UKRAINE IN THE EVENT THE NORTHERN WAR. REBELLION Hetman Ivan Mazepa against Muscovy
- Hetman Mazepa - page selfless heroic struggle of Ukrainian people for independence.
CHRONOLOGY OF EVENTS
Hike Swedish King Karl XII in Moscow through Ukraine.
anti-insurgency Ivan Mazepa against Russia.
Destruction Moscow army hetman capital Baturin. Election I. Skoropads.
Go to the side of Ivan Mazepa Cossacks led by K. ataman Med.
Chortomlyk Sich Destruction 's army.
1709, June 27
Battle of Poltava.
Karl XII (1682-1718) - Swedish king (1697-1718), the distinguished commander of XVIII century. Tue war of Denmark, Poland, Saxony. Supervised by the Swedish army during the Northern War (1700-1721). At the outbreak of war forced to capitulate Denmark (1700), Moscow defeated army at Narva (1700) and defeating the Polish-Saxon troops entered the territory of Poland and Saxony. Frederick Augustus II sends to conclude peace in 1706, under the terms of which the latter abdicated in favor of S. Leszczy
Gordienko Bones - ataman Zaporizhzhya Sich, the second after Ivan Sirko most prominent figure in the history of international Zaporozhye. January 1, 1709 Kost Gordienko sixth elected ataman. He was a prudent politician, distinguished courage and recklessness. Above all, concerned with the preservation of liberties and independence of Zaporozhye. Actively resisted the encroachment of Moscow: the diplomatic and military activity directed at the elimination of Moscow Pledges and settlements within the liberties troops Zaporizhzhya. Due to this secessionist policies and antymoskovsku hostile at first he treated Mazepa.
active in European politics second half of XVII - beginning of XVIII century. Sweden was. This Baltic country has reached at that time considerable power: the Swedish king, taking possession Baltic countries, held under the control of the Baltic Sea. This provoked resistance opponents Sweden - Brandenburg, of Denmark, Poland and Muscovy - and could not annoy such large states like England, Holland and France. However, Austria, France, England and Holland were preparing for war of the Spanish Succession (1701-1714 biennium) and therefore could not actively intervene in the struggle for the Baltic Sea to Sweden.
At the beginning of XVIII century. prevailing conditions for antyshvedskoyi coalition. Using this, the Danish king took Holstein, who was then an ally of Sweden, king of Poland, began a campaign against Liflyandiyi and besieged Riga. Preparing for war against Sweden and Tsar Peter I, who from hostilities in the north to restrain war against Turkey. When in July 1700 Turkey signed the peace, Peter began to collect troops near the Swedish border. Moscow's war against Sweden began August 9, 1700, and entered into history under the name Northern.
UKRAINIAN PART shelving Northern War
Interests Muscovy in the war against Sweden for the acquisition goes through the Baltic Sea to Western Europe had nothing to do with the interests of Ukraine.
- Cossacks had, defending Moscow's interests, fight for the territory of Muscovy, the Baltic States, the Commonwealth.
- These trips were a heavy burden for the Cossacks. In fact, the first fighting brought the number of losses.
- Moreover Cossacks for their service did not receive any remuneration, suffered from oppression and military leaders of Moscow image.
- brutal attitude of the command and causing the severe conditions of service complaints and criticism, and sometimes even voluntarily return home Cossacks.
- led to resentment that the Cossacks often used as cheap labor for the canal and excavation work, construction of new roads, fortresses and other fortifications.
- real disaster was the Great Northern War and other groups of the Ukrainian population, because of its expense sporyadzhalysya Cossack troops for annual trips to the north.
- military troubles, Cossacks worried restrictions formed the royal government of their rights.
- Cossack shyrylysya rumors significantly more changes: the elimination of Cossack self, plantation governors and magistrates, resettlement Cossack troops to Muscovy etc.
uncertainty of the future and forcing officers to think more Hetman Hetman fate. covered antymoskovskymy sentiments, the officers have put pressure on Mazepa, who, of course, and he understood malignancy of Ukraine's relations with Moscow.
Charles XII CAMPAIGN TO UKRAINE. SEARCHING new allies
- cherishing the dream Hetmanate withdraw from the power of the king, Ivan Mazepa in 1704-1705 he resorted to secret diplomacy with adversaries of Moscow. Thus, in autumn 1705, he established ties with the Polish king Stanislaw Leszczynski , who was elected in 1704 those groups that supported the Swedish king.
- Leshchynskyy Ukrainian Hetman hoped to establish a relationship with Sweden.
- in 1706, Mazepa, and indeed through mediation Polish king began secret relations with the Swedish King Karl XII .
External conditions antymoskovskoho rebellion Mazepa
victory of the king and the Polish king Augustus
victory of Karl XII and his henchmen Stanislav Leshchynskyy
Ukraine would be divided between Poland and Russia
Ukraine as an ally of Moscow, would have found itself under Polish rule and would lose autonomy
only salvation was deliverance from the power of the king, also advance to the war and the peace treaty.
Hike Charles XII in Ukraine
- Year 1708 Charles XII began to implement its long-standing idea of a campaign against Muscovy.
- trip was to take place towards Smolensk and Moscow through Lithuania and Belarus. At the beginning of the campaign consisted successfully.
- But after several setbacks in August - September, Charles XII refused the preliminary plan.
- He decided to return to Ukraine, hoping to provide is your army of supplies, to strengthen its power Cossack regiments and the host Leshchynskyy.
- Swedish king also pinned hopes on aid from the Crimean Khan and the Turkish sultan.
Change of plans
- Charles XII was unexpected for Mazepa.
- Hetman considered premature for the Swedish army stay in Ukraine meant that here rozhornutsya military operations of the Russian-Swedish war.
- Given the task of liberation of Ukraine from the power of the king was becoming harder.
- hid herself as a great danger that the plans Mazepa was kept secret only the most loyal Cossack officers, and ROM Cossacks, knowing nothing about plans Hetman, preparing for war against the Swedes.
- trip to Moscow by Ukrainian Hetman Ukraine led to decisive action for liberation Hetmanate.
- Mazepa decided to unite with the Swedes for war against Muscovy.
- October 24, 1708 Ivan Mazepa, drove to a meeting with Charles XII. With him went chotyrytysyachne army general officers and 7 of the 12 colonels.
- evening October 28 Hetman arrived in the Swedish camp. The next day, met with Charles XII of Mazepa.
- 29-30 October 1708 between the Ukrainian and Charles XII, signed the agreement.
Summary (of 6 points) a statement that the contract contains a "human output of Ukraine" - a political document that in 1712 Philip Orlik (general clerk for the government Mazepa, Hetman in exile), defending the rights of Ukraine appealed to the European monarchs .
- Ukraine must be independent and free;
- Muscovy seized all the land that once belonged to the "Russians" people should be returned Ukrainian Principality;
- Swedish king is obliged to defend the country against all enemies and to send help when it asked the hetman and the "states";
- Mazeppa be lifelong Prince Ukraine;
- Swedish king has no right to claim the title of prince or commander of the armed forces of the principality;
- for the strategic needs of the Swedish army could take five Ukrainian cities (Starodub, Mhlyn, Baturin, Poltava, Gadyach).
military and political actions against the Tsar of Moscow UKRAINE
- In response to the actions of Mazepa Peter addressed the Ukrainian people. In numerous appeal Mazepa he accused of "betrayal", the intention to give Ukraine Poland and Orthodox churches and monasteries - Uniate.
- King ordered the officers and colonels also urgently convene in Hlukhiv to elect a new Hetman. Meanwhile Peter and Menshikov commanded to destroy the residence of the hetman - Baturin.
- received a royal order, Moscow troops advanced on the capital of the Cossack.
- in Baturin were significant military power, has been a lot of food and ammunition. The city protected by a strong fortification.
Therefore, attempts to quick
- get Baturin were unsuccessful: the inhabitants were set to protect the hetman capital.
- And through betrayal of one of the regimental officers of Good Friday John Regiment nose, which pointed to the secret move, Moscow November 2 soldiers infiltrated the city and staged a bloody massacre in it - brutally killed all its inhabitants, women and babies. Baturin was completely destroyed.
Destruction Baturin and its inhabitants were not only revenge. This punitive act Peter tried to intimidate the Ukrainian and ultimately subdue them, depriving the aspirations for freedom.
Election Ivan Skoropadsky
- According to another order of the king on November 6 in Gluhove held officers' advice.
- however, came only four colonels: Starodubsky, Chernihiv, and substituted Pereyaslavs'kyi Nizhyn.
- Hetman Starodub was elected Colonel John Skoropadsky.
The election was preceded by Hetman
- ceremony of "punishment" Ivan Mazepa. His likeness Glukhova streets stretched to a specially constructed scaffold.
- Before "execute" guy, was read a list of the hetman's "sins" and pronounce sentence. November 12 in the presence of the king in Hlukhiv Holy Trinity Church was proclaimed ecclesiastical curse (anathema) Mazepa.
ceremony and proclamation of the death penalty in absentia was anathema to certify that performance against the will of the king - it is a crime against God. Acts of Peter was a manifestation of brutal colonial policy towards Ukraine Muscovy. The main purpose of those actions - sow guilt and fear among the population Hetmanate split the Ukrainian people, to eradicate from his mind the idea of national identity and the desire for independence. After the events Baturinsky any attempts of national liberation and brutally prydushuvalysya branded as Mazepa.
CONNECTING Cossacks to the Swedish-UKRAINIAN UNION
- to somehow improve the situation, Ivan Mazepa tried to convince the Sich, which had not yet adhered to either side.
- Zaporozhian 10000th little glory fierce army of soldiers enjoyed the trust and respect people and could become the force that helped the Swedes to come out of hardship.
It is well understood
- and Peter, who during the winter 1708 - spring 1709 strongly urged not to support the Cossacks Mazepa.
- Sichova council decided to support Mazepa and go over to the Swedish king.
- March 26th 8000th detachment Cossacks slaughter road department of the Moscow army arrived Dikanka, near Poltava. In Dikan'ka Cossacks greeted Ivan Mazepa.
- there with ataman Kost Med Great Budyscha went to a meeting with Charles XII.
- Meeting Mazepa and Swedish King Gordienko held March 27, 1709.
Chortomlyk Sich Destruction
- response of Peter to join the Cossacks to the Mazepa and Karl Sich was destroyed.
- Walking on Jan, troops of the Moscow Cossack colonel Yakovlev destroyed towns and villages. It was devastated, and campus Perevolochna where Vorskla merges with Dnipro.
- Cossack garrison that stood there, Moscow's soldiers massacred and burned the fleet Cossack boats.
- seize and destroy in January at the first attempt failed Muscovites, having suffered considerable losses. Yakovlev came to help Colonel Gnat detachment gregarious Galagan. He knew in January and its environs and falsely promised immunity Sich. It also decided the case.
- May 14, 1709 was captured in January. carrying the king's decree, the Moscow colonel executed all prisoners, and destroyed the Sich fortress, burned huts and military buildings. Guns, flags and treasure were taken.
Sich Destruction and brutal massacre of the Cossacks as burning Baturin had the same goal - to put the Ukrainian on his knees.
battle of Poltava in 1709
- spring of 1709 Charles XII of resumed hostilities. He decided to launch attack on Moscow. The way the Swedes had prolyahty through Kharkov and Kursk.
- To proceed according to plan operations, the Swedish army had to defuse a well-fortified Poltava.
- Swedish army came to Poltava in late April. Charles XII was hoping to take the city by storm or by negotiation, however that did not happen. Because May 1 Swedish army was forced to begin the siege.
- Meanwhile, the city came to Peter with the main forces.
- June 27 there was a general fight. It started at 5 o'clock in the morning attack on Moscow Swedish infantry redoubts (fortifications). about 11-hour battle ended complete defeat of the Swedes.
Poltava battle changed the political map of Europe. The victory of Peter I of Russia has put forward one of the leading contemporary European politics. Power of Sweden and Poland actually been undermined forever.
For Ukraine, Poltava battle effects were extremely harsh: the Russian government, which won, was on the road even more limited autonomy Hetmanate.
reasons for defeat of the Swedish-Ukrainian army
Among the failures of Swedish military historians call the first significant quantitative inequality of forces at Poltava.
- Moscow with Ukrainian army regiments Skoropadsky Slobozhanshchina and had about 50 thousand soldiers and 102 cannons, the army of Karl XII and is counted only 31 thousand soldiers and only 6 guns.
- Ukrainian regiments Mazepa directly involved in the battle were not: they are guarded by the Swedish army against a possible circumvention of the Muscovite army.
- defeat caused that Charles XII scoffed at by the Russian army. The young soldier too believed in their military happiness.
- not considered it and that the Swedish army was cut off from supply bases for the action and that the king was not possible assistance from the Khan.
- Besides Swedish king because of injury could not personally control the battle.
Capitulation Swedish army
- surviving Cossacks and Swedish troops retreated to the banks of the Vorskla Perevolochna Cossack fortress, hoping to take a ferry across the Dnieper Cossack flotilla, which is located there.
- But after the attack troops Yakovlev flotilla of several boats left. They were used for crossing to the right bank of the Dnieper Charles XII with several generals and 3000th detachment, and Mazepa, Kostya Gordienko and several hundred Cossacks.
- June 30 at Perevolochna Menshikov is a 10000th detachment.
- He forced the rest to surrender the Swedish Army, which numbered over 13 thousand on expeditions to the terms of surrender did not matter, because Menshikov did not consider them equal opponents.
Retreat Swedish king and the Ukrainian Hetman
- Charles XII and Mazepa went to the Turkish border. July 7th they crossed the right bank of the Bug, crossed the Turkish border near Ochakov and went to Bandar.
- August 1 wounded Charles XII and Mazepa patient stayed in the suburb of Bandar. Here in the brewing Mazepa not get up from bed, dozhyvayuchy recent days. He died on September 22 against the night.
- Getman buried in brewing, in March 1710 his coffin was taken to the Orthodox lands of Moldavia - of Galati (Romania today) and there reburied in the main church of the monastery of St. George.
Hetman Ivan Mazepa LOCATION IN UKRAINIAN national liberation movement
- Outstanding Ukrainian hetman Ivan Mazepa uryaduvav over twenty years, having achieved a stabilization of the domestic life of Ukraine and foreign policy in combating offensive of the Russian tsars on Ukrainian autonomy.
- showed special concern to the Ukrainian spiritual life, invested huge money from the state treasury and the development of Ukrainian own education, science, art and typography.
- Hetman Mazepa - page selfless heroic struggle of Ukrainian people for independence. As evidenced by this struggle was an uprising against the Moscow state.
- desire to create their own elite, its far-reaching policy in the sphere of culture and education have provided nearly 80-year existence of the Hetman state, influenced the further development of the Ukrainian people and its traditions of the state, the formation of national culture.
- Day Mazepa - this time the revival of Ukraine, the era of its political, economic and cultural progress.