UKRAINIAN ORIGIN AND Zaporizhzhya Sich Cossacks

Principal PROCEEDINGS

  • emergence of the Cossacks was caused by both internal and external factors and showed great vitality of contemporary Ukrainian. Under conditions that threatened the very existence of the Ukrainian people, Cossacks gradually turned into a force capable to defend their homeland from the encroachment of strangers to keep ethnic identities and their own state.
  • Zaporizhzhya Sich - Orthodox Christian-democratic republic.
  • Zaporizhzhya Sich played a critical role in the history of the Ukrainian people, especially in its national liberation struggle in the development of Ukraine's armed forces and military art, in exploration and colonization of the steppe spaces of Central and Southern Ukraine.
  • result of economic activity Cossacks was colonization of the Wild Fields (steppe between the Dniester and Don), thus expanding the living space of the Ukrainian people, which took place peacefully, without conquests foreign territories.
CHRONOLOGY OF EVENTS

1478

Go

Crimean Khanate in vassalage of the Ottoman Empire.

1489

first record of the Ukrainian Cossacks in written sources.

1556

Foundation Ukrainian Orthodox Prince Dmitry Vyshnevetsky on about. Small Khortytsya first Zaporizhzhya Sich.

1557

Khortyts'kyi Sich Destruction Crimean khan Devlet Giray.

PERSON

Dmitry Vishnevetsky came from the ancient Ukrainian prince's family. First mentioned in sources in 1545 a young man leave the home for knightly fame. Sooner showed remarkable ability commander: already in 1550 King Sigismund-Augustus appointed him mayor Cherkassky and Kanevsky. Then he became the border guards on Khortytsia. There, a small Khortytsya, on his initiative Cossacks built a fortress which became a military base on the lower reaches of the Dnieper Cossacks. In 1556 organized numerous marches Cossacks in possession of the Crimean Khan and the Turkish fortress. He was invited to Moscow and the Moscow governor undertook campaigns against Tatars. Last march Dmitry Vishnevetskogo started summer 1563 with a detachment of Cossacks rode to the Prince of Moldavia. There was captured and was soon transferred to the Turks. People keep the memory of Prince zvytyazhtsya many legends, tales, songs in which he acted under the name Biden.

CAUSES UKRAINIAN KAZACHESTVA

ravenous hordes of the Crimean campaigns and the sultan's troops.

Caught in circumstances threatening the existence of a separate Ukrainian nation, Ukrainian had to master a complex of military service. Constant struggle with assailants made with a farmer, craftsman, priest, a special type of soldier - brave and cunning, who owned a good variety of weapons, full volelyubnosti and ever ready to protest against any coercion.

introduction and spread of serfdom serfdom Ukrainian peasants led to massive leakage - though on the edge of the world, if only away from the exploiters. Tough conditions for border refugees seemed less trouble than the loss of personal freedom.

BACKGROUND

Crimean peninsula in the Black Sea and Azov steppes were settled long ago. Before the Mongol invasion of the Black Sea steppes belonged Polovtsy - Turkic-speaking nomads. Conquered them, the Mongol khans annexed lands to its immediate possession. Actually, if the Russians land Forest and Polissia had to admit the supremacy of the Horde, but its territory is not considered, because they were suitable for nomadic cattle - the main lesson ordyntsev, the territories were steppe horde ground, or Tataria , as saying at that time. It Tatars name new invaders of our ancestors. So, after the Turkic-speaking population of Black entrenched his name conquerors. In the XV century. the intensification of the struggle for power in the Golden Horde lords Crimean ulus - so called this part of the Golden Horde khans of his possessions - and began to seek a unilateral domination. Year 1449 Haji Giray declared himself an independent ruler of the Crimean hanstva. The capital of the state he chose Bakhchisarai (formerly Center ulus was the Crimean city of Crimea). Thus, the Crimean Khanate as an independent feudal state was formed as a result of the collapse of the Golden Horde and involved the Crimean peninsula, the lower course of the Dnieper and Azov and Prykubannya.

1475 directly to the borders of the Crimean Khanate pidsunulysya possession Turkey: the border between the lay of the Black and Azov Seas. It happened as a result of conquest by Turkey - in these times it was called Ottoman Empire - Black Sea port city. Turkey during the XIV - XVI centuries. a small principality into a powerful empire, which stretched possession on three continents (Asia, Africa and Europe) from the Atlantic to the Indian Ocean.

Considering the Turkish sultan's military strength, the Crimean khan Mengli-Gil 1478 preferred to be his vassal. Vassalage manifested mainly in the fact that Khan had to take part in military campaigns Sultan.

change foreign policy orientations of the Crimean Khanate caused devastating hordes of predatory raids of Crimean Ukrainian lands.

For several decades

Ukrainian land became the main source of supply of slaves nevilnytski markets of the Crimea and Turkey, where they sold the most remote corners of Asia.

FIRST APPEARANCE Sich

  • constant threat of attacks to the Cossacks ordyntsev prompted the creation of a reliable system of fortifications. The basis of its battles were .
  • Researchers link
  • origin of the word January with barricades - fortified with trees.
  • great importance attached Cossacks place position battles. Often it was a river island. Perhaps in earlier times there were scattered small battles in many places.
  • Later
  • rapids formed by a Zaporizhzhya Sich - a kind of capital Cossacks.
  • eight known Sich Dnieper. first located on the island Khortytsya Malaya (now in the city of Kiev). It was built in 1556 by Prince Dmitry Ukrainian Orthodox Vyshnevetsky and served as a military base on the lower reaches of the Dnieper Cossacks.
  • here during 1556 was organized numerous marches Cossacks in possession of the Crimean Khan and the Turkish fortress. However, the fall 1557 Zaporizhia fortress Crimean Tatars destroyed.
  • From 60's of the XVI century. by 1593 the Zaporizhzhya Sich was located on the island Tomakivka in the 1593-1638 biennium - the island Bazavluk in 1638-1652 - At the Mykytyn Horn in 1652-1709 - At the river Chortomlyk in 1709-1711 and 1730 -1734 - At the river Kamenka, in the 1711-1728 biennium - in Oleshko in the 1734-1775 biennium - Underground River (Nova Sich).

FORMATION Cossack state - Zaporizhzhya Sich

    During
  • XVI - XVIII centuries. Zaporizhzhya Sich had signs state: they controlled the vast territory of the steppe of Ukraine had its own government, military and administrative system, its own court, independent diplomatic relations with other countries.
  • Zaporizhzhya Sich was different from most of the time, feudal states. Instead of feudal coercion, which was based on the enslavement and forced labor in it firmly established principles of wage labor. For internal build Cossack state was kind of a military company.
  • area called the Cossack state-owned Zaporizhia Army or liberties of Zaporozhye and stretched from the Southern Bug River in the west to Kalmius Nadazov `th in the east. In the north of its border passed through the rivers eagle (the Left) and upper and Ingula Inhulets (Right Bank).

authorities within the Cossack

The full power in the state belonged to the Cossack Sich (Military) to the , which has elected a Cossack military leader.

SECHEVYH military leader
ignorant of all military, administrative, judicial and even spiritual matters Zaporozhian Host
ataman judge clerk osavul

ataman belonged to the higher military and administrative and judicial authorities to Host.

Military Justice - after the second person in the Cossack Sich authoritative hierarchy.

Military clerk probably all record keeping.

captain followed the procedure in Sech.

COSSACK symbols

coat of arms of Zaporizhia - Cossack figure, armed with musket and sword, - appeared in the second half XVI century. It came into force on King Stefan Batory in 1578 but also with previous Cossack formation, probably had their own symbols. However, the result of our time is reached. The above shows the first coat of arms on the seal Zaporizhia Army in 1595 by Hetman G. Loboda. Throughout the existence of the principal symbol of the Cossacks remained unchanged. He is depicted on the main seals Zaporizhia Army and Hetman, on flags, portraits, icons, manuscripts and in printed form.