the Sich in the second half XVII.
- Zaporizhzhya Sich in the second half XVII. remained, as in ancient times, a powerful military force, has tirelessly defended their native land from the ravages ordyntsev released from captivity and thousands of Ukrainian prisoners.
- Ivan Sirko - ataman greatest in the history of Zaporizhzhya Sich.
CHRONOLOGY OF EVENTS
existence Chortomlyk Sich.
beginning of XVII century. - 1680
Years of Life of Ivan Sirko.
John Lassie was born, probably in the early XVII century. are presented in the family of small Ukrainian nobleman. His life and activities for the period to Chortomlyk Host records little information. With the future of Ukrainian hetman Bohdan Khmelnytsky in 1646 was still in France, where the Cossacks fought with the army of the Prince of Conde. Historical documents indicate that the sulfur in John National War, particularly in the besieged Zhvaneckij autumn 1653 at least 15 times its elected ataman in Zaporozhye. He was an outstanding military leader who spent more than 60 battles against the troops of the Ottoman Empire, Crimean Khanate and Noghay hordes and never defeated. Corresponded with the hetman of Ukraine, the monarchs of Muscovy, the Commonwealth, the Crimea and Turkey. He hit the then European newspapers, chroniclers and chroniclers of many countries, chanted his Ukrainian and foreign poets. Lassie - the hero of many folk legends and stories.
the Sich IN STOCK Hetmanate
before the National War Zaporizhzhya Sich was contained in Mykytyn Horn. That is where Khmelnytsky was preparing an uprising against the Commonwealth.
Zaporizhzhya Sich at the National War
- Host belonged in the current leading role in training and deployment of a national liberation war of Ukrainian people against Polish domination.
- experience of public life, which for centuries nahromadzhuvavsya Zaporozhian was creatively used by Bohdan Khmelnytsky.
In the liberated territories
- implemented Cossack System. Cossacks took part in military actions against the Commonwealth.
- Zborivsky under contract in 1649 appeared outside many Cossacks Cossack register.
This caused discontent
- Zaporozhian and exacerbation of their relations with the Hetman's power.
- not ignored the Cossacks and hard for Ukraine Bilotserkivskiy contract. Sich no accident involved in the statements of officers and Cossacks against the hetman.
- tense relations with the Zaporizhzhya Sich Hetman's government led to a change in place of its location.
- In 1652 Cossacks moved his capital from the open steppe before Mykytyn Horn closer to the Dnieper flowing, near the mouth, the Chortomlyk.
Zaporizhzhya Sich, was laid at the mouth Chortomlyk, existed for m 1652-1709 In the historical literature, he called her Chortomlyk.
- continue relationships Zaporizhzhya Sich Hetman's power consisted of an uneasy, sometimes exacerbated even to armed appearances.
- most definitely it was after the death of Bogdan Khmelnitsky, when intensified intervention of other states in the internal affairs of Ukraine broke the fight for the hetman's mace and began to strengthen government officers, who often neglected the interests of the Cossack rank and file.
Zaporizhzhya Sich and Ruin
- When the attack on the Ukrainian statehood on the part of Moscow, the Commonwealth, the Crimea and Turkey and through the failure of Ukrainian Hetman - Khmelnytsky's successor to protect the independence of Ukraine Zaporizhzhya Sich wanted to regain a leading role in Ukraine.
- Cossacks not always shown wisdom and political foresight, and sometimes even took the side of outright enemies of the Ukrainian state, eliminating support Hetman whose actions sought to save it.
- This was apparent at the time Hetman Ivan Vyhovskyy when Cossacks supported the rebel Jacob Barabash.
- Support Cossacks hetman's mace helped get John Bryuhovetskomu.
- not stand out of prudence and Zaporozhian during hetman Petro Doroshenko.
- Cossacks and resorted to other rash attempts to assert its power in Hetmanate applicants as hetman, including Michael and Peter Khanenko winds.
particularly complicated situation after the Zaporizhzhya Sich Andrusovo truce.
- No Commonwealth or Muscovy did not want to lose Zaporozhye. Finally, over Zaporozhian Sich were established control each other hostile states.
- Under Andrusovo truce in January was to provide military assistance to both countries, and exactly when each of them wanted to eliminate the Ukrainian hetman state.
Cossacks participated in the War against Poland, the Ottoman Empire and the Crimean Khanate
- Despite conflicting actions in the domestic affairs Sich Cossacks never betrayed his calling - to fight against the invaders of the Ukrainian lands.
- In the second half XVII. Zaporizhzhya Sich uslavylasya their participation in numerous military operations.
- most favorable conditions for the struggle against the Turkish invasions occurred after Andrusovo truce. Leader and organizer of most of that time marches John Lassie.
- his brilliant raids Ivan Sirko earned fame invincible commander. It was believed that no better can not resist the Turkish-Tatar invaders.
- no accident when in 1672 John Sulphur at the instigation of ill-wishers were imprisoned and sent to Siberia for his release care himself King of Poland Jan III Sobieski.
- returning from exile to head ataman plunged into the maelstrom of war Cossacks and soon even mastered the Moldavian throne.
- Moldavia, Lassie and inflicted further acrimonious attacks the Turkish-Tatar invaders.
- Conducting numerous military operations against Turkey and the Crimea, Ivan Sirko never ignored the possibility of a peaceful solution to the problems of international relations. Sources indicate flexible diplomacy Cossack chieftain who personally corresponded with the most influential politicians of that time.
- Zbahatyvshys experience a victorious campaign, led by Ivan Sirko, Cossacks continued to deal adequately legendary Cossack and after his death (John Sirko died August 1, 1680).
- After two years they have demonstrated brilliant victories across Europe. Zaporozhskie Cossacks took part in the battle under the walls of Vienna and the German-Polish forces defending the capital of the Austrian Empire from Turkish invaders.
Politics Moscow government in Zaporizhzhya Sich
Imperial Government has always treated the Zaporizhzhya Sich biased, seeing in it a fire threatening to freethinking and freedom.
Therefore Moscow wanted to conquer in January to its fullest possible use of the army and economic opportunities.
- first event in the implementation of the insidious intentions was Moscow's position in Sech garrison, which appeared in 1663 Chortomlyk Host
- reason for its location proclaimed joint struggle against Turkish-Tatar invaders.
- Muscovites nakazuvalosya act together with Cossacks and Crimean Noghay against hordes.
- also relied on the garrison of intelligence: gathering information about the internal situation of the Crimean Khanate and Noghay hordes, their foreign policy plans as well as the events that took place in Poland, Turkey and so on.
- also issued orders of the king's government, there were also secret instructions.
According to them
- garrison commander was obliged to follow all the events that took place in Zaporizhia;
- had to report to Moscow about the relationship of the Zaporizhzhya Sich Hetman Hetman some petty factions;
- report all diplomatic relations Zaporozhian.
- Under the terms of the truce Andrusovo dual Polish-Muscovite control over the Zaporizhzhya 1667 royal garrison was withdrawn from the Host.
- But this does not put an end to interference in internal affairs of the tsarist Sich.
- After gradual restriction of public rights of Ukraine, the tsarist government's desire to extend its authority over all Ukrainian lands could not affect the Host - the heartland of Ukrainian statehood.