church life in second half of XVI century. Beresteyska union

Principal PROCEEDINGS

  • Union of Brest was an attempt to implement the idea of unity of Christian churches that arose in 1054 after the official split of Christianity into western and eastern branches, and then turned to the idea of annexation of the Orthodox to Catholicism.
  • Union of Brest was "wound in the body of the Ruthenian people, which split it into two hostile camps, contributed to the influence of Rome, polonization Ukrainian and Belorussian.

Chronology of events

1556-1561 he

Create

Peresopnytsia Gospel.

1582

introduction in the Commonwealth's new - the Gregorian calendar.

1586

approval of the Lviv Brotherhood of Antioch Patriarch Joachim.

1596

Orthodox and Uniate

Cathedral in Brest. The establishment of the Uniate Greek Catholic Cathedral Church.

Persons

Gideon Balaban - Bishop of Lviv (1565-1607). In 1590 he participated in the preparation of union with Rome, but before Brest, the cathedral has taken Prince Ostrozky position, becoming the enemy of the idea of association of churches. He had tense relations with the Lviv Brotherhood stauropegian.

Cyril Terlecki - a church worker from 1572 - Bishop of Pinsk and Turovskaya. From 1585 - Lutsk and Ostrog. In 1589, together with Ipatii Potii traveled to Rome, met with the Pope and acknowledged his supremacy over the Ukrainian Orthodox Church

Michael Romance - one of the organizers of the Union of Brest (1596). With 1590 as the Metropolitan of Kyiv, conducted secret negotiations with the Polish king of the union with the Catholic Orthodox Church.

Reformation MOVEMENT IN UKRAINE

Background

Reformation - socio-political movement XVI - XVII century. directed against the Catholic Church. Reformation movement initiated the new direction of Christian doctrine - Protestantism. Protestant church proclaimed its independence from the authority of the Pope. The Reformation swept many European countries. Did not avoid it, and Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, among which were the Ukrainian lands. Governments of both countries tried to prevent the spread of Reformation ideas. In 1520 appeared charter Sigismund I, who under the threat of imprisonment and confiscation of property prohibited the import from abroad, Luther books. The matter has changed significantly after conversion Teutonic (Prussia) Order of a secular state with a hereditary monarch. State religion of Prussia was proclaimed Lutheranism. Prussia's proximity to Poland and Lithuania led to the rapid spread on their lands Reformation ideas and new beliefs. Commonwealth has, in the words of contemporaries, shelter heretics - as the Catholic Church called the non-faith people.

of Ukrainian lands a few branches of Protestantism began to emerge in 30-40's of the XVI century.

Gallery

    Impact of Reformation ideas
  • shows and activities Orthodox brotherhoods.
  • was the most authoritative Lviv Dormition Brotherhood.
  • Year 1586 Antioch Patriarch Joachim approved charter Lviv brotherhood.
  • Charter ustanovlyuvav for brotherhood right of superiority over other brotherhoods and control of the clergy, including bishops.
  • Soon
  • Lviv brotherhood domohlosya stavropihiyi.
  • steadily growing number of fraternities. Number of brothers increased by various states - townspeople, clergy, nobility, peasants, both men and women.
  • At first
  • fraternity held charity - helping Brother, who find themselves in trouble, neglect of temples books, icons, candles, arranged so holy temple.
  • gradually turned into the fraternity of national-religious organization with its Charter.
  • They unfurled a broad cultural and educational activities. Under their initiative created libraries, printing houses and schools opened.
  • end of XVI - first half of XVII century. Ukraine had about 30 communal schools, which, unlike the original parish, gave high school education.
  • Figures
  • Common movement sought to improve the situation of the Church.
  • They opposed the financial enrichment of the church, abuse of senior clergy, and sought ways to resolve the problem attitude to those priests who neglect duties.
  • Brotherhood tried to clear the religious life of the lush outdoor ceremony, spoke strongly for organizing the church was asleep like to see the church "cheap" and the public.

Counter-Reformation movement in UKRAINE

Background

Beginnings Counter - Catholic reform church life - the researchers associated with the Reformation movement and deployment of a Catholic Council of Trent (1545-1563). The idea of reforming the Catholic Church were different. Some predicted reform the Catholic Church through its approach to the Reformation churches. Another idea was based on a complete rejection of beliefs, born-Reformation, even to offer them the war. Winning second place. However, the methods of dealing with the Reformation were largely Reformation: the introduction of their own schooling, development of its typography, giving particular importance to hearing more. Reforming the Catholic Church served as the Jesuit Order (literally "Company of Jesus"), founded in 1534 and approved by the Pope of Rome in 1540 the Jesuits united around the idea of updating the Catholic Church a great intellectual force. Thus the main means of persuasion have been teaching activitiesing and diplomacy. In various European countries founded by the Jesuits schools are not inferior to Protestant. With 60 years of the XVI century. Jesuits have launched operations in Poland. And to the XVII century. in the Commonwealth there were 15 Jesuit colleges.

  • expansion of activities of Jesuits in the Ukraine contributed to the Union of Lublin. In 1571 a Jesuit College was opened in Jaros
  • 1593 launched Zamojski Academy - a higher type of school.
  • Implement the powerful educational program, the Jesuits sought to increase the number of supporters of Catholicism. That level of education, provided that his Jesuit education, attracted Ukrainian nobles, besides their graduates were able to deepen their education in European universities.
  • the one hand, the Jesuits helped spread education to the Ukrainian Transcarpathian achievements of European science. But at that time Ukrainian, deprived of their own country, had no choice in the field of education. Paid the same for education in Jesuit schools often become abdication of parental faith and nationality and then - because after the Union of Brest Jesuit activity was directed against the Orthodox Church.

of the Orthodox church

main reason for decline of the Orthodox Church in Ukraine was the loss of their own country. To counteract the Polish Catholicism, which through an extensive network of Catholic colleges and print works tirelessly spread the impact of the new eastern states, the Ukrainian Orthodox Church had to develop its own system of education. But not enough books or the training institutes for senior clergy were not.

  • The situation was compounded by the Ukrainian Orthodox Church and the external circumstances. Occupied by Turks in 1453, Constantinople lost the status of orthodoxy, and therefore could not provide sufficient support of Orthodox Church of Ukraine.
  • Instead of each year was becoming increasingly powerful Moscow Metropolis, wanted to take the glory extinct Constantinople. 1589 Proclamation of independence of the Moscow Patriarchate and the head of his title of Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia is extremely alarmed Ukrainian as eloquently testified to the intent of Muscovy to Ukrainian lands.

Thoughts on the Orthodox Union of Catholic

Realizing the complexity of the situation, has found herself the mother church, representatives of the higher clergy and nobility and Ukrainian tycoons are increasingly inclined to the idea of unification with the Roman Catholic Church.

CHURCH CATHEDRAL Brest in 1596

  • To speed up the implementation of the idea of life in union, two of the Orthodox bishops - its biggest proponents Ipatii Poti and Cyril Terlecki - went on a trip to Rome, where late 1595 held their meeting with the pope and bishops officially connection with the Catholic Church.
  • But despite the agreement of the parties, the final decision to the union, according to tradition, had to make council.
  • He was appointed to October 6, 1596 in Brest (now Brest in Belarus).
  • to Brest, the cathedral prepared not only supporters of the union, but also its enemies.

Supporters Union:

  • Polish government;
  • Michael Romance
  • Metropolitan and bishops.

Opponents of the union:

  • -Prince Vasily Konstantin Ostrog, who led the fight antyuniynu;
  • bishops of Lviv Gideon Balaban and Michael Peremyshl Kopystyansky;
  • fraternity and monasteries;
  • most nobles and burghers;
  • peasantry.

Agreeing Not even for the joint meeting, each party October 8, 1596 started a separate church.

povodyly union supporters in the town cathedral church of St. Nicholas. approved a preliminary decision on the formation Greek Catholic Church. King Zygmunt III supported the union and declared valid ruling Uniate cathedral. Opponents of the union gathered at the palace, where stood Ostrog. Sentenced and the union barons, apostates.

  • new church subordinated to the Pope.
  • was recognized some principles of Catholic doctrine (tenets), in particular dogma of the Holy Spirit from the Father and the Son (Orthodox recognize that the Holy Spirit comes only from the Father).
  • Religious rituals, feasts, sacraments, especially the temple construction, iconography, Orthodox church music remained, but a language of worship - Church Slavonic.
  • Greek Catholic clergy, as well as Catholic, zvilnyalosya tax.
  • Uniate Catholic nobility along with a competitive public office.
  • Greek-Catholic bishops promised a place in the Senate.

As for the Ukrainian Orthodox Church, it is, despite the large number of supporters, appeared outside the law.

Ukrainians were divided even churches. So an event designed to unite, and enhanced the resistance, because opponents of the union pledged to the strength of Fight against it.