§ 32. Culture at the end of XVIII - the first half of the eighteenth century. (textbook)

§ 32. Culture at the end of XVIII - the first halfEighteenth century.

1. What are the main features of the previous Ukrainian Cultureday? 2. What are the main achievements of Ukrainian culture of the seventeenth century.

 

1. Features of the culture. Ukrainianculture in late seventeenth - in the first half of the eighteenth century. evolvedcontradictory terms. On the one hand, create their own state, supportculture of the Hetman, overall national growth contributed to the developmentUkrainian culture, on the other - its development halmuvavsya imperial measuresauthorities and the gradual decline of the state. In 20-ies Eighteenth century. inUkraine swept the first wave of Russification. However, this period is dominatedtrends that have caused the flowering of Ukrainian culture.

Culture of this period rested on two pillars:previous development of Ukrainian culture and Western influenceBaroque.

Features of Baroque culture

Baroque Culture

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fussy  combination of details, lines and ornaments

 

Interest  human feelings and public works

 

Attention to  symbols and allegories

 

Theatricality,  festive

 

On Ukrainian soil Baroque culture is particularlyfeatures that permit scientists confirm the existence of art"Ukrainian (Cossack) baroque. In addition, the culture of this period beganquickly acquire secular Fig.

In this period the nature of culture and influenced changes insocial structure of the Ukrainian population. The main part of culturallymature population were not nobles and clergy and Cossacks, Cossackrulers, commoners. This led to the expansion base, which developedUkrainian culture.

 

2. Education and typography. Kyiv Mohyla Academy. EndXVII. educational level of the population remained relatively Cossack Ukrainehigh. Here were a large number of primary schools, which taught clerics,wandering students of Kyiv-Mohyla Collegium. They are taught to read, write,count, sing. Was widespread and home study.

It was during this period Hetmanateemerged and become widespread form of training and gaining professional knowledge inChancellery, where by various orders and studied conducting at the same timestationery cases, drafting official papers. In Ukraine, a characteristic wasvocational training through apprenticeship teenagers in craft shops.Such training and winning the Cossack Sich children in school in Zaporozhye. Itprepared clerk, kobzars, trumpeters, violinists, cymbalist.

There were new colleges, which were secondary educationalInstitutions: Chernigov (1700), Kharkov (1727)Pereyaslavs'kyi (1738). Last purposefully engaged in the preparationclergy for Orthodox parishes Right Bank. A notable educational centerbecame the Kharkiv Collegium. It studied 800 children. In addition to traditionalsubjects studied here as engineering, surveying and artillery.

 

Kharkiv and Chernihivcolleges

 

In college studied Slavonic, Ukrainian,Polish, German, French, piyityku, rhetoric, philosophy, theology,mathematics, physics, medicine, history, geography, astrology (astronomy)music.

On the Right Bank and western states weremainly Jesuit colleges - Lutsk, Kamenetsky, Lviv,Przemysl and others.

Higher education in the Ukrainian lands was presentedKyiv Mohyla Collegium (1632) and Lviv University(1661).

Kyiv Mohyla Collegium for organizational structuremeet higher education institutions in Western Europe. 1694 after lengthyCollege of petitions received royal charter for government. By Peter DiplomaAnd from 1701 he was transformed into the Academy as a higher institution.In 1709 studied here, about 2 thousand students. But already a few yearsbecause of restrictions and the decline of the Academy of reduced to 165 persons.

The spread of literacy among the population contributed to the developmenttypography. The biggest printing house in Ukraine was 13 alreadyLavra. Among her books issued by the attention, in particular, "Ifika iyeropolityka"(1712), in which the reflection of norms of behavior. Published religioustreatises, primers and other books.

In Western Ukraine continued to operate WorldBrotherhood printing. She issued primers and other books. Significant contributiondevelopment of printing did Pochaevskaya and printing Univ.

The distinguishing feature of typography, despite the prohibition of the SynodRussian Orthodox Church was the growth of secular printing literature. Aintroduced by Peter the Great "civil font made books more accessible towide range of readers.

 

3. The development of science. InXVII-XVIII centuries. on Ukrainian lands, as in other European countries beginsrapidly developing science. The feature science in Ukraine was that unlikefrom Europe, where she overcame strong opposition of the church, its representatives here in itsMost church leaders were sometimes higher hierarchy. Yes, Feofan Prokopovicheven gave a special speech on the merits and benefits of physics "beforestudents and faculty at Kyiv Mohyla Academy.

Therefore, prominent figures of that time focused oncomplex issues of astronomy, mathematics, medicine, and geography. In particular I.Halyatovskyi trying to uncover the causes of natural phenomena such as solar andlunar eclipse, clouds, rain, wind, lightning and more. E. Slavynetsky madeSlavonic translation guide for astronomy Vezaliya "cosmography", whichstudied in medical college. In 1707-1708 he F. Prokopovich concluded lecturesof arithmetic and geometry for the Kyiv Mohyla Academy.

F. Prokopovich

 

In the eighteenth century. becoming more common medical knowledge.Added likarivukrayintsiv number that received the degree of Doctormedicine: I. Poletyka, M. Kruzhen, P. Pogoretsky and others. In 1707, in Lubnyopened the first pharmacy field in Ukraine.

 

4. The development of literature. Із second half of the seventeenth century.began during the rise of literary work. For this literatureperiod was characterized by the following features:

- Stored connections between literature and religious outlook;

- The art of words gradually became an independent branchcreativity;

- All appeared distinctly secular and aesthetic functionsliterature, produced new forms and ways of artistic and verbal images;

- The main attention is focused on individual writers, andalso its relationship with God strengthened their new genres of fiction.

The second half of the seventeenth century. - It's heydayUkrainian literature of the Baroque style.

Most vividly demonstrated in the Baroque features poetry.Poetical works of this period varied: it to the socio-political lyrical.

Hromadskopolitychna poetry relatedNatsionalnovyzvolnoyi war by B. Khmelnitsky and waste. In theseworks portrayed the historical events and gives their analysis to favordifferent perspective. Known such works: "poured hops from Micah," PraiseBrussels verses from Little people "," Chigirin so on.

The creators of poetry relihiynofilosofskoyi representativesClergy - L. Baranovych, B. Jasinski, Tuptalo, S. Jaworski, F.Prokopovich and others. In the works of these authors raised the moral and ethical issues.In poetry of this most directly manifests the Baroque style - symbolismallegory, wordplay, complicated association naturalistychnist details. Mostpoem (23 thousand lines) on religious topics was I. Maksimovich "Hail Mary".

Tuptalo

 

In keeping with Baroque developed and panegyric poetry.The most famous of its representatives were Velichkovskyj L. Baranovych.

Very popular epigrams. Amongtop AL epigraphist were Baranovych, Velichkovskyj D. Bratkowski, K.Zinoviya. In the epigram often intertwined relihiynofilosofski and householdsubjects.

Best poems lyrical poetry written Klymkovskym S.,I. Bachinsky, D. Levitsky, Ivan Mazepa, LA Baranovichi. Genre this poetry isvarious - this description sotsialnopobutovyh phenomena and description of nature, and loveelegy. It is filled with people's images and symbols. Love poetry is closelyassociated with the song.

L. Baranovych

 

Considerable gained popularity and satirical verseliterature. In the manuscript collection of poems spread Zinove K. George's (370 poems)and I. Nekrashevitch ("Fair" Confession "). They played colorfuldomestic scenes, vysmiyuvalysya flaws of society, became famous honest workfarmer and craftsman.

Among prose literature remains the most valuefor polemical theological. Among the most prominent polemicist canselect the "foundation", "Conversation" I. Halyatovskyi, "New old measure of faith" L.Rebublic, "even" anonymous author.

In theological literature and are preaching. Theirauthors use a lot of artistic techniques, engage in comparison,allegories, metaphors and so on. In their sermons they expose the sore points of society,condemns immoral behavior, provide instruction on proper living. Yes, theyfavored Orthodox faithful, striving for peace, harmony and tranquility,condemning envy, cunning, treachery, hypocrisy, ingratitude,greed, moral debauchery. Very important of his works were "in the true faith,"Peace of God to man" Gisela I.. Also published collections of sermons and L. Baranovych"Sword of the Spirit" and "words of propovidnyh pipes. In addition, famous for their sermonsTuptalo, S. Jaworski, F. Prokopovich and others.

Continues to evolve and medieval genre (description LivesSaints). Processed the lives of popular saints, there are original barokovskiprocessing Lives of princes, used the ancient legend of "Kyiv-PecherskLives of the Fathers. " Flagship attraction of this genre is a four collection LivesSaints Tuptalo.

From the mid-seventeenth century. spread in the literature cameezopivskoyi fable genre. She studied at schools and distributed in manuscriptcollections. Subsequently, these tales contributed to the formation of new Ukrainian literature.

A large layer of literary works is a historicalliterature. Among her should emphasize "Synopsis - a brief sketch of the history of Ukraineand Muscovy from ancient times to the last quarter of the seventeenth century. (Author unknown).

In the eighteenth century. in Ukrainian society existedgreat interest in events Natsionalnovyzvolnoyi war. In 1702 isthe first such product - "Eyewitness Chronicle, created one of the leaders during RuinsR. Romanovsky-shells. The most popular works, the works of S. Velichko and G.Hrabianka. In the nineteenth century. their works called chronicles, although in fact it wasStandard historical works of the XVIII century. written in the Baroque style.

Manuscriptal Page "AnnalsEyewitness

 

In his works "The Legend of the Cossack war with the Poles"and "The Story of Little chronicle and part of other events" S. Velichkodescribed in detail the events in Ukrainian history from 1648 to 1700 Heemphasized justice Natsionalnovyzvolnoyi war, sharply condemned thestrife and internecine strife that took place during the Ruins.

In 1710 G. Grab Kostyanko wrote a work "Diystviyaprezilnoyi battlefield "(" remarkable events of the war "), in which special attention paidcoverage of events Natsionalnovyzvolnoyi war. He had great popularityamong the Cossack and distributed in handwritten lists. G. Grab Kostyankoemphasized the exclusivity of the Cossack state and prove the historicity of the right toits statehood.

 

5. Architecture. Natsionalnovyzvolna war byby B. Khmelnitsky, events ruins, popular uprisings, Russia's war, SpeechesCommonwealth with the Turks, Tatars, Swedes caused a rapid growth of fortificationconstruction. There was no such city, town, which would have little defense constructions ofwalls, ditches, wooden or stone walls, chain bridges, towers. DevelopmentArtillery and caused changes in the fortification. Become dominated bastion fortificationstype, which are reduced even around old fortresses and castles inKamenetz-Podolsk, Hotine, Lviv, Uzhgorod, etc..

Since the second half XVII Art. experiencing new growth monumental buildingThat had been developing on the solid groundold native culture and reflects the best achievements of Europeanart. On Ukrainian soil it was spread in two directions:Ukrainization Western European Baroque and barokizatsiya, of baroquearchitectural form of Ukrainian traditions. As a result, artdeny the existence of the Ukrainian (Cossack) Baroque, which has its own specificfeatures.

For Baroque features were solemnelation, grandiosity, susceptibility to intense, moving songs,saturation and decorative vybahlyvosti. These features were provided by certainarchitectural techniques - contrasting large and small size, light andshade, a combination of contrasting materials, textures and colors, architectural acquisitionsculptural decoration and expression.

Baroque architecture primarily influenced decorationancient temples, which, keeping the previous structure, given a new decor -sophisticated decorative pediments, framing doors and windows, picturesquemultistage pear-shaped dome, graduated roofs. After the reconstruction of the Baroqueappearance were Sophia, Cathedral of the Assumption Kiev-Pechersk LavraSt. Michael's Cathedral, Boris Spassky and cathedrals inChernigov. In this baroque form of these churches exist today.

Assumption CathedralLavra

 

Michael'scathedral

 

Most of the baroque buildings in Ukraine were built during theHetman Ivan Mazepa and his expense. To the best Baroque ensemblesreligious use are in Nizhyn Nicholas Cathedral (1668), TrinityGustynskogo Monastery Cathedral (1671), Transfiguration Cathedral in Izium(1684), Cathedral of the Transfiguration Monastery near Lubny Mgarsk (1684)Intercession Church in Kharkov (1689), Trinity Cathedral in Chernihiv (1679-1695)All Saints the Gate Church of Kiev Pechersk Lavra (1696-1698), cathedralsFraternal and Nicholas Monastery (1690-ies), Yurivs'kyiCathedral s independence (1696-1701), Catherine Church in Chernigov(1716), Transfiguration Church in the Great Sorochyntsyaih (1734), ChurchDominicans in Lviv (1745-1749) and others. This list may includebell tower of St. Sophia.

All Saints the Gate ChurchLavra

 

In addition to church building and unfolding secularstone building. Construct refectory, colleges, magistrates, militaryoffice, homes. These structures should be noted building KievAcademy, cells Lavra, Trinity and monasteries YevetskohoChernihiv, House Kochubey in Baturin.

However, the main construction material is wood.Up to now, a number of wooden churches of that era, especially in the Carpathians,Bukovina and Transcarpathia.

 

6. Art. From the second half of the seventeenth century. Ukrainian paintingquickly away from the canons of the church, it begins to dominate the imagereal people and events. Dominant in the works of artists of this period was the influencebaroque art.

In the monumental painting vividly manifested folktradition. Most realistic images of people with people, landscapes indecoration of the church of St. George in Drogobych and with painted wooden templesTranscarpathia. In Sofia Kiev create new paintings with scenesdemonstrated against the Tatars and the Poles. At Assumption CathedralLavra was drawn whole portrait gallery Ukrainiannobility of this period. At the same time Kyiv masters tried to preserveAncient mosaic and fresco compositions.

Creativity of folk artists vividly reflected in pictures"Doomsday". A phenomenon was the request to images Cossack Banduryst- Defender of the Fatherland (Kozak Mamay) and peasant rebel, a fighteragainst social and national oppression.

"Kozak Mamay

 

In order magnates monumental paintingsdecorated palaces and castles, churches. These paintings decorated palaceKonetspolskogo in hill, in Zhovkva Sobieski Palace, Church of the MonasteryJesuits in. The Ukrainian monumental painters of the timeYu was the most famous Semyhynovskyy.

Continued to develop iconography. However, the icons alongto depict biblical characters are real characters - hetmansofficers, enlisted Cossacks, townspeople against real interiors of that era. Thus,one of the most famous left-bank of icons second half of the seventeenth century. -"Cross" - not only depicted religious figures, and commoners, Cossacksstudents, peasants living in a relaxed poses. In another famous icon"Zaporozhian curtains depicted Cossacks, military jewelry, heraldry,weapons and so on.

An interesting phenomenon of Ukrainian Baroque was a paintingart activity center for Zhovkva. Among representatives of this school canname names I. Rutkovych(1667-1707) and J. Kondzelevicha (1667—1740).

 

Icons Kondzelevicha J.

 

 

I. Rutkovych traditional plots iconostases submitted asnapivsvitski paintings with subtle coloristic and realismreproduction of human images. His most famous piece is iconostasestemples in Zhovkva-Derevlyanskiy Us, Us-Vysotskiy, Skvariava New. J.Kondzelevych preferred complex monumental composition, which foundreflection of real life events of the Ukrainian people. His most famouscreated for Mynyavskoho Skit (now exhibited in LvivNational Museum), Bialystok and Zagorodskikh monasteries.

By galaxy zhovkvivskyh artists are also Y.Shimanovich, M. Altamonte, V. P.. Their artistic heritage is represented notonly works of sacred art, but also secular portraits, battlepictures.

In Western Ukraine in the field of icon workI. Brodlakovych, I. Painter and S. Vyshenskyi. Paintings in the Lviv-ChurchSt. George led the Viennese School pupil L. Volyn.

In this period came the development of Ukrainian portraitpainting, especially popular among the nobility and the Cossack. Portraitas a genre of secular art was by nation. At the end of XVIII -early eighteenth century. he still kept close ties with the icon. Werecreated monumental portraits Khmelnitskogo and famous Cossack officers.Secular Baroque portraits magnificently decorated very, very often figurespeople depicted on them are written in a continuous lamps around colored lace,various ornamental elements clearly emphasize the social and propertyorigin represented. The heyday of portraiture have accounted for the secondhalf of the eighteenth century. Great popularity in these times came ktytorskyy portrait - Picturefounders and patrons of temples.

Achieved significant development during this period schedule. Itsdevelopment was closely related to publishing. Books ilyustruvalysya engravings thatperformed on wood or metal.

The greatest role in the development of graphic art of the periodplayed to Lytvyn. Alexander created a portrait gallery of prominentWorkers of Ukraine, Leonti completed the cycle of illustrations to the Kyiv-Pechersk Paterikon "and "New Testament".

Outstanding master of graphic was I. Schyrskyy. His printssophisticated and inventive. Vegetable ornaments combines with antiquescenes and realistic images. An interesting type of graphic artwere large posters - the announcement of disputes in the Kyiv Mohyla Collegium(Academy) made by Mir. Distinguished artist in another kind ofgraphics - making theses, the most famous thesis is dedicatedPrefect of Mohyla P. Kalachinsk. Patriotic contentimbued with a secular engraving Teza Obidovskoho ", which depicted scenesCrimean walks and majestic panorama of architectural ensembles Kyiv LavraSofia hem.

In the second half of the seventeenth century. reached a high ofdecorative and applied arts, including wood carvings. Carved geometricor vegetable ornaments decorated furniture, weaving machines, carts and more.

With all kinds of folk art or notmost common in Ukraine were weaving and embroidery-related artdecoration, clothes, housing. These types of folk art have expanded toterritory of Ukraine as domestic production, and later as a craft.

 

German nobleman Ulrich von Werdum on clothesUkrainian and appearance (1670-ies)

"In Russia, men and women in villages areopanchi brown cloth on which they weave themselves. Gentry, and merchants are blue.Cossack peasants as Tatars, summer wear blue. Cossack peasants asTatars, summer wear with a white cloth opanchi and winter - with rams' skins. Theyreaching from the neck down to her feet, embroidered straps on the shoulders of red, yellow andbrown skin opanchi look very nice. This opancha they calledguard, and some think that the word derives from the name of the Cossacks. This winteropancha Kazachki of all clothing. Summer walk in the same shirt. In the peasantsit with coarse cloth, and in mischanok wealthier girls - with embroidered nankeen ...Top of these shirts at the neck and waist gathered folds like a caftan, andbeautifully colored bordered cotton. At the same thigh, theyoperezuyutsya red, yellow, green or other color belt and with himlook quite good. As for trimming the head, there are markedzhrabnistyu great. Summer decorating it with fresh flowers and green wreaths,winter should instead wear wreaths made of wax. Wear many ringsfingers in your ears very large earrings and neck - ornaments crystal, glass,copper, bronze - depending on the imagination and prosperity ... In the village men and womenwinter and summer wear boots, petty bourgeois as well as summer wear shoes. "

 

1.       On what kinds of folkcreativity recalls Ulrich von Werdum?

2.       Recall materialon world history and compare clothes Ukrainian and European.

 

Canons of the Orthodox Church, which banned playimages in the form of statues, a long constrained the development of sculpture. In returnSPREAD decorative pottery, which decorated the pediments and portals, windowand dvirni holes covered the walls. The most famous are finishing NicholasFraternal and cathedrals in Kiev, St. Sophia bell to bell LavraCaves, churches in Sorochintsah. The best example of potterssubmitted by the main gate of Transfiguration Monastery in NovgorodSiversky.To design also used wooden carvings.

 

7. Music and Theatre. During this period, formation of the basic features of folk music thatexist to this day. Folk ballads and historical songs performed minstrels,lyre, bandurists. Ustalyuyetsya folk instrumental music that accompaniesall holidays - traditional folk music. The name they were not on the number ofinstruments in the ensemble, and for the functions performed by musicians: melody, rhythm,rate.

Domestic vociferous song genre - Chant (Psalm)gained national features of poetic style and content of music. It strengthenssecular motives. Melodics cants and served as a source of music for the cult of thetime. Authors cants were outstanding cultural figures of that era - L. Baranovych,Tuptalo and others.

Continued to develop choral singing. The most commonParterre a concert. Singing was held without instrumental accompaniment. Heacquired professional Fig. Speeches were held in groups of landowners and palaceschurches. Famous names such great singers as Konovskyy K., J.Zahvoyskyy, O. Leshkovskyy and others.

Professional music education can be obtained at MohylaAcademy Music School of magistrates and religious seminaries, orchestras. In1738 in Hlukhiv is a special music school.

Taking intoaccount the increasing importance of professional music, even Bohdan Khmelnytsky in 1652issued a proclamation of a music shop. Subsequently, there were workshops in Starodub,Nezhine, Chernihiv and other cities. Their members served ceremonies,participated in military campaigns, performed during entertainment in large estates.

Continues to grow and performing arts. Mostpopular as before, was den. Performance The performance is very diversified -new characters take on fairy tales, legends, tales. Greatly expandednarodnopobutova vertep of action.

School and school drama theater of the largestreached at the Kyiv Mohyla Academy, where writing and playing of drum wasobligatory component of the educational process. School theater performancesdistributed at Christmas and Easter. The most popular dramas were "Comedyon Christmas Day "Tuptalo and" Word of the disturbance of hell. " Schooldrama gradually became complicated, it arose various forms - and instructive historicaldramas and more. During the performances used scenery, appearances, stageeffects.

 

Conclusions

- In the second half of XVII - the firsthalf of the eighteenth century. Ukrainian culture has acquired unprecedented prosperity.This is especially evident in education, architecture and art.

- In the Ukrainian culture of the period closelynational traditions and Western influences, resulting vynknennyasuch phenomenon as "Ukrainian (Cossack) baroque.

- Stay Ukrainian Cossack state in stockRussia, which turned into an empire, it became a negative influence on Ukrainianculture: ban, withdrawal of the leading figures at the service of empire, the destructionnational characteristics.

 

FAQtask

1. What factors influenced the development of Ukrainian culturelate seventeenth - early eighteenth century.? 2. Of the institutions which consistededucation system in the Ukrainian lands? 3. As training was organized inKyiv Mohyla Academy? 4. Testified to the development of printingUkrainian lands? What are the main centers of publishing in Ukraine. 5. Whatgenres, describing the development of Ukrainian poetry? 6. Identify featurestheological literature of that time. 7. What art school dominatedUkrainian art of the late seventeenth - early eighteenth century.? 8. Whatmain features of Baroque art? What are landmarks in the Baroque? 9.What forms of sculpture developed in the Ukrainian lands? 10. What genresmusical and theatrical art had spread in late seventeenth - earlyEighteenth century.?

11. Late seventeenth - early eighteenth century. inLeft Bank Hetman was a high level of education and higherof the adult population was literate. What was your estimation? 12. Whysecond half of XVII - the first half of the eighteenth century. rapidly in Ukrainedeveloped defense construction?

13. Describe genre diversity of the Ukrainianliterature in the second half of XVII - early XVIII century. ReplyJust as the scheme. 14. Using additional literature, makedescription of one of the archaeological sites of this era.

 

 

Generalization on the Ukraine at the end of XVII - XVIII in the first halfcentury. "

1.            Foldlist of events from the history of Ukraine at the end XVII - early XVIII century. youconsider most important. Justify your choice.

2.            Explainvalue concepts and terms "Rise of S. Paliya", "Little Russian College,"Board Hetman government," Constitution of P. Orlik.

3.            Namenames of prominent historical figures of this era. What do you see their contributionshistory of Ukraine late XVII - early XVIII century.

4.            Dotask for historical maps:

а)         Defineadministrative and territorial changes that were Ukrainian lands during this period;

б)         showevents Great Northern War (1700-1721), the direction of the Cossack marches,major battles and events;

в)         pointarea covered by the uprising Paliya S.;

г)         showon the map where were the most important historical events of this period.

5.            Foldcomprehensive plan "Features of socio-economic and political conditionsUkrainian lands at the end of XVII - early XVIII century. ".

6.            Giveassessment of Hetman Ivan Mazepa, Ivan Skoropadsky, P. Orlik, P.Polubotko, D. Apostol, K. Gordienko Kosh Leader.

7.            Defineconsequences of the battle of Poltava for the further fate of the Ukrainian lands.

8.            What,In your opinion, were the major cultural achievements of Ukraine late XVII -first half of XVIII century.? Explain your opinion.

 

 

Tests to the topic "Ukraine at the end of XVII - XVIII in the first halfcentury. "

1. Getman, who took the post after the switch on the sideSwedish King Ivan Mazepa: a) I. Samoylovych b) P. Orlik; c)I. Skoropadskyi; d) D. Apostol.

2. By order of Czar Peter the Zaporizhzhya Sich was destroyed:a) in October 1708; b) May 1709; c) September1710 d) July 1711

3. Plans Hetman Ivan Mazepa on the liberation of Hetmanfrom the power of the Russian tsar crossed event: a) the revolt led by S.Paliy, b) the destruction of Russian troops Baturin; в) Battle of Poltava; d) signing Kolomaksky articles.

4. City, which was the seat of Hetman Ivan Mazepa: a)Baturin; b) Chigirin c) deaf, d) Kyiv.

5. The author of "Cossack chronicles was: a) H. pan; b)S. Velichko; c) G. I. Bar-d) V. Borovykovsky.

6. Most buildings in Cossack Baroque style in Ukrainewas built during the reign of Hetman: a) I. Samoylovych; b)Ivan Mazepa; c) I. Skoropadskyi d) K. Razumovsky.

7. The area, which is not extended power Hetmanlate seventeenth century.: a) Left Bank, b)Kyiv in) Kiev; г)Sloboda Ukraine.

8. Hetman Danylo Apostol was in power for:a) 1700-1721 biennium, b) the 1709-1722 biennium; в)1727-1734 biennium; d) 1750-1764he

9. The first set college: a) Kharkov, b) Pereyaslavs'kyi;c) Chernigov; d) Kyiv Mohyla.

10. The impetus for the adoption of the Polish Sejm in 1699decision on the Elimination of Cossack troops in Right-Bank Ukraine was:

a) Top of the Cossack uprising underby S. Paliya;

b) signing between the PolishCommonwealth and the Ottoman Empire Karlovatskoho truce;

c) campaign of Ivan Mazepa on the Right Bank;

d) conclusion of Ukraine-RussiaKolomaksky articles.

11. Ukrainian Mobile Peoplepuppet theater, where religious and secular set plays called: a) circus b) fair c) intermedia; d) den.

12. "Eternal Peace" between Moscow and the Lithuanian StateCommonwealth were made: a) 1686; b) 1699 c) 1714 d)1721

 

Encyclopedia Home

1684-1685 biennium - the restoration of order in the CossackRight Bank

1686 - "Eternal Peace" between Muscovy and the Commonwealth

1687 - First Crimean campaign

1687 - signing Kolomaksky articles, beginningHetman Ivan Mazepa

1689 - Second Crimean campaign

1692 - performance antyhetmanskoyi opposition led byPetryk

1695, 1696 - Azov campaign

1699 - adoption of the Polish Sejm decisionElimination of Cossack troops and order on the Right Bank

1700 - Peace of Constantinople between Russia andTurkey

1700-1721 biennium - Northern War between Sweden and Russia

1701 - a decree of Peter I of Kiev-MohylaCollege academy status

1702-1704 biennium - the revolt led by S. Paliy

November 4, 1708 - go Hetman Ivan Mazepa on the sideKarl XII

November 13, 1708 - Destruction of Russian troopsBaturin

1708-1722 biennium - hetman Ivan Skoropadsky

May 25, 1709 - Destruction of Russian troopsChortomlyk Host

July 8, 1709 - Battle of Poltava

April 16, 1710 - Election Hetman P. Orlik.Adoption of the "Covenant and the Constitution ..."

1711 - Peter I. Prutsko hike Prutsko peace

1711, 1713 - hiking P. Orlik on the Right Bank

1713 - Russia Adrianopolsky agreement with Turkey

1714 - Treaty of Peace between Turkey and Poland.Final disposition of the Cossack system on the Right Bank

1721 - establishing control of the Synod of the RussianUkrainian Orthodox Church of the researched. Prohibition of print booksUkrainian language

1722-1727 - First Little Russian College

1723 - Kolomaksky cholobytna

1727-1734 biennium - hetmancy D. Apostol

1728 - D. Hetman of the Apostle "RishytyelnyhITEMS "

1732-1734 he was - an attempt to eliminate the Cossack systemSlobozhanschine

1734 - Establishment of New (Pidpilnenskoyi) Host

1734-1739 biennium - Russo-Turkish War

1734-1750 biennium - Board Hetman's government "