§ 31. Strengthening the colonial policy of the Russian Empire.Liquidation Hetmanat
1. As events unfolded on the Ukrainian Northern Warlands? 2. What is the role of Ivan Mazepa in Ukraine's history? 3. What were the consequences of PoltavaBattle for Ukraine?
1. Hetman situation after the Battle of Poltava. Offensivethe autonomous rights Hetmanate. Go to the side of Ivan Mazepa Peter the Swedes used asreason for the deployment of terror and repression. Special Investigation Commission, establishedas the king in the Swan, consider the case of supporters of the hetman. HundredsUkrainian was repressed and executed and their property confiscated. PersecutionRelatives were Cossacks with P. Orlik were in exile. Onbeginning of the war with Turkey by lot executed every tenth in the settlementsLeft Bank and Slobodian who did not show sufficient loyalty to the king.Encouraged denunciations.
From a letter to Prince Golitsyn Chancellor M. G.Golovkin
"For the sake of our security must first sowdisagreement between colonels and hetman. Do not do requests hetman.When people see that Hetman already has such power, as Mazeppa, thenhope will come to communicate. You do not have to deal with informantstrictly, if the two come with false denunciations, but when they do withwelcome, the third has come true with denunciation, as Hetman of the officersfear. As I previously wrote to you, so now I say: we need to allregiments were colonels do not agree with the hetman ... then all their cases will bewe are open.
1. With the purpose rozpalyuvalasya division among colonels andHetman? 2. How can you call such a policy?
Simultaneously, there was forced to attackUkrainian autonomy. When I. Skoropads newly proposedaccept the new king Reshetylivskyh Article traditional rights and liberties,he received from Peter answered: "Ukrainian, and so have the grace of the king asCarta, as no nation in the world. " Peter declined the request Skoropadskythat the Cossacks were under the command of acting hetman, notRussian generals. He refused to return the guns that were seized in I.Mazepa. Before the Hetman's government were requested to report on taxesMilitary treasure and income.
Terms and concepts
Terror - Execution ofpolitical opponents through violence.
Repression - System of measures which provideelimination, isolation, destruction of political enemies (real or imaginary)competing social groups or strata, ethnic communities to establishdomination or fracture resistance.
Gradually zvuzhuvalasya Hetman's power. Voivod receivedright to intervene in the Cossack Ukraine. By Hetman wasoverseers to supervise royal ministrrezydent (1710 of them alreadytwo). In Gluhove - new hetman's residence - was placed two regimentsRussian army. In 1708-1709 he system introduced in the provincemaintaining polkovosotennoho. Hetman, and since 1719 and Slobodawere the province of Kiev, which was divided into provinces. In 1715royal decree established a new procedure for the election of the regimental officers, according to whichmajor role in this process played a royal representative. In the officers beganelect foreigners, which gradually became the majority. Later, he commanded Peterappoint his ally Colonel Nizhyn P. Tolstoy, and A. Ghanaian -Kiev, thereby giving the right to appoint officers and violating electoralprinciple of power in Hetmanate. In addition, the Russians have been offeredraids in Ukraine, which led to the emergence of large areasHetman unaffiliated. 1720 Peter restricted the functions of generalcourt.
So did the Russian government intervention in economicLife: Ukrainian goods were allowed to repatriate only in RussianBaltic ports, and they did not have Ukrainian merchants. At the same time prohibitedimport certain goods in Hetmanate from Western Europe (needles, cloth, canvas,stockings, sugar, tobacco, etc.) and instead buy products made in Russiafactories. Zaprovadzhuvalosya special duty for the Russian treasury. In 1721 onterritory of the Russian government introduced Hetman "copper money to silver andgold remained in circulation as Russia's population and more concentrated inthe state treasury.
Increasingly, the Cossacks were used outsideHetman: the construction of canals, fortresses, military campaigns and otherwork. At the same time the economy Cossacks at home deteriorate. BesidesHetman population suffered guest of Russian troops.
There were troubled and in the cultural sphere. Yes, withKyiv Mohyla Academy as the king was removed and all studentsTeachers from the right bank, was forbidden to print in Ukraine any books,except the church, and those that were printed, "no difference to themselves and dialectno. By doing so, the king began the attack on the Ukrainian language, contributed to violentRussification and spiritual oppression of the Ukrainian people.
Stages of the colonial policy of the Russian EmpireUkraine in the eighteenth century.
Forced attack on Ukrainian autonomy
Partial restoration of rights and liberties Ukraine, Hetman
Increased pressure on the imperial Ukrainian autonomy
Temporary slowing of imperial expansion. "Gold Autumn Ukrainian autonomy (O. Subtelny)
Final disposition of Ukrainian autonomy
2. Hetmanship Skoropadsky II (1708-1722 biennium). ActivitySkoropadskyi in these conditions was very cautious. He tried in every waydemonstrate their loyalty to the king. It helped him retain power hetmanbut at the same time, the deployment of imperial policy contributed to limiting the Hetmanpower. However Skoropadskyi showed honesty and the best of their forcestried to protect the Ukrainian autonomy. Yes, he defended the emigrants and theirfamily never officially called a traitor Mazepa.
In social policy Skoropadskyi continued the policyIvan Mazepa. He distributed the land officers and monasteries. According to the Board about30% of the arable land was in private ownership of officers, some of themturned into real land barons. Skoropadsky had over100 thousand subjects (monasteries - 60 thousand subjects).
In January 1721 Skoropadskyi, despite the poorhealth, went to Moscow to finally determine the status of HetmanRussian Empire. The impetus for the trip was the king's decree on the withdrawalgeneral office management zpid hetman.
While in Moscow a few monthsHetman visited the king's wards, talked with influential powers,hosted banquets, masquerade. However, the visit, the main purpose wasrequest to alleviate the situation Hetmanate not give the desired result andnot stopped further restrict the rights and liberties. Instead Skoropadskyireceived a decree establishing the Little Russian College (April 29, 1722). Itscreation was motivated by the fact that the king come complaints from people about the bribes andextortion, the Cossacks of retaking land, forests, mills, forced them to movein nationality, of the disorder in the general office of the military: "This isfor your own good? be under the Great-and upravlennyam court order tostop all the wrong judgments and hardship Little People ".
The news stunned Skoropadsky and finallyundermined his health. Returning to Glukhova, he handed "government works"P. Polubotko. July 3, 1722 hetman died.
3. First Little Russia Collegium (1722-1727 biennium).Acting hetman P. Polubotok. After the death of Hetman all the power in Hetman tooka Little Russian, a panel of six Russian officers. In fact itactivity played a role destabilizing factor that intensified the gap betweenUkrainian elite and the people and ruined the Ukrainian statehood. This board ofled by the foreman S. Velyaminovym began to clean their hands all the hetmanrule. Peter is not allowed to elect a new hetman, and instructed the actingHetman P. Polubotko (1722-1723 biennium) to listen to college.
Peter and P. Polubotok
Chernihiv colonel was a man Polubotok P.energetic, passionate supporter of Ukrainian autonomy. He has not acceptedPresident claims the Little Russian Collegium S. Velyaminova not only to controlthe authorities, but also to the most political power. Polubotok rallied around himofficers' opposition, began a legal reform (General Court made a collegial,established a procedure for appeals), set against graft. He soughtcomplaints in the Senate (the supreme regulatory authority of the Russian Empire) toLittle college violation of Ukrainian laws and traditions, insistedallow the election of a new hetman.
In August 1723 officer representatives of oppositionin the Cossack camp on the river Kolomak were called Kolomakskycholobytni addressed to the king, who demanded to cancel the imposedLittle college taxes and to allow elected hetman. When thesecholobytni was Peter, he ordered Mr. Polubotko imprison opposition and 15Ukrainian officers in the Peter and Paul Fortress. Not stand this state andinterrogation December 18, 1724 P. Polubotok acting hetman died.
Death Polubotko responded in Ukrainegreat pain. His glorified as the great defender of Ukraine about itwere legendary. One of the most popular was that the king seemed to learnthe disease Polubotko, came to ask him to apologize and dying Hetmantaught him all the injustices caused by the tsarism Ukraine. It endedsaid: "In my innocent suffering and my countrymen will be judged in commonunfeigned and judge, our God: soon stand before him and he will judgePeter Paul. Indeed, soon, January 25, 1725, died, Peter I.
Another legend says that before leaving for St. PetersburgPolubotok transferred 200 thousand rubles. Gold Bank of East India Company in Londonwho had to return it independent Ukraine.
4. Hetmanship Danylo Apostol (1727-1734 biennium). After deathPeter the Russian government changed the policy on the Cossack Ukraine. Growthdissatisfaction with the activities of the Little Russian Collegium, the threat of another warTurkey led to its abolition in 1727 and some softening of the Russianpolicy in the Ukrainian question. It was given permission to the electionhetman. They became the 73-year Mirgorodsky Colonel Danilo Apostol. ActivityHetman determined "Rishytelnymy points" - the answer to "stateyni points,King provided the Apostle. Unlike previous "full", they were placednot as a treaty between states, and as a unilateral act of the king's pozhaluvannya.
Getman D. Apostol
Guideline "Rishytelnyh points" in 1728
- Allow to choose Hetman, but only with the consent of the king.
- Hetmanate was recovered from under the jurisdiction of the Senatejurisdiction of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
- Reducing the number of Russian soldiers thatlocated on the territory of Ukraine.
- Hetman had no right to punish without the permission of the king to deathofficers and conduct foreign policy.
- Introduction to the Russian representativesGeneral Court.
- General Staff and Colonel of 2.3 candidatesoffice had to approve the king, not the hetman.
- Canceled taxes imposed Littleboard.
- General Military recovered treasure, butcontrolled by the Russian government.
Based on the limitation of actions of Russian representatives inUkraine to certain standards, Danylo Apostol vigorously took up therestoration of lost autonomy: he appointed to his post of Colonelsupporters held a series of measures to streamline Hetmantenure for the first time has taken steps to develop the then budgetHetman, ordered Ukrainian trade, subordinated hetman's authorityKyiv, reorganized the judicial system has achieved a return of the Cossackspossession of the Crimean Tatars in their establishment and Oleshko New Host on the riverUnderground (Pidpilnenska January).
Positive value to combat bribery andorganize land ownership was made hetman General investigation ofestates, which in the 1729-1730 biennium estates carried out the audit and found legitimacypossession. With the assistance of the Apostle Codification Commission in the deaf in1728 started a set of laws "Rights, which Sues Little Russianpeople "who had legally secure autonomous status and privileges in HetmanateRussian Empire. The Code was completed immediately after the death of the hetman, butRussian Senate flatly refused to confirm it.
5. Politics "Board Hetman government. Attemptelimination of the autonomous system Slobozhanshchina. After deathD. Apostol in 1734 New Empress Anna Ioanivna banned againelection of a new hetman, and jurisdiction was transferred to Ukrainian affairs "BoardHetman's government (1734-1750). "Government" composed of three representativesCossack and three Russian officials. The activity of "government" hadguided "Rishytelnymy points" in 1728 In addition, Russian officialswere strongly downplay the importance of the Hetman's power and undermine confidence inher officers to promote rapprochement with Russian officers and marriageUkrainian to Russian. Ukrainian case was again returned to the Senate. In UkraineThe revision was to streamline tax collection. Completed assemblyarch of the Ukrainian legislation.
To control the secret society was established"Secret Office". It was enough to shout the slogan "words and deeds sovereign"and point at someone, as it is considered criminal and the state gave tohands of the executioner. Yes, on suspicion of treason as a whole, was arrestedKyiv magistrate.
Years, the Board of Hetman's government were held innext rosiyskoturetskoyi War (1734-1739), the burden which lay on the shouldersUkrainian people. In campaigns against the Crimea killed many Cossacks. Russiantroops were to hold the Ukrainian population pryfrontovoyi zone.Permanent requisition of the population left the most essential. The only achievement of the warwas the return of the Cossacks on the border of the Russian Empire.
Significant changes have occurred in order Slobozhanshchina. Even in1726 hit shelves in the jurisdiction of the War College. From 1723colonels could be appointed only Russians. From 1732 began to transformaimed at eliminating the autonomous government. In sum was established"Office of the Commission establishing Slobidsky regiments, which took over manyfunctions colonels. Regimental hall in the 1733-1734 biennium were renamed tooffice and received law, which had an office in the provinces provinces.Judicial proceedings are conducted on the basis of Russian legislation. In 1734The value of the Cossacks and peasants "zaymanschynu" and forbiddenresidents leave the Slobozhanshchina. Vykreslyuvalysya helpers from the Cossackcondition.
- Activities of the Russian government during the 1708-1722 bienniumindicative of preparations for large-scale attack on the Ukrainian statehood.However, external circumstances forced the liquidation process of braking of the Cossack stateand short-term power was restored Hetman (1727-1734).
- Totaldirection of Russian policy towards Ukraine has remained unchanged: to turn it onordinary province of the Russian Empire. In such a Ukrainian Cossack eliteendeavored to preserve old self yet. However, in its actions itavoided radical measures and relied on popular support.
1. Limitations experienced during the government of Hetman IvanSkoropadsky? 2. As the Russian Tsar Peter I used the resources of Ukraine forachieve its goal? 3. What is the meaning Reshetylivskyh articles? Did theyOfficial character? 4. Who is Mr. Polubotok? What measures are carried Cossackofficers to restore civil rights in Ukraine? What were the results ofofficer opposition? 5. What happened in Ukraine during the BoardHetman's government?
6. What is characteristic of the Board I. Skoropads? 7.Why Peter did not allow election of a new hetman Ivan Skoropadsky after death?8. What are the main political ideas laid out in Kolomaksky cholobytnyh? 9. What arepresented Little Russian College? How does it work destroying the traditionalmanagement system in Ukraine? 10. What marked the reign of Hetman D.Apostle? 11. What were the consequences for Ukraine "Board Hetman's government?
12. Prepare a story about acting hetman P.Polubotko.