§ 34-35. Right Bank and western lands in secondhalf of the eighteenth century. Natsionalnovyzvolna struggle of Ukrainian people
1. As fate consistedHetman of Right-Bank in the second half of the seventeenth - earlyEighteenth century.? 2. What natsionalnovyzvolnastruggle? 3. Which countries in the second halfXVII - early XVIII century. Right Bank and sought to includewestern land to its members?
1. And social-economic situationRight-bank Ukraine. Reasons for deployment natsionalnovyzvolnoyi struggle. In30-60's Eighteenth century. Right Bank and the Carpathians, which at thatmembership of the Commonwealth, became the scene of major speeches Ukrainianpopulation against all kinds of oppression.
Turning a Right Bank at the end of the seventeenth century.,Poles managed to restore power to the former only in the early eighteenth century.(1714). Ukrainian lands were divided again between the magnatefamilies, which numbered about 40. They owned 80% of the Right Bank.Among these families were allocated Lubomirski, Potocki Chortoryyskyh, Revutskogo andothers.
To restore life to these lands, tycoons handedplots of land to peasants and liberated them from all duties available15-20 years. Thanks to these measures quickly began to be occupied by the Right Bankimmigrants from Galicia, Left Bank and other areas and to izationslife. At the end of slobid requirements gentlemen farmers to grow. Beganrevival of serfdom. Boon reached 5-6 days a week.
In addition to the social oppression of the Poles were again troubledof Orthodoxy.
Strengthening of serfdom and oppression natsionalnorelihiyniled to the wide, although the national natural resistance. AbsenceCossacks deprived national resistance organization. Members of National Movementcalled Gajdamaki.
Terms and concepts
Haidamaky called selyanutikachiv thatunited the gang to avenge magnates and gentry for oppression.
Ofletter from the nobleman Letycheva to Crown Hetman Jozef Potocki onorganization HAYDAMAKY their attacks (1746)
We are there reliable data on these activitieshooligans. When attacking a village or town, we first provide abell tower that no one hit the alarm. Later the couple becomes the gate or at the gate,two or three good cry to the window to open them. When someone voluntarilyopen, and only take away what he has. When you argue or defend,then beaten, cut and bare. When attacked on the field or woods, thenhave the custom. Placed in one spring, where they are delivered from the nearest villagefood. One Haidamaks sits on a tree and looking at all the roads, when someoneturns or moves, popping up and hold him to his ravine.
1.What kind of tactics used haidamaks? 2. What can explain the emergence of such phenomena ashaydamatstvo?
Haydamaky who first summoned to the magnates and gentryonly slight irritation, gradually became a permanent major threatfor them.
Increasing number of dissatisfied as a result of increasedserfdom malochyslennist Polish Army on the Right Bank (4 thousand),neighborhood of Zaporozhian Sich, which became the supplier of leaders for war,Gaidamats'kyi movement turned into a powerful force that could destroy the Polishdomination on the Right Bank.
2. Gaidamats'ka uprising. First majorHaidamatske rebellion broke out in 1734, when there was fighting in Polandaround the election of the new king.
Centurion outdoor troops of Prince JerzyLubomirski addressed Verlan fled from the war and declaredrevolt against their landlords. Collected detachment of about one thousand Haidamaks and peasants, hewent hiking in Bratslavshchina and Galicia, destroying wealth and nobility magnates,Courts and Chancery. The biggest success was getting Verlan winery. Underpressure from Russian and Polish troops Verlan was forced to flee to Moldavia.
Advances Verlan raised new troops to fight Haidamaks,gentry who turned life into hell. To subdue them, the gentryresorted to violence. But the movement not stopped. Eventually the Poles have resorted to tactics:"Divide and conquer". They bring to their side of one of the leaders HaidamaksSava Chaly, which was hard to destroy his former colleagues. But treason is notwent down with his hands, he was slaughtered Cossacks.
A new outbreak of movement Haidamaky held in spring1750 In its scope it exceeded the previous one. Bratslavshchina, Kyiv,Volin, skirts have been released from noble domination. But the release ofgentry, tenants, Rite was not accompanied by the establishment of the Cossack,the Ukrainian state.
Russia, which monitored the developments cameconclusion that the events begin writing negative consequences for her, enterstroops and severely daunting insurgency. But finally Gaidamats'kyi movementcould not suppress. The desire of the people for freedom was too strong.
3. Koliivshina. In the second half of the 60'sEighteenth century. Right-Bank Ukraine finds itself in a difficult situation. Continuedwork units Haidamaks. The Polish nobility was split into supporters andKing Pototsky opponents. Aggravated relations between the Orthodox andCatholics and Uniates. Uniates led by Metropolitan F. Volodkevich deployedattack on the Orthodox Church. In response, the Orthodox, led by AbbotMatronivskoho monastery Matvei Yavorsky signs-turned for help to Russia.
In early 1768 between the Commonwealth and Russiawas entered into a treatise on the equalization of the Orthodox and Protestants in the politicalrights with Catholics. But to implement this agreement failed. Against the king inBar Association was formed voyennopolitychne Confederation of nobility (Bar confederation), Participantsplanted in Ukraine and the Catholic Uniate Church and tried to restorepower of the nobility. King did not have enough forces to suppress the movement and sought theassistance to Russia. On the Right Bank of the Russian troops stepped body headed byGeneral Krechevskym.
These developments contributed to the popular uprising thatentered history as Koliivshina.
Preparations for the uprising began in February 1768The rebels gathered in the natural cold Yar, near Matronivskoho monasterythat was a center of orthodox resistance. Revolt led MaximRobust (B. about 1740).
Acted June 6, 1768 Yar ravine with cold,rebels liberated from the nobility dozens of villages and towns. Their path through prolihZhabotyn, bold, Cherkassy, Korsun, Kano, Bohuslav, Lysyanka. The ultimate goalUman was a campaign - an important commercial and cultural center, an outpostPolish rule on the Right Bank.
As rebels advance theirnumber rising rapidly. They destroyed the nobility, the Catholic and Uniateclergy. Rise quickly captured Kiev, Bratslav, south VolynPodolski and east provinces. He became the driving force peasants and commoners. Activetook part in the revolt Haidamaks troops.
Koliivshina small differences from the previous revoltsHaidamaks. She wore natsionalnovyzvolnyy character. The point was fightingdirected against Polish domination, domination of Catholicism and adapted, and oppressiontenants and social exploitation by the nobility. The aim was to restore combatHetman, where there would be "lords and subjects, and all enjoyed a Cossackliberties.
June 20 rebels appeared near Uman. Ofwith captain John shingle, which has outdoor Cossacks switching sidesrebels, the next day M. Zaliznyak seized the city. Actions rebels in Umandistinguished by unprecedented brutality. The city killed at least 2 million people.Churches were destroyed, the Jesuit school, noble palaces.
Rebellion spread to other parts of the province. Destroyedroyal authorities and national governments vstanovlyuvalosya. M.Iron ore was elected hetman Ivan and shingle - umanskym colonel. Landlordland was distributed to villagers likvidovuvalysya heavy duty.
By turning on the Uman Center, celebrated Zaliznyakin all regions of Ukraine are small groups that had raised people to fight andspread appeal to the people - generalists.
"Universal" to the peasants of Western Ukraine(1768)
Already your time comes, the crown citizenslive mainly in the noble, royal and spiritual estates [time]deliverance from bondage and liberation from the yoke and the burden that you are still suffering fromtheir immediate lords. God looked to high heaven in your affliction, heardyour tears and lamentation of the fate of the Earth, defenders sent you thatpomstyatsya for your wrongs. So, arrive to help those who want youmake free, save and keep your rights and freedom. Now is the timedemand from your leaders of reckoning for all your wrongs, beating, murder,torture and extortion by incredible that you still suffered from your masters.Send you the leaders who should be trusted and which should go with a weaponwho has what. Leave the house, their wives, loving children, not regret, becausesoon see that God sent us to you, faithful, victory and willfree lords when Destroy viper brood, that your gentlemen who stilldrink your blood. We have previously warned you, but you do not believe you nowbelieve that your colleagues were happily vyzvolyatysya from captivity and from thisyoke of Ukraine and skirts.
1.Until then called "Universal" population? 2. What the rebels argued their actions?
While unfolding the uprising, Russian troopscame to Uman. Frightened powerful uprising, the ruling classes of Tsarist RussiaThe Polish and combined their efforts to suppress the popular movement.
Commander of Russian forces under Colonel UmannyuGuryev expressed its commitment to the rebels and invited M. iron ore, I.Shingle and other officers to the banquet where the leaders were arrested. Detachmentsrebels, left without leaders, were defeated by Russian forces.I. Hont, as subject to the Polish king, was handed over to the Poles, who abusemartyred leader. M. Zaliznyak as subjects of the Russian empire, was sentencedat hard labor in Siberia. Despite the continued repression of the uprising and the following year.
Koliivshina was the last uprising against the Polish-UkrainianCommonwealth. The reasons for the defeat of the rebellion were: Russian and Polishdominated rebel army in weapons. Moreover, after the capture of insurgentUman did not continue offensives. The actions of insurgent groups were notcoordinated. In reducing the social base of insurgency played a significant roleunjustified cruelty of the rebels.
4. Outlaw movement. A. Dovbush. Movement of PeopleVigilante had spread and at Western, especially in the Carpathians. Theretheir units were called "black guy" or rebels. The first such units in accordance with historical sourcesappeared in the sixteenth century. Speaking against the oppression of the peasantry, acting in smallteams (20-50 people), they attacked the nobles, moneylenders, merchants. With goodhiding in the mountains and the support of the population, they have been elusive.
Terms and concepts
Word opryshokcomes from the Latin opressor - Paper shredders,infringer.
The most famous leader was Robin AlexDovbush (1700-1745). Led squad Olexa hromyv aristocratic estatesdealt with the rural rich. Unlike many comrades,pursuit of prey not played a decisive role in his actions. Considerablewealth of enthusiastic and handing out the poor.
Robin became a reference point mountain Stig. From there, peopleavengers made swift raids on Drohobych Solotvyn, Rohatyn, Nadvornaya andother cities. On the exceptional bravery folk hero, his ingenuityconsisted legend. He managed to go out of the ruins when it wasand his companions hunted by several thousand soldiers.
Alex Dovbush died in 1745 hired from a bullet,is seduced by promises of nobility (exemption from duties and possessionlands on the right of the owner). Despite the death of national leaders, the movementRobin went on for several years.
Alex Dovbush became a symbol of bravery and volelyubnostispirit of Ukrainian Carpathians, Carpathians and Transcarpathian region.
5. Division of the Commonwealth and the Ukrainian lands. In the secondhalf of XVIII century. Commonwealth experienced a period of decline. Filvarkovasystem management and noble anarchy retarded economic developmentcountry, before it weakened external aggression.
Poland took advantage of the weakeningBordering Russia, Prussia and Austria. They planned to dismember Poland, soughtexpand its territory through its ownership. They were frightened as the distributionideas of the Enlightenment and later the French revolution of ideas. The first division of Polandheld in 1772, resulting in the Austrian Habsburg domainsRus went territories (except Chelm land), and Belzsouth-western counties Kremenetskogo Volyn provinces. And alsodespite the agreement captured the western part of Podolsk province,setting the border on the river Zbruch. These lands, along with Little Poland wereproclaimed "the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria" with the center in Lviv, which pidporyadkovuvalosdirectly to the emperor. In 1785 land was divided into 18 districts,headed by old age. Higher power in the land belonged to the governor (Governor)appointed by the emperor. The highest representative body of the Diet was a bower.
After another war with the Ottoman Empire to the possessionHabsburgs in 1775 added Bucovina, who later as a separate districtentered the "Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria.
Under the influence of the French Revolution in Polandturned mass liberation movement, headed by T. Kosciuszko. Was asconstitution. To destroy the revolutionary center in their borders, Catherine IItroops moved into Poland, which later led Alexander Suvorov.
Military action against aristocratic Russian army troopsRight Bank began in early May 1792, the Polish Armyresistance almost did. Minor clashes occurred only during Lubar, Shepetovkiand jail. March 27, 1793 is a manifesto of Catherine II, byRight-Bank Ukraine who had access to Russia.
Soon the population began taking the oath of landallegiance to Russia (except for farmers, for whom it made landlords). It wasquickly and without major complications. Because the partition of Poland in1793 Russia entered the area to the right-bank Ukraine (Kiev,Volyn, Bratslav and Kiev Province). Two years later (1795), a newPartitions of Poland, and Russia went to the western lands of Volyn.
For90's XVIII century. Right Bank was extended actionGeneral-administrative bodies and institutions. In 1797 There wereformed by three provinces: Kiev, Podolsk and Volyn. The situation of peopleweight of almost has not changed. They still vidroblyaly serfdom in estatesfeudal lords and many pay state taxes. Simultaneously, the Polish magnatesreceived from the new imperial power, ranks, the rights of Russian nobility.
DividePoland had a negative impact. Polish people for decades, lost its stateindependence. As a result, elimination of frontiers between the Left Bank landsand Right Bank of the Russian Empire ended up 80% Ukrainian, whichcontrary to the policy of Russian Tsars facilitated the consolidation and developmentUkrainian people.
Thus, the late eighteenth century. Ukrainian landscome under the authority of the two empires, which continued into the next centuryimplement national oppression of the Ukrainian people.
6. And social-economic situation inGalicia, Bukovina and Transcarpathia. In the second halfEighteenth century. Galicia and Bukovina find themselves under the AustrianHabsburg. Transcarpathia came under their power back in 1711 Decisiveimpact on the socioeconomic situation of these lands had Reformedactivities of Maria Theresa and Joseph II. The first reform affected populationTranscarpathia. In 1766 farmers receive from their landlords and farm plots of land(From 10.2 to 17.1 ha depending on soil quality), for which they hadvidroblyaty duties and a number of days of serfdom. By law, 1783farmers had the right to engage in craft and dispose of property, and mastersforbidden to take away farm and intervene in family life. Act 1785freed the peasants from serfdom dependency, they can move freelycountry to transfer property by inheritance, to choose a profession in the school.
Empress Maria Theresa
Emperor Joseph II, with itsGenerals
Similarly, the situation changed and the Galician peasants.Act 1775 forbade masters force them to serve their duty, notidentified in the inventory. In 1782, Peasants cleared of personal dependence,they were allowed to marry on their own to learn crafts, travelcountry. In 1786 identified categories of peasants and serfs sizes dependingon the amount of land (from 12 to 156 days a year to serfdom povnonadilnyh).Overturned by the yard duty and work as usual. Next year, landwere in use, were proclaimed their holdings. Published in1789 ustanovlyuvav law duties commensurate with the amount of land thatwas to use the peasants. Dimensions of all obligations to the state and Mr.should never exceed 30% of income from land. Duties were paidmoney that is actually canceled serfdom. But this law in 1790 wascanceled.
To a lesser extent these changes affected Bukovynianpeasants. It continued to operate "Golden Diploma" introduced by the MoldovanGregory Hikoyu host in 1766, which reduced to 12 days of serfdomper year, and in the border villages to six days. Then and there was widespread effectLaws of 1782 and 1786
Also, significant changes took place in the economy.There are new crops. From the 1750's he Transcarpathia startgrowing potatoes. In the last quarter century, it spread in Galicia.End of the century begins growing corn. Actively Acquisitionsmountainous areas. Developing sheep and pigs.
Very slow growing urban life. The only majorcity was Lions (30 thousand inhabitants). Most people in rural towns wereeconomy rather than craft and trade. However, the rapid changenational structure of the bridge, they lose the Ukrainian character. Majorityurban residents are Jews, Poles, Germans, Armenians and others. Ukrainian graduallyconverted into peasant nation, while in Europe beginsindustrial revolution.
In the second half of the eighteenth century. in Weststates appear and the first factory to produce dresses and linen. Buthandicraft production is predominant. Habsburgs cared littleeconomic development in the periphery of his empire, which already existed in ancientindustrial centers (Austria, Czech Republic).
Religious situation was complicated. Predominant heresat Catholic and Uniate churches in 1720-1780-ies continuedstruggle with the Orthodox and Protestant churches. By mid-centuryTranscarpathia became hrekokatolytskymy all parishes. However, in 1770-1780-iessituation has changed significantly. The Austrian government liquidated stanovist clergylimited influence of the Roman Curia, closed the monasteries and their lands in konfiskovuvav caseif they will keep schools or shelters for the elderly. Was importantintroduction of religious tolerance and egalitarianism in the rights of representatives of alldenominations. Emperor Joseph II ordered that clergy performed the liturgylanguage of the native population and in every church school was established. The last fewfar-reaching consequences. Yes, Greek Catholic (Uniate) Church of the instrumentcolonization and stick a catholic faith became a defender of Ukrainian language and traditionspopulation.
- Strengthening social, national and religiousoppression on the Right Bank in a weakening of the Commonwealth led todeployment on the Right Bank Ukraine haidamak powerful movement that culminatedwhich was Koliivshina.
- Koliyivshchyna historical significance is that itencouraged rebellion in the minds of people the idea of social freedom, nationalliberation and the establishment of Cossack orders.
- WeakeningCommonwealth led to its division between Austria, Prussia and Russia inresult of which Poland had ceased to exist as an independent state.
1. Give reasons for strengthening natsionalnovyzvolnoyiFight on the Right Bank in the second half of the eighteenth century. 2. What forms of acquirednatsionalnovyzvolnyy movement in Ukraine in the second half of the eighteenth century.? 3. Whosuch haidamaks? What causes haidamak movement? 4. What yearKoliivshina broke? 5. In which region were rebels? Name the most famous nameRobin manager. 6. How many divisions of Poland? Which countries took part in them?
7. What were the consequences of division of Poland to Ukraine WhyUkrainian lands were divided between neighboring states? 8. What is commonand between different rebellions haidamak 1730-1950-ies and Koliivshina?9. Name the features of the outlaw movement. 10. Describe the developmentWestern Ukraine in the second half of the eighteenth century.
11. Make a comparative table revolts 1734, 1750 and1768 12. Prepare a historical portrait of Dovbusha M. iron ore, I.Shingle. 13. Follow the map for events natsionalnovyzvolnoyi Fight on the Right Bankand in the Carpathian Mountains in the eighteenth century. Identify key scene.
14. Can Gaidamats'kyi and outlaw movementscharacterized as social banditry? 15. How do you think it couldnatsionalnovyzvolnyy movement of the second half of XVIII century. causerevival of the Ukrainian state?