right bank and Left Bank UKRAINE IN 60-80's of the XVII century.
- Hetman Petro Doroshenko - a fighter for independence and territorial integrity of the Ukrainian state.
CHRONOLOGY OF EVENTS
Doroshenko elected hetman of Right-Bank Ukraine.
1667, January 30
Andrusiv truce between Moscow and the Commonwealth. End Muscovite-Polish war.
Hike Cossacks Doroshenko on the Left Bank. Proclamation Hetman Doroshenko across Ukraine.
The election of left-bank hetman |
Demian Mnohohrishny. Conclusion Hlukhivsky articles.
officers' advice in Korsun with Doroshenko decided to recognize the protectorate over Turkey's right-bank Ukraine.
Election Hetman of Left Bank Ukraine Samoilovych II. Signing Konotop articles.
Board in the Commonwealth of Jan III Sobieski.
Doroshenko, Hetman denied that, taken to Moscow.
Turkey proclaimed ruler Y. Khmelnitsky Ukraine.
Chigirinsky first hike.
Chigirinsky second trip.
Bakhchisarai peace treaty between Moscow and Turkey and the Crimean Khanate.
"Eternal Peace" between Moscow and Poland.
First Crimean campaign.
Damian Mnohohrishny came from a peasant family from the town of Carp in Chernihiv. Pokozachyvsya during the National Liberation War, during which a school organizational skills: organization took care of Cossack units, providing them with weapons, ammunition, training young military affairs and so on. He participated in many battles.
acting hetman was short-lived, becoming the sovereign ruler of the Left mace. This happened after Peter Doroshenko autumn 1668 with the army left the Left Bank, and Siversky (Nizhyn and Chernihiv) moved Muscovite army led palatine Romodanovskym. Mnohohrishny situation was complicated as Doroshenko could not send help. Pressure pro-Moscow ruler Mnohohrishny forced to resort to negotiations with the tsarist government.
Since March 1669 - Left-Bank hetman. In March 1672 the general officers secretly brothers caught in Mnohohrishny Baturinskoy castle, accusing them of friendly relations with Doroshenko and the king of treason and sent to Moscow. There they were subjected to brutal torture and sentenced to death. When the cat is already going to enforce the sentence, the death penalty changed the life sentence of exile. Together with Demian Mnohohrishny were deported to Siberia by his brother Colonel with his family, wife Nastya, sons Peter and John, daughter Elena. After 15 years of former hetman retired military service and served in East Siberia. Were accompanied by Russian diplomats who signed the first Russian-Chinese agreement (1689), was active in the exploration and settlement of Siberia. Late in life postryhsya monks. He died about 1707
John Samoylovych came from a family priest. He graduated from Kiev-Mohyla Academy. Spiritual his career is not attractive, and he joined the Cossack army of left-bank Ukraine. Educated and capable young man, received officers' ranks, soon took over as the acting colonel of the regiment of Good Friday. He was also captain Krasnokolyadynskoyi hundreds of Chernigov Regiment, and Chernihiv colonel. By Hetman Mnohohrishny held the post of general judge Left Bank Hetman.
Peter Doroshenko was born in 1627 was Chyhyryn grandson Michael Doroshenko - hetman of Zaporozhye, which were famous march to the Crimea in 1628 and in Moscow during the Troubles. Father Peter Doroteusz was a Cossack colonel. Peter Doroshenko received a good education, learning, probably at Kyiv Mohyla Academy. During the National Liberation War served as Pryluky colonel, was one of the youngest associates Khmelnitsky. On life after the resignation of Peter Doroshenko, Hetman remained little evidence. It is known that shortly after the loss of the Hetman's mace, he moved with his family on the Left Bank, where the consent Samoilovych settled in the town Sosnica. In March 1677 by order of the king's government came to Moscow. Remained in exile until his death, and no request is not assisted his direction back home. Died November 9, 1698 in the village. Yaropolchomu near Moscow.
FIGHT Hetman Petro Doroshenko ASSOCIATION FOR UKRAINE
- Hetmanship Peter Doroshenko on the Right Bank (1665-1676) began under extremely difficult circumstances. Cossack Ukraine was divided into two Hetmanate. Particularly appalling devastation suffered Right Bank, where as a result of war and civil war had destroyed 65-70% of the population.
- Doroshenko first resorted to measures aimed at improving the internal situation.
- strenuous encouraged settlement devastated southern Right Bank. Consistently defended the interests of the Cossack.
To get rid of dependence
- Hetman of officers sought to introduce a lifetime hetman's power.
- created a permanent army, which counted about 20 thousand Serdyuk.
- great spiritual support to the hetman was coming to Chygyryn Orthodox Metropolitan of Kiev Joseph Nelyubovych-Tukals'kyy.
main sense of our own Peter Doroshenko saw in consolidating his power on the Right Bank and the gradual unification of all Ukrainian lands into one state.
- This led to war between the Commonwealth and Ukraine.
- In February 1666 Council supported the officers' political program advanced by Doroshenko. It was agreed:
- expel Poles from Ukraine;
- an alliance with the Crimean khan;
- speak at the Left Bank to merge it with the right bank under the authority of a hetman - Doroshenko.
- In December 1666, together with detachments Doroshenko Tatars destroyed the 6000th unit under Polish Braylov on Bratslavshchina. However, a successful performance does not put an end to discord in Ukraine, but only suppressed its divisions.
- news of the signing of Muscovy and Poland Andrusovo contract painfully struck right-bank hetman and urged him to resume hostilities against Poland.
PROCLAMATION Hetman Petro Doroshenko The whole UKRAINE
- In early 1668 for petty Board in right-bank hetman Chyhyryn again raised the issue of unification Hetman, this time under the protection of Turkey.
- The same decision and decided to board the Left.
- Left Bank of Ukraine and has captured Slobidska antymoskovske uprising. Interestingly, it headed Bryukhovetsky, who tried in this way to retain power.
- In early March 1668 the Moscow garrison was driven out of most cities of the Left Bank. Ivan Sirko cleared of all Muscovites Sloboda Ukraine, except Kharkov.
- Doroshenko crusade with the hope of reuniting Ukrainian lands. In June 1668 he crossed over the Dnipro and went up to meet Bryuhovetskomu.
- June 8 in the camp under Opishnae that in Poltava, the Cossacks did revolt, killed Briukhovetsky and elected hetman Doroshenko both sides of the Dnieper.
- to monitor the situation of the Left, Doroshenko arranged in major cities of their garrison. All of Ukraine is in his hands.
However, secure power
- newly elected Hetman of the Left not lucky.
- the north threatened to Muscovy.
- The event went on the offensive forces of the Commonwealth.
- Cossacks put forward his nominee to mace - a nephew of Peter Briukhovetsky winds.
All this led to return to the Right Bank Doroshenko.
- on the left side of the Dnieper acting hetman remained Chernihiv colonel Damian Mnohohrishny.
Hetman Demian Mnohohrishny (1669-1672 biennium)
- talks about the election Mnohohrishny Left Bank Hetman continued throughout autumn 1668
- Mnohohrishny eventually agreed to return under the supremacy of the king provided a key to Moscow's withdrawal of Ukrainian cities.
Cossack Ukraine again split into two Hetmanate.
- negotiations between Moscow and the government ended conclusion Mnohohrishny Hlukhivsky articles. March 9, 1669 at the General Council in Gluhove Mnohohrishny proclaimed hetman of Left-bank Ukraine.
By Gluhovskom sexes , which consisted of 27 items,
- Moscow magistrates remained only in five cities, and they had no right to interfere in the affairs of local government;
- installed Cossack register of 30 thousand;
- hetman was also right to retain auxiliaries - 1 thousand kompaniytsiv;
- hetman forbidden to enter into relations with other states;
- collect taxes was only the officers;
- complicated transition to the Cossack peasants.
some concessions from Moscow were caused by its desire to prevent new demonstrations of Cossack resentment.
Mnohohrishny Measures on the reorganization of public life Left Bank Hetman
elected hetman Mnohohrishny tried to defend Ukraine's interests, sought to unite the land under one Ukrainian hetman's mace.
Speaking against the decisions
- Andrusovo agreement, he achieved to Kyiv with the suburbs remained within the left-bank Ukraine.
- One of the activities was to strengthen Mnohohrishny Hetman's power and gradual weakening of the role of the Cossack. To that end, and was created auxiliaries.
- Damian Mnohohrishny advocated autonomy for Ukraine, has tried to overcome the pro-Moscow sentiment among Cossack. For this purpose, failed to change unreliable colonels are true to people.
This caused discontent
- Cossack. Resented above all the excessive desire for personal enrichment Hetman, and that he was considered a council officer - he was negotiating with the Moscow ambassadors, with no military court would punish even colonels handing out government positions to relatives.
DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN POLICY Ivan Samoilovych
16-17 June 1672 in a Cossack Dibrova between Konotop and held Putivl General Military Council. There, with the consent of the Moscow Prince Gregory was elected hetman Romodanovskoho General Judge John Samoilovych.
- Hetman, on board for the Cossack Hetman Dibrova negotiated and the Moscow government, concluding an agreement known as Konotop articles.
- 10 points of the new agreements complement Glukhivs'ka articles and compared them with the more limited the hetman.
In Konotop sexes
- hetman prohibited without the king's decree and the officer council to send mission to other states as well as maintain relationships with Doroshenko;
- Hetman was not allowed to deprive officers positions, punished without the consent of the officer council or military sentence;
- Cossack envoys had no right to participate in negotiations with representatives of the Polish government in Moscow for about Ukraine.
characterized 15 years of Hetman Ivan Samoilovych was his desire to create a state with strong aristocratic Hetman's power.
- way to pursue his goal he ubachav Cossack in limiting the right to interfere in the NIH public affairs.
- making Samoylovych stopped convening the General Military Council and all public affairs officer with the council decided.
- aristocracy favored the formation initiated Samoylovych bunchukove Company.
- Samoylovych defended the officers' interests, fostered increased Hetman tenure.
Despite the attempts of officers
- Konotop and items for maintaining order in Hetman he kept hired (and convivial serdyutske) army, and later formed a few bands willing.
- Like some of his predecessors, sought to secure the succession Hetman's power. Getman was concerned about their sons who gave the most influential posts in the Hetman government and large estates.
- Samoylovych strongly protydiyav attempts Cossacks act totally independently, attempted to lure his mace in Right-Bank Ukraine, is produced from the land account and western.
bright feature of Hetman Ivan Samoilovych, the relative stability of life in Left Bank Ukraine was the revival of the fallen during the Ruins of cultural life.
- Major changes have occurred in this period architecture and construction. Founders of cathedrals and churches were hetman, officers, wealthy burghers. In particular,
- Samoylovych was the founder of Trinity Cathedral in Priluki Gustynskogo monastery, built in 1674-1676 he
- Places that time was the stone church of John the Baptist in Starodub, refectory Trinity Monastery in Chernigov (1677-1679 biennium).
- In 1679 Trinity began building pens in Chernigov, and 1682 - under construction by J. Baptist Cathedral Transfiguration Monastery near Lubny Mgarsk (both cathedrals finally completed by Hetman Mazepa).
Samoylovych In foreign policy, focusing on Moscow and hostile attitude to Poland and Turkey, was opposed to Moscow-Polish agreement on the basis of division of Ukraine.
sought understanding of the Moscow State and Hetman of Turkey and the Crimea.
military-political union Hetman Petro Doroshenko Turkey
- Meanwhile on the Right Bank of life became more calm. Having lost hetman of the Left, Doroshenko failed to act decisively.
- This also prompted the weakening its influence on the Right Bank Ukraine and the struggle for the hetman's mace to the winds.
- threat from Poland and the Crimea brought him into closer relations with Turkey.
- It is through Turkey, he hoped to reject the contract and conditions Andrusovo overcome breaches of the Commonwealth, and then unite with the Right Bank Left Bank one Cossack state.
- In March 1669 the hetman called Korsun officers' council. In addition to representatives of right-bank regiments, the participation and left bank Cossacks Zaporozhye. The Council decided to take a Turkish protectorate, but refused to swear.
- However, not all the Cossacks and peasants Right Bank, not all supported the agreement. Decision officers condemned and Cossacks. Opponents Doroshenko spreading rumors that he was "zaprodav Ukraine in the Turkish yoke".
fight for hetmancy between Peter Doroshenko, Peter and Michael winds Khanenko
- Under these conditions, managed to keep the hetman Doroshenko on the Right Bank.
- Hetman's mace, he had to win, breaking the one hand, the encroachment of droughts, and on the other - the newly elected Hetman, "Colonel Michael Uman Khanenko, which recognized the power of several regiments and right-bank in January.
- Khanenko election brought the situation on the Right Bank.
started a bloody war between supporters Khanenko Regiment Doroshenko.
- In early August 1671 the Polish army under the leadership of Crown Hetman Jan Sobieski launched military action against Ukraine.
- In mid-October the Commonwealth has established its dominance over nearly the whole territory Bratslavshchina and late October, King Michael Vishnevetsky officially approved right-bank hetman Michael Khanenko.
Hike sultan troops to Ukraine
- end of May 1672 100-120-thousand army led by Sultan Mehmed IV , set off for campaign to Bratslavshchina. So on the right bank started another war.
- worst thing was that the Ukrainian took part in it as part of both armies: Doroshenko with their armies fought on the side of Turkey, Khanenko - on the side of Poland.
- Peter Doroshenko, waiting Tatars went on the offensive and 8 July during Chetvertynivkoyu defeated Polish army units and detachments Khanenko. August 18, 1672 joint Ukrainian-Turkish-Tatar forces have gained a powerful Kamyanets-Podolsk fortress and moved to Galicia.
- In early September, was surrounded by Lions. With no means to continue the war, the Polish government October 18, 1672 signed a peace treaty in Buchach.
Under this contract
Ukraine (Doroshenko under the protection of Turkey)
received from Poland Podolsk province with Kamianets
had care and Southern Bratslavshchina Kyiv region
left by a Galicia, Volyn and Kyiv region North
Buchatskiy agreement did not bring the desired peace Right Bank, as Poland is not going to abandon the Ukrainian lands lost and looked over to restore their confidence. However Muscovy Buchatskiy perceived as contract repudiation Poland Human Right Bank Ukraine.
Doroshenko expeditions against Moscow's army and left-bank hetman Regiments
- tsarist government decided to seize the opportunity, without violating truce Andrusovo, grab the Right Bank.
- Negotiations on this issue were unsuccessful, and the king in late 1673 and ordered Romodanovskomu Samoylovych launch military offensive against Doroshenko.
- Prior to March 1674 the Moscow military magistrates and the new left-bank hetman captured key cities in Right Bank Ukraine.
- 16-17 March Pereyaslav held a council to which the officers arrived in 1910 right-bank bands. At the council put Khanenko hetman's mace, Doroshenko was formally removed from power, and both sides of the Dnieper Hetman declared Samoilovych.
This meant the state association of both parts of Ukraine under the same mace. However successful this event is not named because it led to Turkish aggression that results in the Right Bank of the population exposed to more suffering and misery.
- Peter Doroshenko of several thousand was in Serdyuk Chyhyryn.
- city surrounded Muscovite-Ukrainian troops. The siege lasted two weeks.
- But news that the aid went Doroshenko Turkish army, which destroyed its way Ladyzhyn and Uman, forced Moscow-Ukrainian forces retreat from Chyhyryn and return to the Left Bank.
price of extreme cruelty Right Bank was returned to power under Doroshenko.
Denial by Peter Doroshenko hetmanship
- Such circumstances did not add popularity Doroshenko.
He even left
- Serdyuk and closest relatives.
- To restore lost trust, Peter Doroshenko decided to abandon the Turkish protectorate. After long hesitation Hetman of all the troubles then chose Moscow.
- October 10, 1675 on Cossack council in Chyhyryn in the presence of Zaporozhye John Seurat, he promised the king. But Moscow did not recognize the government of the oath.
- In September 1676 the Moscow army and Cossacks Samoilovych Chigirin was under siege. Doroshenko went to camp and Romodanovskoho Samoilovych, September 19 passed the jewelry and swore allegiance to the king.
CHIGIRINSKAYA ARISING Turkish-Tatar army
- renunciation Hetman Doroshenko Turkey perceived as an event that contradicted her politically, hoped for a significant part of Ukraine.
- Out of this unprofitable situation Sultan linked with a person Yuras Khmelnytsky.
- In connection with the events in Ukraine Yuras was released from prison Yedykule Istanbul and declared Prince Sarmatia (Ukraine).
- Spring 1677 Yuri Khmelnitsky, with detachments of Turkish troops went to the Ukraine.
- Nemiroff, he began to send proclamations to admit its power. These actions impeded Hmelnychenka Samoilovych intentions to merge both banks of the Dnieper under his mace.
center of military confrontation between the two former Hetman Hetman was the capital Chigirin.
In 1677 was first Chigirinsky campaign 1960-90-thousand Turkish-Tatar-Nogai troops.
- his campaign against rapacious Turkey Ukraine justify the desire to return the land and mace Yurii Khmelnytsky.
- Turkish government tried to use the popular name Khmelnytsky to lay on its side Ukrainian populace and neutralize the Cossacks.
- first hit the Turks decided to inflict it Chyhyryn, because the city had a strategic importance:
- was the residence of the hetman;
- most enduring fortress at the crossroads of important routes deep into the Ukraine, Poland and Muscovy;
- Chyhyryn stood in numerous Cossack-Muscovite garrison.
- Actually, she defended the castle during the siege kilkatyzhnevoyi. When the city approached the main joint Ukrainian-Muscovite forces led by Romodanovskym and Samoylovych, the Turks were forced to retreat.
- fails campaign in 1677 did not change the intentions of the Turkish sultan and master Chyhyryn entire right bank Ukraine. It is well understood and Samoylovych Moscow military leaders.
- However, if the Ukrainian defense Chyhyryn was a matter of pride, in Moscow to treat her indifferently.
- is why the army chief of Moscow boyar Romodanovskyy, hit the Ukraine, received secret instructions: If it is impossible to keep Chigirin - destroy the fortifications and withdraw military forces from the fortress.
July 8, 1678 200,000th Turkish-Tatar army under the command of Vizier Kara Mustafa surrounded Chigirin.
- invaders waged continuous cannon fire, resorted to numerous assaults.
- more than a month, desperate defending, Chigirinska garrison awaited the arrival of forces Romodanovskoho, however, that the Cossack capital, not in a hurry.
- troops approached Moscow Chyhyryn. However, never giving his defenders need help, began to prepare for the retreat.
- Chigirinskoy garrison commander ordered to set fire to the powder burst in warehouses and environment.
So when Turkish troops invaded the city, there was a blast. Chigirin into a ruynovysche. Reflecting the fierce onslaught of the Turks and Tatars, United Muscovite-Ukrainian troops went to the Dnieper.
Power Hmelnychenka extended only wasted skirts. There he ruled, but failed. Turks beheaded him in the heater at the end of 1685
BAHCHISARAYSKY peace treaty
War 70's between Muscovy, on the one hand, and Turkey and the Crimean Khanate - on the other, for possession of land right-bank Ukraine culminated in the signing Bakhchysarai January 13, 1681 peace treaty between these countries .
According to this agreement:
joins South of Kiev, and Podolia Bratslavshchina
joins Left Bank of Ukraine and Kyiv
border between Turkey and Moscow State installed on the Dnieper River
For 20 years, the territory between the Bug and Dnieper had to remain unoccupied
SIGNING "everlasting peace"
- Bakhchisarai peace treaty between Muscovy and Turkey was not lasting, because they do not meet the interests of the Commonwealth.
- advantage of the defeat of a massive Turkish military forces of the Holy League of Vienna in 1683, Poland regained its dominance over much of the Right-Bank Ukraine.
May 6, 1686 in Moscow between Poland and Muscovy, signed the new contract - "eternal peace".
- Poland recognized by Moscow kingdom Left Bank of Ukraine, Kyiv, Kharkiv, Chernihiv-Siver land of Chernihiv and Starodub.
- addition, the Polish side of abandoning claims to Kyiv, which received compensation for.
contract secured in 1686
ownership of the Left-Bank Hetmanate
North Kyiv region, Galician
Bratslavshchina and South Kyivshchyna were unoccupied neutral zone between the two countries
skirts remained under Turkish rule, though not for long, because 1699 was also incorporated into Poland
"Eternal Peace" uskladnyuvav situation in Ukraine, weakening the national liberation movement, as affirmed violent division of Ukrainian lands among several states.
CRIMEAN CAMPAIGN 1687 RESOLVING POWER OF JOHN Samoylovych
enclosing the "eternal peace" with Poland, Muscovy joined the states that fought against Turkey and its vassal - Crimean Khanate.
Commitment to anti-Turkish coalition - Holy League consisting of Austria, Venice and the Commonwealth - as well as their own plans, which foresaw the elimination of the Turkish-Tatar possessions in the Black and Azov seas, and a future exit to the Black Sea, prompted Moscow before the war.
- In May 1687 100,000th Muscovite army went to the Crimea. Hike led by Queen Sofia's favorite, most influential person in Muscovy - Vasily Golitsyn.
- way to Golitsyn's army joined the 50000th army of Ukrainian Cossacks, led by Samoylovych.
- Although great hopes pinned on this military campaign but the combined Ukrainian-Muscovite army failed even to reach the Crimea.
- by the fire in the desert, burned by the Tatars;
- shortages of food, water and feed for horses.
Golitsyn ordered the army to turn back.
- not recognizing their own miscalculations, Golitsyn was looking for the perpetrators of a failed campaign, and therefore easily transferred responsibility for Samoilovych.
- Hetman criticized for improper favorite queen of the campaign, and generally opposed the conclusion of the Moscow Government "Eternal Peace" with Poland and the alliance with it against Turkey and the Crimea.
- Samoilovych situation was uncertain. It also complicated the position of the Cossack elite, which repelled by his arrogance of the hetman, unlimited self-enrichment and determination to make the hetman's mace hereditary.
- is why personal interest Golitsyn and discontent led to the removal of the ruler from power Samoilovych.
- in July 1687 in a camp on the river Kolomak Samoilovych John was arrested with his family and sent to Siberia, where he died in 1690
- Cossack Council, held July 25, 1687, elected captain general Hetman Mazepa .