§ 37. Culture of Ukraine in the second half of the eighteenth century.
1. What werepeculiarities of the culture of Ukraine the second half of the seventeenth century. - Firsthalf of the eighteenth century.? 2. What accomplishments and achievementsUkrainian culture of the second half of the. - First halfEighteenth century.?
1. Features of the culture.
In historyCulture of the Ukrainian Cossack State XVIII Art. was complex and multifacetedera. It was a period when continued, launched in earlier times,flowering of Ukrainian art and literature. But at the same time createdconditions under which the Ukrainian culture is gradually losing its identity.
Life-givingfoundation on which the tree had flourished Ukrainian culture was the Cossack state.The course of Russian Tsars to eliminate Hetman and Zaporizhzhya SichLeft-bank Ukraine to transform ordinary Russian province deprivedUkrainian culture bases its development on pryrikaly decline.
Featurecultural processes in the Ukrainian lands was the fact that by the end XVIII Art. Hetmanate in the onehand, and the Right Bank and western lands, on the other, they have evolved indifferent conditions. But it did not affect the unity of Ukrainian national culture.
Distinguishingfeature of Ukrainian culture Hetmanate XVIII Art. was higher than neighborslevel. Imperial borders has limited the usual earlier cultural contactswith Western Europe. Simultaneously, the Russian Empire had the opportunityuse the intellectual potential Hetmanate. The process of "washing"highly of Ukrainian national environment was typical of the timeUkrainian culture. Ukrainian held office in the Russian Empire: fromsenior public administrators and the Church hierarchy to the Rectors'schools and educators royal family. An important contribution to the developmentRussian Art XVIII Art. Ukrainian artists have done.
2. Education and typography. By the middleEighteenth century. overall literacy rate of Ukraine's population was fairlyhigh. It provided, first of all, the most common type of primary schools -Ukrainian folk school. Retained at the expense of the parochial school fraternity. Insecond half of the eighteenth century. in most towns of the sevenHetman regiments employed 866 Ukrainian public schools. There were similarschool and in Sloboda Ukraine. Training was carried out in Ukrainian,students could become naynezamozhnishi segments of the population.
The attack on the Russian Tsars Ukrainian statehooddestroyed once popular school. Enslaved Ukrainian peasants were notable to maintain schools at their own expense. At the beginning of the nineteenth century. of these schools do notleft a trace.
In the last quarter of the eighteenth century. on the Left Bank and Slobidskawas extended to all-action educational reform. For children of noblescreated major four-year folk school for children of merchants, townspeople andgovernment - small two-year college. Education acquired a class character andbecome a privilege of the upper classes of the population.
During the second half of the eighteenth century. original folkSchools have existed on the Right Bank and western provinces. Harassment andpersecution by the authorities led to a gradual reduction in their number.Most primary schools controlled Right Bank Jesuits and Polishprimary education for the Ukrainian peasants were actually available.
Secondary education was given based on first halfEighteenth century. Chernihiv, Kharkiv, Pereyaslivska colleges. These werevsestanovi schools, modeled on the Kyiv Mohyla Academy.Late eighteenth century. Chernihiv Pereyaslavs'kyi and colleges wereconverted to religious schools - Seminary and Kharkov - in the state-ownedCollege.
On the Right Bank and western lands of the foreignrule also slowed development of secondary education. On the Right Bankexisting school for children of Polish nobility, which was conducted studies in Polishor German. Was extremely limited access in the Ukrainian Catholic andProtestant schools in Transcarpathia.
Great importance for the development of education and Science of Ukraine hadKyiv Mohyla Academy. In XVII-XVIII centuries. most associated with herachievements of the Ukrainian people in education, philosophy, theology, linguistics,literature, journalism and history. The walls formed Ukrainian Academyliterary language, literary genres developed, laid foundations of nationaltheater.
However, in the 60's Eighteenth century. summerAcademy of decline varies. Gradually deteriorating financial situationAcademy.
The fall contributed to the prestige of the Academy and that the Ukrainiangentry, seeking urivnyatysya of the Russian nobility, gave the childrentraining in the Russian capital. The Academy made Russification measures- From students and teachers under threat of exclusion and dismissal ofdemanded the observance of the Russian spelling and pronunciation of Moscow.
In 1829 Kyiv Mohyla Academy wasconverted to a typical Russian Empire spiritual school.
An important center of higher education in Westlands continued to be the University of Lviv. With the accession of Galiciato the Austrian empire there were certain changes. The Austrian governmentallowed the existence of certain departments, which included the so-called UkrainianInstitute (Studio Rutenium). The activity of this structure is strictly rehlamentuvalasya.In the training process was introduced Ukrainian language. Butteaching other subjects performed only Polish and German.Institute existed until 1805
The situation in the educational life has changed from the Galicianfoundation of Empress Maria Theresa in 1776 in ViennaGreek-Catholic seminary General (Barbarerum). Every year, it couldstudy 29 young men from Galicia. Later, graduates of this institution werescientists, writers and community leaders.
Opening in Ukraine in 1783 Greek Catholicseminary marked the beginning of the first high school for theologicalGalician Ukrainian. Somewhat earlier a similar institution was founded in Transcarpathiain Mukachevo in 1744 Later he was moved to Uzhhorod, where hisformed the basis of a school for training teachers.
In the second half of XVIII century. well developedtypography. The role played by the major publishing centers of printingKiev-Pechersk monastery and Chernihiv Trinity Monastery. Herepublished works of theological and secular literature. Strengtheningharassment of Russian Tsars in Ukrainian culture led to the emergence of numerousdecrees and circulars of the imperial government requirements to prevent "specialdialect and under Ukrainian knyhodrukiv Moscow standards.
Despite ongoing restrictions and prohibitions, Ukrainianprinters in the second half of the eighteenth century. significantly enriched the national spirituallife. Among the most noticeable were contemporaneous knyhodrukiv Bible (1759)Kyiv-Pechersk Paterikon "(1760, 1762)," Synopsis "(1755)"Horology school" (1753, 1758, 1766), "Primer" (six editions) andmany others.
Several printing houses there and at Western.The biggest of these was the printing house of A. Pilyera. It was publishing books in different languages.Before 1800 here was published 250 books. Also printed in FrenchLviv newspaper.
3. Literature. Ukrainian literature secondhalf of the eighteenth century. developed on the traditions of the previous period. Indecades, there remained the dominant style of Baroque.
An interesting phenomenon was the development of contemporary literatureUkrainian istorykomemuarnoyi prose. Chylne place it occupied diaries Nicholas Khanenko (1691-1760) and James Markovic(1696-1770). Both authors belonged to a Cossack and held highpositions in Hetman. In their diaries they portrayed the events of that timePublic, political and economic life, detailed portrayal of lifeUkrainian gentry.
Important place in literature of the second half of XVIII century.are poetry. Contemporary poetry reflected the problems that werefocus of the Ukrainian society.
By genre of historical poems is written Semen Dovhovychem verse dialogue "Conversation with VelykorosiyiLittle Russia. " Author of a work advocated the autonomy of Ukraine and protested againstcentralizing policy of Russian Tsars in Hetman. In this workalso justified ancient rights and privileges that are enjoyed Ukrainiannobility, stressed the right of Cossack all rights and privilegesreceived the Russian nobility.
In many historical poems reflectednatsionalnovyzvolna struggle of the Ukrainian population of the Right Bank, EventsKoliyivshchyna. This poem "wanted to establish Smilyanschyna faith", "Vo shestdesyateighth year sobyralos people. "
Response to the royal decree of April 10, 1786 aboutwithdrawal of the Ukrainian land estates of monasteries became anonymous satiricalpoem "Lament of Kiev monks.
Representative Poetry was satyrychnohumorystychnoyi John Nekrashevich. Colorful Householdscenes of folk life depicted in his works "Fair" and "Confessions." Heis also the author of several poetic letters, spiritual poem "The dispute between the souland body.
4. The development of philosophical ideas. H. pan. Secondhalf of the eighteenth century. enriched by new ideas Ukrainian philosophical thought. InKyiv Mohyla Academy course taught philosophy known public figure, writer Michael Kozachynska (1699-1755). He acquaintedstudents with ideas about inalienable natural rights of man, which appeared inthat time in Western Europe. His philosophical views expressed in Kozachynskabook "Civil Politics". He first tried in Ukrainian philosophypresent legal doctrine and laid the foundations of civil rights protection.
The most prominent among the students was Kozachynska Gregory pan (1722-1794) - the future prominent philosopherhumanist, educator, poet, educator, musician.
In philosophical rozdumav attention paid Fryinghow a person can become happy. He believes you need to knowitself and engage in life that a person naturally responds. One ofPans main sources of creativity was the second half of Ukrainian realityEighteenth century. Probably why philosopher asserted that the highest achievementrights are and will be at any cost to ensure personal independence. Itconviction met sharp condemnation of those who oppressed Ukrainian peasants. Outputwith the current situation philosopher saw not in active combat, and avoidinghated the world of evil, understanding under which the desire for undue enrichment andoppression of others.
Gregory pan on the main goal of philosophy
"The main purpose of human life, the head of the actshuman spirit is a man of thought, the heart. Each has its purpose in life, but not everyonethe main goal? One cares about the belly of life, that all his works directs,to give life appetites? another - clothes and such unfeeling things, philosophy,or love of wisdom, guiding circle to the works of their own goal to give lifeour spirit, nobility of heart. Radiance thoughts, Jako head of everything. When the spiritgay rights, opinions, quiet, peaceful heart - your whole bright, happy, blessed.This is the philosophy.
1.As pan defines the main goal of human life and philosophy? 2. How philosophy canhelp people become happy? Important role in the removal of existing evils, according toPans, could play an education. Illuminator believed in endless possibilitiesthe human mind. "Do not mind on books - he argued - and the book of mind."
5. The development of science. Secondhalf of the eighteenth century. period was some progress in the development of naturalScience. Flora of Ukraine began to explore Terehovskyy M. and M.Ambodyk-Maksimovich. Last in 1795 published the first localtextbook in botany, giving it considerable attention to the study of plants of Ukraine.
Continued to develop medical knowledge. In the secondhalf of the eighteenth century. many likarivukrayintsiv received his degreeMD. M. Ambodyk-Maksimovich was the author of Vrachebnoe veschestvoslovyeDescription tselytelnыh or plants. M. Terehovskyy demonstrated that microorganismssamozarodzhuyutsya in the body and entered from the outside.
Much attention was paid to the Ukrainian doctors fightepidemic diseases. Yes, Mukhin visposcheplennya introduced, soughtmeans to combat cholera. D. Samoylovych famous epidemiologist who servedsurgeon in the South, proposed new methods of preventing HIVplague that broke out here in 1784 They got the approval of many foreignAcademies of Sciences.
The development of the medical education. In 1773 preparationdoctors and pharmacists in Lviv was founded medical college. In the DnieperUkraine first special medical school was established in 1787 in Elizabethgrad.
6. Music. The second half of the eighteenth century. marked by significantachievements of the national musical culture. Darlings of the Ukrainian people, asstill remained Cossacks bandurists.
Significant changes took place in Ukrainian instrumentalmusic. At the musicians played in the current Host during marches and celebrationswon convened Cossack Council. After the liquidation of Zaporozhye Sech musicians movedto special units of the city magistrates. Their task was to playduring special occasions. On the Right Bank, the musicians hadentertain the Polish magnates. Emerging bands and were also instrumentalensembles created by royal princes from the talented Ukrainian selyankripakiv.
The distinguishing feature of contemporary Ukrainian musicwas strengthening its ties with Western European musical culture. LastGetman K. Razumovsky kept in Hlukhiv own orchestra and theater, wheretreated Italian opera. Collected his music library is one of the oldestin Eastern Europe.
Musical second half of the eighteenth century. can notpossible without the work of three great masters of Ukrainian choral music Maxim Berezovsky (1745—1777), Dmitry Bortnyanskogo(1751-1825) and АrtemaVedel (1767—1808).
M. Berezovsky is author of 20 church choir concerts.His music is celebrated lyricism, penetration into the inner world of man. D.Bortniansky, returning from Italy, wrote the opera "Falcon", "Son-rival, comedy"Holiday superior. He also created over a hundred pieces of choral church music.Light lyrics, energetic, happy and courageous topic, deep drama focuses- Characterize these multifaceted world of images choral concertsBortniansky. Artem Vedel wrote 29 church choir concerts, whichwith high professional skills and deep dramatic images.
The common feature that unites the creative legacy of these threeprominent Ukrainian composers, is heavily influenced by Ukrainian folksinging.
7. Architecture and sculpture. InUkrainian architecture of the second half of the eighteenth century. coexisted differentstyle.
In the original form of Ukrainian baroque buildings lifted Stephen Kovnir (1695-1786). He built withkovnirskyy (residential) building, printing house and bell tower on the Near and FarCaves Lavra, Klovsky Palace in Kiev, the Church of Anthony andTheodosius in cornflower.
Best features of Ukrainian Baroque developed JohnGrigorovich-Barsky (1713-1785). The first was the work of architectconstruction of urban water supply in Kiev. Its central structure was pavilyonfontan"Felicjan" on the square in front of the magistrate (now named "Samson" a contractarea). For projects Grigorovich-Barsky in Kiev, built the Gate Churchwith a bell tower in St. Cyril's monastery Protection Church, Church of MykolaNaberezhny at the hem, Bursa Kyiv Mohyla Academy, the Assumption belfryCathedral. In his work traces the first beginnings of classicism.
In the mid eighteenth century. in Ukrainian architecturecame a new style of western European Rococo. He isfurther development of the Baroque and differs from it by subtle detailsdecoration. Buildings in this style of Ukrainian landsprojects were constructed mainly by foreign builders. RococoSt. Andrew's Church built in Kiev (designed by V. Rastrelli), St. George's CathedralLviv (architects M. Urbanik and J. de Witt), City Hall in Buchach(Architect B. Meretini) and others.
St. George Cathedral (Lviv) St. Andrew's Church
At this time also began to spread style Classicism. The supreme example of his work to his followersrecognized antiques. In calm and even severe forms of classicalHetman palaces built in Pochep K. Razumovsky, Yagotine, deaf andbest in Baturin (architect Charles Cameron), P. Zavodovskoho palace in Lyalychah(Architect D. Quarenghi).
Ukrainian folk artists have not forgotten secrets woodenarchitecture. The largest wooden building in the XVIII century. - Height of about65 meters - a Trinity Cathedral in Samara (now Dnipropetrovsk). It built an1773-1779 biennium craftsman HowPogrebnyak. It is the only example Ukrainian wooden buildingdev'yatykamernoyi with nine church steeples.
Trinity Cathedral in Samara(Dnipropetrovsk) modern look
During this time, the Ukrainian lands successfullydeveloped sculptural works. On the left bank of its achievement is associated withRussia's wood carver Sisoes Shalmatova. He served sculptural decoration iconostasesMgarsk monastery of St. Romny in Intercession, Cathedral Chrestovozdvyzhenkyiin Santiago. Master sometimes deviate from religious canons. Felt that heknew human anatomy and sought to psychological characteristics of the image.
Among the sculptors who worked in this timeWestern lands, allocate Pinsel. Anybiographical information and even the name of the master is unknown. He executed a statue of St.George, St. Athanasius and Leo on the facade of St. George's Cathedral in Lviv. Cutters attributed Pinselalso a series of stone figures that complement the architecture of City Hall in Buchach,sculptural decoration of the church in Gorodets, "Crucifixion" church in LvivSt. Martin.
Sculptural composition Pinsel(Buchach)
Late 60's Eighteenth century. leading role inGalician sculpture belonged to local artists. These were S. Stashevsky, M.Filevych, P. and I. Poleyovskiy Obrotskyy. All artists working in the Rococo style.They performed the work for St. George's Cathedral and the Cathedral in the LatinLviv. For their works are characterized by a combination of realistic elements with highemotionality.
7. Paintings and drawings. ForUkrainian painting of this era was the time spreading effect Rococo.
It is interesting that Ukraine is lighter and elegant styleRococo has spread quite rapidly. In Lavra schools painting founddrawings, which are attributed to the founders of the French Rococo and Watteau Boucher. In theirthe basis of Ukrainian artists developed their own style. In the new method,For example, they drew a Cossack on the head with herring and Bandura in your hands - incharacter of the gallant rococo era.
In Hetmanate Rococo era - is the last time CossackUkraine, when it lost its statehood. Probably why buoyantEuropean Rococo was in Ukraine felt sad mood characteristic times thatpassed. Like a rush to perpetuate an age past people Cossack Ukraineordered their "Parsuna. Therefore, Ukrainian Rococo portraits of the day largelyretain the pomp and solemnity of forms, produced in earlier times baroque. Tonaymaysternishyh include portraits of Colonel A. Kovpaka Kiev burgherBalabuhy, A. Poletyka, noble fellow military Gamaliya G.,Pereyaslav Colonel S. Sulima, James Shiyan and others.
Successfully developed at this time art prints. In the workGregory Levitsky-Nos (1697-1769)- The father of the famous portraitist DmitryLevitsky (1783-1822) - old Ukrainian hraverstvo reached its peak,absorbing the best achievements of Ukrainian prints in the previoushalf a century. After studying at Kyiv Mohyla Academy, he worked inPlant Lavra.
D. Levitsky (Self Portrait)
Levitsky perfectly knew the technique of engraving. Frequentlyhe tried to rethink the traditional stories and creating their own originalcomposition. His works expressed Levitsky intellectual power of man. Itbrings with him an outstanding filosofomprosvitytelem Skovorody.
Great strides in the printing engraver Pochaeve Adam and Joseph Hochemski. Adam illustrated not only the churchpublications, but also Ukraine's first medical textbook A. Krylynskoho issued1774 in. His style is said that he anatomical illustrationsobjectively accurate, and Baroque religious images is multilingual.
Most original genre painting of the second half of XVIII century.were paintings that were created by unknown folk artists. They arekind of reflection of the main themes of contemporary Ukrainian life. Amongpaintings of these images many times Robin, Haidamaks, leaders Koliyivshchyna M.Iron ore and I. shingle. Originality is determined by the picture of Bogdan on shelves,Natsionalnovyzvolniy devoted to war against the Ukrainian people of the Commonwealthmid-eighteenth century.
Not omynaly folk paintings and women. ByM. Kostomarov testimony in mid-nineteenth century. in many wealthy homes inVolyn can see Ukrainian girl image, which was considered a portraitBondarivny - the heroine of folk songs that her Mr. Potocki asked his mothermistress. Bondarivna rejected this claim, for what was and shot him.
The symbol of the passing era has become a popular painting "KozakMamay. Kozak-bandurist sits among a wide plain, in deep thoughtsRecalling the glorious past of the Cossacks, worrying his sad fate. At the time of destructionRussian government Hetman Zaporizhzhya Sich, continuous social andspiritual enslavement of this movie was most popular among the Ukrainian people.
- In the second half of the eighteenth century. Ukrainian culture isby inertia continued to grow rapidly.
- BUkrainian culture appeared the figure of world importance - G. pan.
- End of the century Ukrainian culture quickly becamelose its distinctive character, its prominent representatives were integratedRussian culture, and she has started to gain provincial rice.
1. Describe the development of education in Ukrainian lands.2. What changes have occurred at this time in the development of Kyiv Mohyla Academy? 3. Asdeveloped typography? 4. What are the names of prominent representatives ofUkrainian culture of the second half of the seventeenth century. 5. What were the achievements ofcontemporary science? 6. What were the achievements of Ukrainian musical culturesecond half of the eighteenth century.? 7. What architectural styles were dominant onUkrainian lands in the second half of the eighteenth century.?
10. Describe the development of literature. What are the factsshow that the phenomenon of contemporary literature reflecting life? 11. What, in yourview, would pan his epitaph to say: "The world caught up and not caught.12. To Rococo art reflect changes that occurred in second Hetmanatehalf of the eighteenth century.? 13. Why are considered a kind of folk paintingsreflection of contemporary Ukrainian life? 14. What can explain the highlevel of musical art in Ukraine?
15. Make a story about Gregory the pan and itscontributions to the Ukrainian philosophy. 16. Make a table:"Ukrainian culture second half of the eighteenth century."
Generalizationon "Ukrainian lands in the second half of the eighteenth century."
1. Foldlist of events from the history of Ukraine in the second half XVII. that you thinkmost important. Justify your choice.
2. Explainvalue concepts and terms "haidamaks", "rebels", "freedom armiesZaporizhzhya "," Pidpilnenska Sich "," Danubian Sich.
3. Namenames of prominent historical figures of this era. What do you see their contribution inhistory of Ukraine in the second half XVII.?
4. Dotask for historical maps:
a) the new territories that were settled in the second Ukrainianhalf XVII.;
b) Ukrainian lands, which are in the second half XVII.changed their state affiliation;
c) the place is Zaporizhzhya Sich;
d) haidamak centers and outlaw movements,Koliivshina territory covered;
e) the place where occurred the most important historical events thatperiod (the national liberation movement, the Russo-Turkish War);
e) determine the administrative and territorial changes thatwere Ukrainian lands during this period.
5. Foldcomprehensive plan "Features of socio-economic and political conditionsUkrainian lands in the second half XVII..
6. Giveassessment of the hetman K. Razumovsky, Cossack chieftain P.Kalnyshevs'kogo, philosopher Skovorody, national leaders Zaliznyaka M., I. shingleand O. Dovbush.
7. Definelocation and historical significance of the Ukrainian Cossacks, and the Zaporizhzhya SichHetman of Ukraine's history.
8. What,you think were most important achievement of the second half of Culture of UkraineXVIII century.? Explain your opinion.
Testtask to the theme of Ukrainian lands in the second half of the eighteenth century. "
1. Culture, which worked successfully M.Berezovsky, Bortnyanskyi, A. Wedel: a) the theater, b) literature; c)music; d) painting.
2. Cossack officers wereurivnyana the rights of the Russian nobility: a) 1764 b) 1775 c) 1783; г) 1785
3. The last Zaporozhian Sichyu was: a) Kamya `league in January, b)Oleshkivs'ka January; c) New January; d) Chortomlyk January.
4. Revolt on the Right Bank Ukraine, which enteredhistory as Koliivshina "occurred: a) 1750 b) 1764; c)1768; d) 1775
5. The most famous leader of the outlaw movement of the XVIIIArt. was: a) U. Karmelyuk; b) O. Dovbush; c) L. Kobylytsya d) M. Shtolyuk.
6. By decree of Russian Empress Catherine IIhetman was canceled: a) 1709 b) 1727; c)1764; d) 1775
7. The military-administrative unit of New Hostcalled: A) regiment; б) Palanca; c) landD) district.
8. In XVIII Art. was carried Partitions of Poland: a) one, b)two; c) three; d) four.
9. Haydamaky fought against: c)Polish lords; b) the Russian nobility; c) Tatar khans; d) Turkish sipahiv.
10. Ukrainian peasantry former Hetmanate finallyenslaved: a) 1764 b) 1775; c) 1783; d) 1785
11. In the eighteenth century. was (o) covered by (e) motion Gaidamats'kyi: a)Right-bank Ukraine; b) Left-bank Ukraine in) Galicia d) Kiev.
12. By decree of Empress Catherine II, the Crimean Khanatewas abolished: a) 1768 b) 1771 c) 1775; d)1783
1722-1794 years - the life and work Skovorody
1734 - Haidamatske revolt on the Right Bank inby Verlan
1738-1745 years - the rise of the outlaw movement inby O. Dovbusha
1750 - Haidamatske revolt on the Right Bank
1750-1764 biennium - hetmancy K. Razumovsky. Restorationand the final liquidation of Hetman Ukraine
1764-1786 biennium - Second Little Russian College
1765 - Cossack elimination system in Slobozhanschyna
1768 - Haidamatske national liberation uprisingKoliivshina
1768-1774, the - the Russian-Turkish War
1770-1780-ies - reform of Maria Theresa and Joseph II
1772, 1793, 1795 - three divisions of the Commonwealth
1775 - liquidation Zaporizhzhya Sich
1782-1786 biennium - the abolition of all the king's governmentadministrative and judicial institutions Hetmanate. Liquidation Ukrainianautonomy
1783 - a decree of Catherine II of enslaving peasants
1783 - accession of Russia to the Crimea, the liquidation of the CrimeanKhanate
1785 - Cossack officers urivnyuvalasya the rights ofRussian nobility
By 1787-1791 - Russo-Turkish War