Hetmanate EARTH AND RIGHT-BANK UKRAINE LATE XVII - early XVIII century.
- Hetman Ivan Mazepa - a prominent politician and statesman, builder of the Ukrainian culture.
- cultural activity of Ivan Mazepa's not just philanthropy and planned far-sighted government policies.
CHRONOLOGY OF EVENTS
Cossack Council on the river Kolomak. Eliminating John Samoilovych from power and elected hetman Ivan Mazepa. Conclusion Kolomaksky articles from the Moscow government.
Second Crimean campaign.
Reign in Russia Peter I.
Northern War Russia against Sweden.
national-liberation uprising in Right-Bank Ukraine, headed by seven Pale.
Board in the Commonwealth of Stanislav Leshchynskyy.
Peter (1672-1725) - King of Moscow (since 1682), emperor (from 1721). In domestic policy made a number of important reforms that were intended by technical and cultural Europeanization of the Muscovite state transform into a mighty empire. Conducted extensive aggressive foreign policy. With Ukraine purposefully conducted colonial policy.
seven Pale was born in the 30-40's of the XVII. in a small town in the Chernihiv region Borzna Meshchanskaya family. His father Philip was enrolled in a regiment of Cossacks Nijinsky during the National Liberation War. To register Nijinsky regiment got the time and Semen. Soon he found himself on the Host, and was given the nickname Paly (his real name - Gurke). In spring 1683 seven Pale squad led the Cossacks, who helped King Jan III Sobieski in the defense of Vienna from the Turkish troops. The importance of this aid by Jan III wrote in a letter which called Semen Paliy "Viennese hero. Returning from a raid, piles along with his Cossacks decided not to go to Host, and stay on the right bank of Ukraine and then combine it with the Left-Bank. Evidence of this is to expand government Fastiv colonel to major areas - the so-called. Paliyivschynu. In the last decades of the XVII - beginning of XVIII century. Pale was the owner of Kiev, Bratslavshchina, Eastern Volyn and itntralnoho skirts.
Hetman Mazepa's residence contained in Baturin. This city was capital of the Cossack well during Ivan and Demian Mnohohrishny Samoilovych. Baturin is on the high bank of the river Parliament - Desna tributaries. His time was divided into several parts of the fortified, surrounded by ramparts and wooden towers. The first historical information about a Ukrainian town belonging to the XVII century. Baturin in times of Polish rule had lived Magdeburg Law, which was confirmed also by Hetman.
When Hetman Ivan Mazepa Baturin rozbudovuvavsya on samples of Western European capitals. There were built luxury houses officers and majestic temples. Mazeppa personally votive construction of Holy Trinity Church and Monastery of St. Sava, the funds supported the construction of several churches. By order of Mazepa in Baturin was built new protective fortifications. In the capital of the Hetman cast guns, there was general armata (artillery). 1708 Baturyns'ka fortress had 70 guns.
Ivan Mazepa - MAN AND POLICY
- Ivan Mazepa was born in Kiev region - in the village. Mazepas near White Church, Ukrainian nobleman in the family. Most historians consider the birth date of Hetman 1639
- studied at the Kyiv Mohyla Academy and the Jesuit College in Warsaw or Minsk.
- served at the court of the Polish King Jan Kazimierz, who sent his complete education abroad.
- During 1656-1659 he was in Germany, Italy, Netherlands, where he studied foreign languages (later mastered ten languages), military science, diplomacy. After returning from Europe belonged to the entourage of King of Poland.
- royal attorney Ivan Mazepa repeatedly performed diplomatic missions in Ukraine. It was, in particular in relations with the Jan Kazimierz Hetman of Ukraine Ivan Vyhovskyy Yuri Khmelnytsky Paul Teteria.
- In 1663 returned to the Mazepa family property in the White Church. He later appeared in Chyhyryn and became one of the closest supporters of the hetman Doroshenko. soon took up the position of the writer. Took part in wars against Poland Doroshenko.
- While the diplomatic assignment in 1674 in the Crimea and Turkey, was captured by Cossacks and sent ataman Lassie to Samoilovych.
- some time served as a simple Cossack, but quickly vyvyschyvsya by striking abilities.
- From 1682 he held the position of captain in the government of left-bank hetman.
Emergency education, life experience, be treated courteously Mazepa admired. Not surprisingly, and for Polish kings, and for the Ukrainian Hetman, and Prince Golitsyn - naykulturnishoyi rights in Muscovy - Mazeppa had great prestige and the most popular person among the Cossack elite. So his arrival as hetman in 1687 was completely natural.
SIGNING Kolomaksky ARTICLES 1687 AND MOSCOW STATE
- Hetman Ivan Mazepa started with the signing Kolomaksky articles.
- agreement between the hetman and the officers on the one hand, and Moscow tsars Ivan and Peter A. and Queen Sofia - on the other hand, was signed July 25, 1687
- Kolomaksky agreement was written based on Hlukhivsky Mnohohrishny articles (17 of 22 articles) with applications made by the hetman Samoilovych.
- Some changes that Kolomaksky article differed from previous ones (in particular articles 18-20), predicted increase in Hetman tsarist authority and more restrictions on the rights and Hetman Hetman's government.
By Kolomaksky articles
- Getman had no right without a royal decree to deprive officers of executive positions, and the officers - dump Hetman.
- greatly limited the right to dispose of the hetman of the Host.
- Hetman's government was forbidden to maintain diplomatic relations with other states.
- supposed location in the Hetman Capital - Baturin - Moscow regiment shooters.
- Hetman had to resort to special measures to "all forces of ' Connectivity is in a strong and indissoluble agreement both nations Russians " ; to " Little Russia is called ground Hetman , but only recognize the land, which is in the king's autocracy ". Item 19 Kolomaksky articles attributed to such events, particularly marriages between Ukrainian and Muscovites.
Kolomaksky article Hetman government identified as an obedient tool in Ukraine for Moscow's policy to complete elimination of the Ukrainian state, many more "transparency" of Ukraine's borders with Moscow, as well as a gradual but steady " dissolution "among the Ukrainian population of Moscow.
areas of foreign policy to some extent show Mazepa Kolomaksky article.
- Early Hetman Mazepa believed that he could put his thoughts on Ukraine only in union with Moscow, relations which, he believes, were built on the basis of Ukrainian-Moscow Treaty in 1654
With the support of Moscow
- Mazeppa hoped to extend the territory reconquered by Hetman of Poland's Bank Ukraine, as well as steppe line along the Black and Azov Seas, which owned the Crimea and Turkey.
- issue of choice the other ally at the time had matured as Mazeppa and Poland did not trust bad feelings about the union with the Crimea and Turkey.
- related transactions with Moscow, Mazepa was involved in the foreign policy of the king. Yes, Cossack units assisted the king's army in campaigns against the Crimea.
Second Crimean campaign in 1689
In early spring
- 1689 112,000th Muscovite army under the command of Golitsyn and 40 thousand Ukrainian Cossacks, led by Mazepa again went on a campaign against the Crimea.
- Having beaten in several battles, the Moscow-Ukrainian troops approached Perekop coaching day for his walls, then turned back.
- Such developments showed complete failure of the ambitious plans of Moscow's aggressive in the second Crimean campaign.
- fails this hike was caused by the extremely harsh circumstances in which it was held:
- acute power struggle between supporters of Sofia and Peter, which inhibited the mobilization, acquisition slowed troops.;
- poorly prepared troops to march unusual conditions;
- slow progress of Army terrain;
- shortage of feed for horses, water and food;
- outspoken allies reluctant to help.
As for Ukraine, the Crimean march 1689 had a negative impact, because exacerbated internal situation of the Cossack state.
- population resented the huge costs associated with the equipment of the Cossack Army.
- perceived presence in the Ukrainian lands many divisions of the Russian army.
These circumstances demanded Mazepa outstanding skill in implementing domestic policy.
hetman Mazepa sought stabilization of Ukrainian political and economic life.
An important feature of
his domestic policy was to unite the land Left Bank, Right Bank, Zaporozhye and Slobozhanshchina in united Ukraine, which the newly elected Hetman uyavlyalasya as the state of Western European model with preservation of the traditional Cossack system.
Cultural and Educational Policy
- Activities Mazepa changed architectural outlines many cities, including Kyiv, Chernihiv, Pereiaslav Glukhova, Lubny, Baturin, BAHMACH et al.
- Mazeppa votive dozen new churches, many churches contributed to the reconstruction of Middle Ages. Thus, in Kiev at the expense of Mazepa was built a new stone cathedral Fraternal Epiphany Monastery, the majestic Military Nicholas Cathedral of the stone bell tower and Refectory in the desert-Nikolski monastery of All Saints church in Kiev-Pechersk Lavra. was rebuilt Lavra Assumption Cathedral and Trinity Gate Church, St. Sophia and St. Michael's Cathedral with a bell tower.
- Edition Mazepa era are the best examples of Ukrainian printing.
- the hetman, having one of the richest libraries in Ukraine, with her books obdarovuvav monasteries, churches and individuals.
- not less than the churches and monasteries, took care of the hetman Kiev-Mohyla Academy:
- built the first floor of the new Academy building;
- achieved verification status Academy;
- provided in villages and land ownership;
- financially supported students.
Academy became known as even-Mohyla Mazepian.
- Mazeppa and took care of the creation of new centers of culture, one of which was Chernihiv College.
- Strengthening the Ukrainian Hetman, Cossack support him.
Establishment of the Cossack elite
- Introduction of bunchukovyh friends. In these (recent), surrounded by Mazepa were also icons and significant military comrades . These positions Hetman secured special privileges.
- extremely demanding Hetman belonged to the education of future statesmen, including encouraging young people learning from their environment at the Kyiv Mohyla Academy and abroad.
in the development of Ukrainian education, science, art, typography Hetman invested huge funds from the state treasury and its own, rightly believing that only in this way Ukraine can be compared with European countries.
Renaissance COSSACK SYSTEM FOR RIGHT-BANK UKRAINE
effort to unite all Ukrainian lands under one mace, Mazepa never released from the Right-Bank Ukraine attention.
- end XVII century. most of the land lay desolate Right Bank. This worried the Polish government are spoiled as a result of bloody wars and massive population fleeing the land on which to freely attack the Turkish-Tatar hordes were a threat to resume the eastern provinces.
- The only reliable way to reduce this risk population was devastated land.
- In this regard, the Polish King Jan III Sobieski again turned to the Cossacks.
- pustok encouraging settlement, the Polish government decision in 1685 gave the Cossacks' true privileges and liberties ".
- accordance with the ruling by the Cossacks created their lands inhabited own regiment-centesimal system.
- Yes recovered four regiments: Boguslavsky, Korsunsky, Bratslavsky, Fastovsky (Bilotserkivskiy) led by Colonel Samiylo Ivanovic (Samus), Zahar spark Andrew Abazynom and Semen Paliy .
- recovered shelves were not only military but also the administrative-territorial units.
- Each of encouraging settlement pustok colonels, promoted the creation in cities and towns of Cossack self-government, including the Cossack courts.
- particularly active in the revival of the Cossack colonel Fastovsky marked down seven Pale.
national-liberation REBELLION 1702-1704 he
- In 1699 Poland signed a peace treaty with Turkey. Turkish threat abated, so eliminating the need for Cossacks.
- Sejm decided to liquidate the Right Bank cossacks, and then ordered the colonels Hetman disband their armies.
- Polish troops in winter 1702 Cossack several cities in Right-Bank Ukraine in response uprising began, led by seven Pale.
- This liberation movement aimed at the liberation of Right-Bank Ukraine from Polish domination and unification of the Left-Bank Hetmanate.
- In July of 1702 movement spread Kyiv region , and in early 1703 the rebels have controlled much of Right-Bank Ukraine . Rebellion spread to Volhynia and Podolia , came to Galicia . 15000th army abandoned its suppression, stop the liberation movement could not.
- rebels Paliya allies were Swedes, who at the time were at war with the Poles - in fact began in 1700 the Swedish-Muscovite (North) war.
- This alarmed Moscow, which immediately responded to the request of the Polish King August II to help, but have used troops Mazepa.
- spring of 1704 troops crossed the Dnieper Mazepa and occupied Kiev and Volhynia.
- Semen Paliy arrested and imprisoned ' yaznyly (a year later he was sent to Moscow and then exiled to Siberia).
- Poland, much of which was occupied by Swedish troops, could not really claim the Right-Bank Ukraine.
- In such circumstances, the Right Bank found itself under the rule of Mazepa.
Rev. ' unity Right Bank of Ukraine Mazepa lasted from 1704 to the events of 1708-1709 he