opportunity to join the workshops, called cobbler (from Latin. "aloof").Workshops are strongly fought with them. In the Ukrainian city of GreaterDuchy of Lithuania shops were less common.

In the XVI century. continued further development of trade.The main forms of trade fairs had taken place several times a yearlarge cities, auctions, held several times a week and dailytrade in urban stores. Merchants association created in cities such ascraft workshops.

Actively developing international trade. A Ukrainianland trade routes were used and Moscow Oriental goods andlocally produced products supplied to Central and WesternEurope. From the Ukrainian lands to the west brought wax, honey, cereals, hides, livestock,salted fish, salt and timber. Instead, imported clothing, crafts, wine,iron, paper, steel, Western fabrics (satin, velvet, cloth,canvas) and others. World Trade Center became Kyiv, Lviv, Lutsk,Kamenets Podolsky.

 

Documents tell

Message Lithuanian diplomat MichaelLytvyn on trade development in Kiev in the middle of the XVI century.

Kyiv is very rich in foreign goods, because there is no waymore familiar as an old, long-laid and well known road that leads fromBlack Sea port city Kafi, Tavrika through the gates at the crossing Tavanskuon the Dnieper River (Taman - Island in the lower reaches of the Dnieper - auth.) and from there in desolationKyiv, sent this way from Asia, Persia, India, Arabia, Syria to the northin Muscovy, Pskov, Novgorod, Sweden and Denmark all of eastern goods, namely: preciousstones, silk and silk fabrics, incense, spices, saffron, pepper and other spices.This way often follow foreign merchants: they create units sometimes a thousandpersons who are called caravans, camp and escort, consisting ofmany loaded carts and camels laden ...

When coming caravan significant profitKiev residents get: magistrates, customs officers, merchants, money changers, boaters, trooper,host and innkeeper, and it does not cause draws complaints ...

In plain Kiev homes not foundonly wealth, but even a huge number of fruits, vegetables, honey, meat,fish, more than that due to above reasons they are so full of expensivesilk fabrics, precious stones, and other sable fur, andspices that I had to see the very silk costing less thanAvailable in linen, and pepper, is cheaper than salt.

1. Define a route map for the trading caravansfrom the Crimea to Kyiv, described in the document. 2. With which countries and which broughtgoods through Kyiv? 3. Which products merchant caravans were brought to Kyiv?4. As the development of trade, according to observations by the document influencedpassersby?

 

Conclusions

- In the XVI century. population of the Ukrainian lands dividedof states.

- In the first half of XVI century. was completedregistration of the legal status of nobility.

- The largest and most state rightlessUkrainian society was the peasantry.

- Retraction of the Ukrainian lands in the European marketcontributed to increased demand for agricultural products and the emergencemanors.

- Ukrainian city in the XVI century. increased, on bahatiyuchydevelopment of handicraft and trade. Rozhortavsya process of acquiring the Magdeburglaw.

 

FAQtask

1. What is social status? 2. What were the main statesUkrainian society in the early XVI century.? 3. When it was first adoptedand Second Lithuanian Statute? 4. Which group was divided by the level of affluencecitizenship? 5. Which representatives of the majority population of the Ukrainianlands? 6. Which group was divided over the execution of duties peasantry? 7. Thatis the grange? 8. When adopted "statutes of drawing dies? 9. How administeredcities that gained the Magdeburg right? 10. What kind of trade existed inXVI century. in Ukraine?

11. Describe the position of the ground statesUkrainian society. 12. What differed privileged position andunprivileged states? 13. What changes have taken place in rural developmenteconomy? 14. Identify the characteristics of cities, crafts and tradeXVI century.

15. Make a table "bower division Ukrainiansociety at the beginning of the XVI century. ".

State

The legal status

 

 

 

16. * Decide on the map and write Ukrainian cities thatMagdeburg got right to the end of XVI century.

* See. Atlas of the History of Ukraine (XVI-XVIII centuries).. Grade 8. -K.: IPT. - 2007.

17. In the XVI century. believed that the division into states arebohovstanovlenym and comes from the biblical Noah, who divided the duties between hisSymom sons, Hamom and Japheth. Its that time reflected the Latin proverb:"You Syme, pray Hamze - works Japheth - manages and protects. What do youthink the role of a class division for development of Ukrainian societyXVI century.?