§ 36. South Ukraine. Liquidation Zaporizhzhya Sich
1. Becausewhich events occurred Nova (Pidpilnenska) in January? 2.What role was played in the events of Zaporizhzhya SichUkrainian history?
1. Administrative and territorial division of the New Land(Pidpilnenskoyi) Sich. New (Pidpilnenska) Sich existed forty-one year(1734-1775). Sich located around the Earth (liberty) HostZaporizhzhya. At that time, was divided into administrative and ZaporozhyeDistricts - Palanca. In 30-40-ies XVIII century. them there were not morefive, and later their number increased to eight - Kodatska, Buhohardivska,Ingul's'ka, Protovchanska, Orelska, Samara, Kalmiuska. Prohnoyivska.
The administrative center is strengthened Palanca Sloboda,where standing garrison stationed colonel and sergeant. Palankova officersconcentrated in the hands of military, fiscal, judicial and administrativepower.
The administrative center was the Zaporozhye Sech. On Hostboth military and commercial units were 38 hovel, whichattributed all the Cossacks. Zaporizhzhya administration still electedCossacks on the boards, for which she had to report. Higher Military or Koshovaofficers elected once a year for total military or Sich happyyou wont convened on Jan. 1. In the second half of the eighteenth century. role SichBoards went down, while intensified meaning officers.
The composition of Cossacks, still tookthose who sought salvation from serfdom and other social ills. In60's Eighteenth century. Zaporozhye population numbering 100 thousand Cossacks.
Earth was considered to be of general property. EachCossack, who had some property and was able to maintain its own economy, couldget it from the basket in the property and establish its own winterers (farm). Itswinterers Cossack could sell, give a pledge, gift, etc.. However Cossackofficers arbitrarily pryvlasnyuvala pasture, fishing and hunting grounds.She established a tradition of collecting innkeeper and artisans twice a year "gift"in their favor.
2. Development of new lands. New Januaryvaried considerably from Zaporozhye troops earlier era. Cossack officersbecame a wealthy landowner. The basis of their activity wasdevelopment of economy rather than military campaigns. Cossack officers turnedNew Sich Zaporizhzhya back to the edge of prosperous market economy, basedof advanced economic principles. But at the same time there are new problems.
Farewell to the Sich
In Zaporozhye fleeing to avoid work and live at Masters"Humanly". But in the eighteenth century. War there were very few and can not withstandsuch enrichment, as before. To survive, the Cossacks had becometo work. Master it was representative of the Cossack, who has littledifferent from the master.
Now Zaporozhye was ancient unity and brotherhood. Itweakened the possibility of Cossack republic to resist attack.
Demonstrated social problems in ZaporozhyeCossacks revolt were poor and backward waves of refugees. Theymoved based on the Russian government "settlement." This eroded from withinthe whole social organism of New Host.
Simultaneously with this Cossack officers were unable toown all the land quickly colonize Zaporozhye. The danger of this wellunderstood last ataman monks PeterKalnyshevs'kogo (1690—1803).
The figure in the history of
P. Kalnyshevs'kogo was of the old Cossack Hetman kindLub'yanskoho Regiment. Ataman he has served ten years in a row. P.Kalnyshevskyy dokladav lot of effort to avoid dependence on HostRussian crown. He traveled three times to St. Petersburg, where military and advocatedadministrative and law Zaporozhye. Charge of cultural developmentedge. Its funds had built five churches and cathedrals, acquired considerablenumber of religious books and utensils, both in Ukraine and in Jerusalem.
P. Kalnyshevs'kogo participated in manyCossacks campaigns against the Crimea and Turkey. Particularly marked in rosiyskoturetskiywar of 1768-1774, during which the army commander Zaporozhian. For thisRussian government Kalnyshevs'kogo awarded a gold medal at St. Andrew'stape. After the destruction of the king's army was Kalnyshevs'kogo New Hostarrested by order of Catherine II was exiled to the monastery prisonSolovetsky monastery. More then 25 years last basket Sich held in appallingconditions of solitary confinement. By decree of Emperor Alexander and he was released fromprison, but stayed on their own in the same monastery, where he died at the age of113 years.
By order of Kosh selyanutikachiv thatArriving in January, stopped to write to the Cossack Registry. Their rozselyaly"Sloboda" on vacant land, "that party had no opportunity to those vlazytyplace. During the Hetman Kalnyshevs'kogo founded several hundred newvillages in the lands of Zaporozhye. However, in order to thwart the desires of the RussianTsars, it was not enough.
3. Limit the Russian government "liberties" Zaporozhye. EliminationZaporizhzhya Sich. Since the beginning of a new Russian tsar's Hostgovernment gradually restrict its rights. In the monarchical state, which wasRussian Empire, Cossack republic has no prospect of a long existence.
In 1753 tsarism Cossacks tried to banchoose Kosh. But make Zaporozhian abandon this ancienttradition he could not.
In 40-60-ies Eighteenth century. Russian governmentbegan settling the northern and north-eastern outskirts of Zaporozhye militarysettlers. This caused isolation of "liberties" of the Right Bank and Hetmanand prevented villagers flee here. In 1752 in the northeast partZaporozhye was founded the New Serbia, and the next year in northeasternborder holdings Host based Slov'yanoserbiyu. Zaselyalysya these refugees landfrom the Ottoman yoke - Serbs, Hungarians, Moldovans, Greeks, Bulgarians.
In the 60's XVIII century. Zaporizhia strip of landremoved for Novorossiysk province and another ten years - to buildDnieper line fortifications. Cossacks government protests Empire did not respond.Cossacks say with sadness: "Memory eternal to our steppes. Sleep.
4. Liquidation Zaporizhzhya Sich. Questionfinal destruction of the Sich was the imperial government for only a matter of time. MainZaporizhzhya Sich eliminate the causes were:
- Incompatibility with republican system Sichimperial order.
- Fears of a possible alliance with the Crimean New HostKhanate for joint struggle against empire.
- High probability of disengaging Zaporozhye.
- Irrationality of existence within the empire stateformation of its customs system, which prevented the free access to the BlackSea.
- The desire of Russian landowners to appropriate landZaporozhye.
- The threat of Zaporozhye may again become a centernatsionalnovyzvolnoyi Ukrainian struggle.
- Conversion of Zaporizhzhya with its slogan "not fugitivesissue "at risk for the development of feudal farming empire.
Appropriate time to solve problems Zaporizhianarose after the successful completion rosiyskoturetskoyi War 1768-1774.Following independence, the Crimean Khanate from the Ottoman Empire overit was established Russian protectorate. Now the threat has disappeared Tatarattacks, to protect them from the empire and were required Cossacks.
In early 1775 Zaporozhye officers, seekingsave the Cossacks were sent to St. Petersburg delegation to the project restructuringSich like the Don Cossacks. However, these proposals are rejected without considering.Favorite Empress G. Potemkin mockery of honest officers answered A.Holovaty: "Can not you stay. You are very rozihralysya and in any formcan not benefit. "
After the war during rosiyskoturetskoyiRussian troops return home, Gen. Peter Tekeli was unexpectedlytake orders in January and disperse the Zaporozhye Cossacks. In late May1775 entered the regular army and went to Zaporizhzhya Sich. In Cossacksit did not cause any suspicion. Nobody could imagine that after six yearsjoint struggle against the Turks and Tatars, Russian troops are going to destroySich.
Last Board of Host
June 4, they quietly removed the guards to surround and Sichfortress. The news of the intention Tekeli Cossacks met with indignation. It wishesfor fight Russian forces, but forces were too unequal. With this in mindofficers vidhovoryla Cossacks in battle. After the announcement of the decree of Catherine IIHost cancellation bimillenary garrison made weapons. Other forces also without a fightPalanca captured centers.
High Sichofficers arrested and put to trial. Earth Zaporozhye joinedNovorossiysk and Sea provinces. Introduced Russian orders andauthorities. Began distribution of royal land lords.
5. The fate of the Cossacks after the elimination of Zaporizhzhya Sich. New SichSich was destroyed and the company left. According to the decree of Catherine IICossacks were allowed to enter or pikinerskyh horse regiments, orreturn back to where they came to Jan, or remain living in Zaporozhyereceived training ground for agriculture. Back home no one wanted.Many former farm Cossacks remained in their native plains. ButBarely two years, as they are sorry about this decision. TsarismCossacks distributed land to their lords, not paying attention to the Cossackwinterers. New owners were taken in the land of Cossacks, and sometimes turned theirof serfs.
Much of kozakivzaporozhtsiv (about 5 K) afterliquidation of the Sich went to the Turkish dominion. They asked the Turkish sultan to acceptthem under their protection and to provide land for building Sich. Sultan grantedThis request arose as a result Danubian Sich.
Many Cossacks pereselylosya also to Austriapossessions. For their land resettlement was appointed in the provinces of Banat andBacka, near the river Tisza. About 8 thousand kozakivzaporozhtsiv who are here, set upBanatsku January.
This situation alarmed the Russian government. Instead ofZaporozhye Cossacks destroy and transform it into a regular army wasotherwise. Danubian Sich, which has become the tradition of the Cossacks turnedthe fire danger for Russia.
Under another approach rosiyskoturetskoyi Warthat exploded in 1787, the tsarist government attempted to persuade the Cossacks to theirside. In 1788 imperial government allowed former kozakamzaporozhtsyamcreate an "army of faithful Cossacks", later renamed to the Black SeaCossack army. Allowed an army to restore order Cossacks: backCossack military jewelry, elected officers and board huts. This,certainly not restored Zaporizhian liberty. Empire agreed to serve 12 thousandformer Cossacks.
6. Participation of Ukrainian Cossacks in rosiyskoturetskyhwars of the second half of XVIII century. Before rosiyskoturetskoyiwar of 1768-1774, when the question of liquidation of the Sich was decidedCatherine II, Cossacks calling for war, insisted: "We believe (Cossacks)nayzychlyvishymy our subjects and at the first opportunity our favor Imperialall our faithful monks going to do. " In the war1768-1774 biennium Cossacks were the most active.
In Zaporozhyeforces within the Russian army consisted of 7.5 thousand and 5,8 thousand horse trekkingCossacks. In 1769 Cossacks prevented breakthrough 100,000th Turkisharmy deep into Ukraine. Specifically, in early June the Cossacks boat teamsuddenly attacked the Turks Ochakivs'ka fleet of 20 shipstried to climb up the Dnieper. Cossacks captured three ships and forcedenemy to retreat. In August the 3000th unit Cossacks defeated the great strengthsadversary under Ochakov. An important success was the Cossack flotilla of 19 gulls, whichin the Danube Delta defeated the Turkish fleet, capturing seven large and largenumber of small vessels. Cossacks are famous for their assault by Bender, raids onTulcea, Isanchu et al. Only in 1771 one thousand Cossacks were presentedto award silver medals. "Grateful" Catherine II claimed that he neverforget the merits of Cossacks: "Meanwhile, monastic kindness and attention with this, our subjects totroops not only extended as well? and depth will be. " Soon the Cossacksverified the truth of these words.
In 1774 signed Kuchuk-Kaynardzhyyskyyagreement under which the land away to Russia between the Dnieper and South Bug cityKerch, Crimean Khanate and proclaimed independent.
Again, mention of Cossacks during the war1787-1791 biennium In combat operations participated Black Sea Cossack Host.Especially well Cossack regiments were on the defensive Kinburn, siege and capture ofOchakov in 1788 In September 1789 two regiments captured kozakivchornomortsivHadzhybeyem (the future city of Odessa).
A significant contribution was in taking home kozakivchornomortsivTurkish fortress on the Danube - Ishmael, which was considered impregnable. Cossacks destroyedTurkish fleet on the Danube, which made it possible to attack the city from all sides.
During the decisive assault of Ismail, which began in 1911December 1790, took Chernomortsev storm the fortress by the Danube.Despite the furious fire, they rushed the boats ashore, cut down with axesbarricades and clambered on to the bastions of the Turkish batteries. Overcome resistance Chernomortsevinvaded the middle of the fortress. The Turks tried to cut out the Cossacks outside the walls and notable. Help Russian grenadier has to keep positions and concludedefeat of the Turkish garrison.
Cossacks were actively Chernomortsev in the last year of the war.In particular, in a battle near Lake Babadat Cossacks defeated considerable detachmentTurkish-Tatar cavalry. During this battle zadunaytsi Cossacks, who were inpart of the Turkish army, assisted his comrades in the defeat of the Turks.
According to the agreement in Iasi, the boundary betweenTurkey and Russia became the Dniester river.
Hoping to give thanks, Cossacks sought Chernomortsevrevive the former Cossack liberties between the rivers Dniester and Southern Bug. ButThis alarmed the king's government and the Cossacks, it was decided to send awayUkraine. In 1792 they were allowed to settle on the Taman peninsulaKuban and Don rivers. In August 1792 first arrived in 3877 the CossacksTaman, where there was a Kuban Cossacks.
7. The historic significance Zaporizhzhya Sich. EliminationZaporizhzhya Sich was one of the most important events of Ukrainian history of the secondhalf of the eighteenth century. With her in the past betrayed the Cossack era. AlthoughZaporizhzhya Sich was killed, she left an indelible mark on the memory of the Ukrainianpeople. Zaporozhskie Cossacks are famous for their heroic struggle, which for three centurieswaged against foreign invaders, and the defense of the southern borders of Ukraine. Theywere headed natsionalnovyzvolnoyi struggle of Ukrainian people for centuries.This created conditions for developing economic and cultural lifeUkrainian. However the presence of the Sich was the factor which deterredenslavement of the Ukrainian peasants, because in the Zaporozhye plains going fugitivesfrom all over Ukraine.
Appearing as a military organization, this is not the Cossacksyou just. They have created new forms of social, political andeconomic life.
For the Ukrainian people were Cossacks remainembodiment of the best human qualities and expression of invincible national spiritexample for these fighters for independence of Ukraine.
8. Crimean Khanate in the eighteenth century. EliminationCrimean Khanate. Ultimately the fate of the Crimean Tatar state solveddue rosiyskoturetskoyi war of 1768-1774 By Kuchuk-Kaynardzhyyskympeace 1774 declared the independence of the Crimean KhanateOttoman Empire, but in fact it appeared under the control of Russia. ItTreatment resulted in 1776 Tatar government to Russia, where herefused to support it. The response to this was the introduction to the territory Khanate25000th Russian army corps. New Khan was declaredShahinHireya who maintained power by the Russians.
Elimination of the Crimean Khanate was preceded by measuresaimed at maturing socio crisis there. By orderEmpress Russian general Aleksandr Suvorov deported from the Crimea by force all Christianpopulation (31 thousand Armenians and Greeks) to the Azov province on the pretext of itsprotection against the dominance of Muslims. Greeks and Armenians were almost all torhovelnoremisnychepopulation of the peninsula and were the main tax payers to the Khantreasury.
In 1783 Government of the Russian Empire believed thatformed all the conditions to extend its authority in the peninsula.
With the decree of Catherine II of accession of the CrimeanPeninsula in Russia (1783)
"Converting the Crimea on a free and independentregion not cause peace to Russia, and turned it in to new concernswith significant costs. Experience of time from 1774 showed that independence wascharacterized by Tatars. And in order to save it we need?deplete its forces heavy traffic, carrying costs such as duringWar. Such a fuss of Crimean independence caused more than 7 million emergencycosts. Taking note of all these circumstances, we come to a decision? DONEfuture Crimean peninsula is a nest of thieves and rebels, andterritory of the Russian state. "
What was the official reason for the liquidation of Khanate?
Shagin-Gil talks toAlexander Suvorov
Last ShahinHirey Khan was forced to renounce power andgo abroad (to Turkey). Take possession of the Crimea, Catherine II becameselect the best land and give them nobles and officials. Crimean Tatarsbegan to displace the barren land. This led to disastrous consequences inThe demographic situation of the population of the peninsula. Over the next hundred years the populationCrimea fell from 500 thousand to 200 thousand people, with the general populationconsisted of new immigrants.
— The second half of the eighteenth century. becomes crucial for the fate ofSouthern Ukraine and Crimea. After subsequent wars rosiyskoturetskyh these territoriesfinally caught by the Russian Empire.
- In 1775 Sich was eliminated, and1783 Crimean Khanate.
1. What was the last name of Zaporizhzhya Sich? How many yearsit existed? 2. Who was the last ataman Host? What he become famous?3. As shown themselves Cossacks during the wars of the second half rosiyskoturetskyhEighteenth century.? 4. Under a treaty entered the Northern Black Sea Coastthe Russian Empire? 5. In what year was eliminated Sich? 6.When the Crimean Khanate was liquidated?
7. Describe administrative and territorial divisionNew Land Sich. 8. As land development occurred during the second Zaporozhyehalf of the eighteenth century.? 9. Give facts that show the progressive restrictionRussian government "liberties" Zaporozhye. 10. Tell us how you were eliminatedSich. What were the causes of these actions? 11. What is the significance ZaporozhianSich, Ukraine's history?
12. Give facts that give reason to believe thatUkrainian Cossacks played an important role in the wars rosiyskoturetskyh secondhalf of the eighteenth century. 13. Make a plan for the theme: "The fate of the Crimean Tatarssecond half of the eighteenth century. "and prepare for his story.
14. Zaporizhzhya Sich repeatedly suffered damage. Whyafter the events of 1775 it has failed to recover in this formin Ukrainian lands?