deployment of a national liberation war in 1648-1649 he
CHRONOLOGY OF EVENTS
1648 September - October
Ukrainian army siege of the city and Zamosc.
1648 - 1668 рр.
Board in the Commonwealth of King John II Casimir.
grand entrance Khmelnitskogo to Kyiv.
1649, June - August
Ukrainian army siege of the fortress Zbarazh.
Zborivska battle. Conclusion Zborivsky truce.
Cherkasky Colonel Maxim Sergeant after a prominent military leader Bohdan Khmelnytsky in the first phase of the National Liberation War. About the same fate of the man known by pre-dated a little. Some believe that he was born in the town naddnepryanskogo Vil'shany in family craftsman-Kushnir. Others believe that Maxim came from lower middle classes, with the prison or humanitarian issues. Some claim that he was originally gentry, as sources of knowledge generation Ukrainian Orthodox nobles Krivonosa of Podlasie.
lack of significant data Krivonosa explained, perhaps because a long time he served as mercenary somewhere in a foreign army, and in Ukraine is on the eve of the Liberation War. Whatever it was, but the fight for freedom Maxim Ukrainian people took an active part. His commander, he found talent in all the battles in 1648 was unchanged assistant Khmelnytsky in the formation of the rebel troops of peasants and townspeople. Maxim Sergeant constantly opposed any agreement with the Government of the Commonwealth, to complete the liberation of Ukraine. He died in November 1648 in camp near Zamosc of plague.
Pylyavetska battle was held 11-13 September 1648
- Allied Cossack-Tatar army led by Bogdan Khmelnitsky converges with the Polish Army under the direction of Nicholas Hetman Potocki nearby town Pyliavtsi near Starokostyantynova (now the village Pyliava Khmelnitsky region.).
the heart of the battle was over the river dam. On the first day she twice passed from hand to hand, but the third attempt the Poles managed to capture it.
- battle began September 13. Morning Ukrainian, Crimean Tatar and Nogai troops lined formations. Khmelnytsky's forces fought off a powerful blow to the dam. Soon the Cossacks began to pursue the enemy. Polish command failed to provide an organized retreat. Pokydavshy weapons and ammunition left, the Polish army nakyvalo heels.
- Pylyavetska battle for the Polish army ended in ignominious defeat .
CAMPAIGN UKRAINIAN TROOPS IN GALICIA
- September 26, 1648 began the siege of the city.
- October 5 Maxim Krivonosa troops captured the High Castle - a fortress on a high hill.
- Lviv city leadership, knowing despair of their situation, began negotiations.
- Getman requested the Polish command and the city government to capitulate and give the Cossacks their mortal enemy - Jeremi Vyshnevetskoho Konetspolskoho Alexander and others.
- however, learn that they secretly fled to Zamosc, ordered to stop the siege and wait for the ransom to be paid to the horde, and went to the besieged fortress of Zamosc.
- Khmelnitsky received ransom and 14 November took siege of Zamosc.
causes cessation of hostilities and the retreat of the Ukrainian army from the Zamosc
- difficult situation the military:
- effective military forces, there were no more than 30 thousand;
- acutely felt the lack of guns, ammunition and food;
- felt amidst general fatigue.
- winter approaches.
- outbreak of plague.
- Returning Tatars in Crimea and the threat of attack on Kiev and Chernihiv Lithuanian army.
- not been exhausted military forces of Poland.
- Considering everything, Bogdan Khmelnitsky agreed with the decision of the board and officers and sentiments made a truce with the newly elected Polish king Jan II Kazimierz .
- However, by making peace in Zamosc, Hetman was not going to stop the armed struggle in general. He planned in spring 1649 to reassemble the army of Tatars call for help and resume hostilities.
result in victory Pyliavtsi and Ukrainian army raid on the Lions and Zamosc in early November 1648 almost all Ukrainian lands were liberated from Polish rule.
UKRAINIAN PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT Hetman State
- December 23, 1648 Bogdan Khmelnitsky solemnly entered Kyiv.
- Ukrainian regiments left Jerusalem patriarch Pais, who was then in Kyiv and the Kyiv Metropolitan Sylvester CBS.
- early in 1649 Khmelnytsky made public his intentions on the war against the Commonwealth. It happened in February, during negotiations in Pereyaslav, a royal embassy. In response to the truce terms proposed by Polish ambassador, Hetman formulated the ultimate goal of war.
Speech Khmelnytsky researchers interpreted as a program of Ukrainian state building
- Ukrainian Hetman grounded right to establish an independent state from the Commonwealth in ethnic within their residence.
- formulated provisions on the unification of the Ukrainian state.
- considered Cossack Ukraine as the successor of Kievan Rus.
RESTORATION war in 1649 Zbaraz'ka-Zboriv CAMPAIGN
- spring of 1649 the Polish troops, violating the terms of the truce began hostilities.
- Polish troops to speak against the Cossacks were going under Starokostyantynovom. The news that there are about Khmelnytsky's army has come, was a surprise to the Polish command. The Poles decided to retreat.
- A placement of Polish troops was elected Zbarazh. Some groups took Zbarazhsky castle, and the rest started erecting the camp nearby. And to finish it not time for June 30 came Ukrainian and Tatar cavalry. On fire fighting. Zbarazh and Polish camp under its walls were taken in a tight siege.
- July 27 Cossacks began the general offensive. The battle lasted three hours; Poles desperately boronylysya. Inc next day received a message from Warsaw that set sail under Zbarazh main Polish army led by Jan Kazimierz. Considering this fact, the hetman decided to change the course of military operations. The main part of the Cossack army, led by Khmelnytsky, unbeknownst to the enemy departed from the Zbarazh and moved toward the king.
Zborivska battle (near Zborov, now Ternopil region.) held 5-6 August 1649
- night of August 6 inc Polish camp and surrounded the town Meeting. In the morning of August 6 Cossack regiments simultaneously stormed Parliament, dams and bridges on Strypa to break the link between Zboriv and royal camp. When, finally, the city was taken, Cossacks all forces directed against the royal camp.
- Polish soldiers began to flee en masse. Those remaining were in hopeless situation.
- inc could finally kill the Polish Army. But the Crimean Khan Islam-a previous agreement and moved on towards the King of the Commonwealth.
inability to wage war simultaneously against Poland and against the Crimean Khanate Bogdan Khmelnitsky encouraged to sign a peace treaty with Poland.
Conclusion Zboriv contract August 8, 1649
Zborowski peace treaty
- agreement foresaw the power transition Hetman former territories of Kiev, and Chernigov provinces Bratslav.
- In these areas the Polish government pozbavlyavsya right to place their troops, and hold public office had only Orthodox.
- established a register of 40 thousand Cossacks.
- oholoshuvalasya war amnesty.
- nobility returned to their colonies.
- peasants had to perform duties in the pre-war estates of their owners.
Place Zborivsky contract in the events of the National Liberation War
- Zborowski peace treaty, concluded under the pressure of circumstances to answer the actual success of the National Liberation War.
- But he had enormous implications for the rise of the idea of Ukrainian statehood, for the first time in the history of Polish-Ukrainian relations between Ukraine and Poland received from the recognition of independence as a Cossack state. This gave to the Hetman's government to continue the struggle for independence.
- The Treaty did not satisfy either the Poles or Ukrainian: Poles believed that they gave too many Cossacks and the Cossacks were convinced that got small. The war halted only temporarily.