§ 30. Ukraine in the events of the Great Northern War
1. What were the causes of the Great Northern War? 2. What policyHetman I. Mazepa conducted in 1708?
1. Hetman in the Northern War between Russia and Sweden(1700-1721). From 1700 North Russia waged war with Sweden inaccess to the Baltic Sea. This war does not crossed with the interests ofUkraine. But from the very beginning of the Cossack regiments regularly participated inhostilities, fighting on the territory of Muscovy, the Baltic States, the Commonwealth,defending the king. Ill treatment by commanders and severe conditionsService called with complaints and criticism, and sometimes voluntarily return home.The reason for dissatisfaction was the fact that quite often used the Cossacksas cheap labor during the construction of canals, roads, fortresses and otherfortifications. Since 1706 the Hetman had to also hold a number of citiesMuscovite army and military garrisons. In addition, Ukraine in large quantitiesselling the contaminated food and other products. All this led to the decline of the economy andtrade, intensified discontent with the policy tsar.
In addition to military turmoil, Cossacks worried restrictions kingformed the government of their rights. In particular, caused a sharp reaction decree1705 conversion of two Cossack regiments, exiled to Prussia, inRegular Dragoon. Among the Cossack rumors about yetdeeper at the change. Uncertainty of the future of Ukraine and forcing officers Hetmanthink about the subsequent fate of the Hetman. Covered antymoskovskymy moodthe officers pressured the hetman. And he began to understand Mazeppa fatal relationsUkraine and Moscow.
2. Ivan Mazepa Go to Charles XII. Taking onpurpose exemption Hetmanate zpid power of Muscovy, I. Mazeppa began secretnegotiations with the Swedish King Charles XII.
In 1708, Charles XII of 35-thousand army went totrip to Moscow. He carried with him. Later he was to join GeneralLevenhaupt 16-thousandth army and heavy artillery. Road to Moscow wasoffset by the large camps of Russian troops in Pskov, Novgorod andSmolensk. Charles XII, preferring maneuverable war, decided to makedetour via Belarus. But because of bad roads, hostile attitude of local peopleand partisans of the Swedish army lost the desired mobility. Blow to the Swedeswas the defeat of the Russians Levenhaupta army near the village of Forest in Belarus. AfterThis Swedish king went to Ukraine, where he hoped to help Ivan Mazepa.
Mazeppa ii Karl XII
When the Swedish king crossed the border Hetman, then I.Mazeppa neither militarily nor politically was not prepared to meet CharlesXII as their ally. Hetman was a choice whether to side with the Swedes,or stay on the side of Peter I. November 4, 1708 Hetman receivedfinal decision to side with Charles XII, and left in Baturin 3000th garrisonof the 4000th detachment of Cossacks rode to bid Karl XII. When opened MazeppaCossacks their intentions, many Cossacks was left because they did not understandSudden changes Hetman, who before called to be faithfulRussian tsar and fight with the Swedes. Most of the Ukrainian populationSwedes viewed as invaders. Dallas also felt unpopular socialHetman policy in previous years.
Learning of this, Peter acted quickly and decisively. HeOleg Menshikov ordered rout hetman capital Baturin, where there were largestocks of weapons, artillery and food supplies. Baturin's future is decided betrayal.Colonel I. Nose showed progress in a secret city. Through him the Russian troopsentered the town and vandalized. The town was burned and destroyed the population.
Ivan Mazepa was declared a traitor. In petty happyin Hlukhiv new Hetman was elected John Skoropadsky(1708-1722 biennium). In addition, Peter appealed to people to be faithfulhim, and in January sent gifts and money. After a few days, most officersMazepa left, signed an oath of allegiance to the king and admitted Hetman Skoropadskyi.
Despite this, and to the Mazepa joined Charles XIIataman Bone Gordienko part of the Cossacks.
April 8, 1709 Mazeppa Gordienko and signedKarl XII, which included the formation of Ukrainian lands, whichwas part of the Russian principalities, under the formal auspices of Sweden. QuestionRight-Bank and the fate of Western lands had not been foreseen, sinceSwedish king recognized their part of Poland. But these plans were not implemented.
Peter continued to punitive measures in Ukraine. In April1709 Russian troops under the command of Mr. Yakovlev madepunitive raid on Jan, as a result of which it was removed. Only a fewCossacks managed to escape.
After the destruction of the Sich Cossacks foundedKamians'ke Jan, hoping to soon return to the old place. But1711 Russian troops have destroyed it. Part of the Cossacks foundrefuge in the lands of Khan - along with the tract Oleshky Kardashynskym estuary wherecreated another in January. As the Cossacks to build fortifications and forbidden to have guns,they were exposed to arbitrary Tatars despite a positive attitude towardsKhan them. Circs Oleshkovsky Sich Cossacks were significantly worsethan in Zaporozhye, which created resentment. In 1728 Cossacks under perturbationsHusak was arrested by John Kosh K. Gordienko, burned buildings andmoved into place Chortomlyk Sich. But the Russian government has categorically bannedrevive them in January. Having failed, the Cossacks returned to the possession of the CrimeanKhan and settled on the spot Kamyansko Sich. In 1733 die K. Gordienko -implacable enemy of the Russian Empire. This year, in aggravationrelations with Turkey, Russian Empress forgave "guilt" and Cossacksallowed them to return. Cossacks in 1734 founded the New Sich, existedto 1775
3. Battle of Poltava. Death of Ivan Mazepa. At that timecore strength Swedes came to Poltava, which was lying on the crossroads thatled to Slobodian Zaporozhye and then to Ed and the Crimea. It focusedlarge stores, which is extremely lacking the Swedes. Garrison town, which consisted of Cossacksand Russian soldiers refused to surrender. The siege lasted three months, the city,Swedes, who had only four guns, could not break the back of defenders. Timtime came to Poltava main force of Russians. A decisive battle of the Great Northern Warwas July 8 (June 27) 1709 at Poltava and endedSwedes defeat.
Battle of Poltava
Afterdefeated Ivan Mazepa and Charles XII fled into Turkish possession. His ambassador inIstanbul Tolstoy Peter instructed bribe great vizier, who had been promised300 000 talers for the issuance of Mazepa. This news agitated Mazepa. This courseevents finally blew Hetman poor health, and August 22, 1709 hedied. His body was taken in Iasi and there in terms of military officers and veryKing Charles XII, was buried in the city monastery.
4. Hetman Philip Orlik. P. Orlik Constitution. April 161710 Bender was in the Cossack Council. The new Hetman was electedA close associate of Ivan Mazepa General Chancellor Philip, his governmentOrlik (1672-1742 biennium). He headed the first Ukrainian political emigration inWestern Europe and the government in exile (exile).
The figure in the history of
Philip Orlik came from an old Czech family.His father died in the war with Turkey. He studied first at Jesuit OrlikBoard in Vilnius, and the Kyiv-Mohyla Collegium. He was an educated person,knew several European languages. He held posts in the General MilitaryOffice and later became general secretary and a military adviser to the nearestHetman Mazepa.
During the Cossack Council of April 16 was adopted writtenits document "Pact and Constitution, laws and liberties troops Zaporizhzhya(Later called the document "Constitution Orlyk). This agreement wasbetween officers and Zaporozhian Cossacks, on the one hand, and Hetman - the other.
For the first time the newly elected Hetman dealings with its votersformal agreement, which clearly has included conditions in which he was receiving power.
Approval of the Constitution P. Orlik
Manuscript "of the Constitution?"
The document consisted of entry and 16 articles. InIt proclaimed the independence of Ukraine from Muscovy and the Commonwealth;Swedish King was based on patronage and alliance with the Crimean Khanate;territory of Ukraine is determined by agreement Zborowski 1649; Cossacksreturned to their traditional territory in the Dnieper, with the hetman formedThe General Council of the legislature, consisting of General Staff,Colonels, the elected members of each regiment and of delegates fromCossacks; council met three times a year - at Christmas, Easter, Intercession; casehetman of iniquity and guilt officers considered the general court to whichHetman had no right to interfere, treasury and property subjectGeneral treasurers, to hold appointed Hetman individual landElective was defined colonels, captains of their subsequent approvalHetman, a special commission was to carry out the audit of state land toenjoyed officers, and duties of the population; Hetman had to defendCossacks and the entire population from excessive taxes and duties, to helpCossack widows and orphans.
Thus, virtually declaring Republicanpolitical structure of the Ukrainian state, "The Constitution Orlyk becameexample of contemporary political thought, not only in Ukraine but also in general in Europe.
The Constitution limited the rights of the hetman, provideda representative body - the General Council. It laidfoundations of the principle of separation of legislative, executive and judiciaryroot elected positions.
Contents meet the interests of the Cossack,that due to weakening of the Hetman's power were able to more participation inpublic administration. "The Constitution Orlyk" to 1714 acted on theRight Bank of Ukraine, where the regiment remained viyskovoterytorialnyySystem.
Next stepsP. Orlik were aimed at creating a coalition to liberate Ukraine zpidRussian authorities. He made a deal with the Crimean khan DevletHireyem, SwedenKing Charles XII, supporters of the deposed King of Poland StanislawLyeschynskoho. Agreement provides a common liberation Hetman and Slobozhanshchina.To join this coalition, Turkey, which November 20, 1710 announcedRussia's war. According to a joint plan was supposed allies take militaryexpedition to the release of right bank Ukraine.
In early 1711 khan of the 40000th horde and 2Cossacks set out to thousands of Sloboda Ukraine. Not reaching the war theresuccess, it captured thousands of the 12 prisoners returned to Crimea. MeanwhileOrlik of 5 thousand Cossacks, 20-30000th Tatar horde and detachmentPoles moved to the Right Bank. He was Nemiroff, Bratslav, winery and took upWhite siege of the Church. It joined about 11 thousand local Cossacks onled by Samus. However, when the news of approaching Russian troopsTatar siege stopped and started to yasyr (10 thousand inhabitants). Local CossacksHetman left and rushed to rescue their loved ones. With few Orlikomleft, he had to stop and hike with a small detachment of supportersback to Bender. Samus Cossacks refused to back down and continuedstruggle. A decisive battle with Russian and Polish troops took place atBohuslav defense. Samus and his supporters captured and were sentto Siberia.
After an unsuccessful raid on the Right Bank Orlik kinggovernment until 1714 "Zhanyav" the people there on the Left Bank of the population toOrlik deny any support.
Summer1711 Peter began a military campaign against the Ottoman Empire. RussianArmy went to Moldavia, where its owner raised anti-Turkish uprising.
09/08 July 1711 battle took place near byPrut. Army of Peter I was surrounded by Turkish troops, and threatened hercapitulation. Peter escaped from the environment, bribery and only thanks to greater politicalconcessions.
By Prutsko peace treaty in 1711 Russianparty turned Turkey Asia, destroying their fortresses, recently builtZaporozhian and obliged not to interfere in the problems of the Commonwealth.
A separate item concerned the Ukrainian lands from whichRussia had to give up and return the protectorate of the Crimean Khanate andTurkey. However, it is clearly formulated and it was unclear whether it isof Zaporozhye, the Right Bank, or the entire Hetmanate.
Russia to the conditions of the contract delayed. Eventuallylate 1711 Turkey has put forward demands that the Russian sideall Dnepr Ukraine and Kyiv under its protectorate under the terms ofPrutskiy peace. Russia refused to do so. During negotiations withpromoting British and Dutch ambassadors had agreed thatRussians reject Right Bank (except in Kyiv suburbs) and Westernof Zaporozhye (land on right bank of Kodak), and Turks - do not placeclaims to land and other Cossacks Left Bank of Ukraine. These arrangements wererosiyskoturetskomu fixed in the contract signed in April 1712and contract Adrianopolsky 1713 They were heavy blow to Orlikand his associates. After all, Ukraine was again divided. Authorities are Orlikover the right-bank Ukraine, obtained under the decree of the sultan wasshort. In April 1714 between Turkey and Poland was concludedagreement under which the Right Bank of Ukraine remained in Poland. In June1714 Orlik went to Bender in a trip to Europe where triedcreate a new anti-Russian coalition.
At the invitation of Charles XII Philip Orlik with theirsupporters came to Sweden. In 1720 moved to Germany and thento France. But political support for its plans in the European rulersStates are not found.
After signing the peace rosiyskoshvedskoho NishtadskohoContract 1721 stay on Ukrainian political refugees in allEuropean capitals were viewed as undesirable.
In 1722 Orlik had to go to the territoryTurkey, where he spent the last 20 years. All his diplomatic efforts wereuseless.
- Northern war fell heavily on the shouldersUkrainian people. In such circumstances the policy of the king made hetman I.Mazeppa.
- Hetman in their actions relied on cunning, calculationand intrigues, not the heroism and dedication to people and their leaders. DefeatSwedes in the Battle of Poltava was the defeat of plans for getting HetmanUkraine's independence.
- Merit of Hetman Ivan Mazepa was that he createdprecedent of the Ukrainian elite performance against the Russian center.
- The royal government has made every effort to obliterateHetman in memory of Ukrainian people. He was declared anathema."Mazepa" was called in the Russian Empire, Ukrainiannational liberation movement.
- Hetman merit was that he created a precedentUkrainian elite performance against the Russian center.
- Ended in defeat and attempts to recover P. OrlikCossack state, the emergence of a map of Europe is not included in the plans of thoseWinners of Europe. However, because of P. Orlik in European diplomaticcircles are better imagine the difficulties of the political situation in the Ukrainian lands andUkrainian aspirations.
- P. Orlik enriched the Ukrainian and world history firstconstitution in the modern sense of the word.
1. When and between the States long Northern War? 2.What was the participation of Cossack troops in the first stage of the Great Northern War? 3. Whatmilitary and political actions of Peter was a response to Ivan Mazepa Union of Charles XII?4. How was the course of the battle of Poltava? How it ended? 5. What was the fateIvan Mazepa after the battle of Poltava? 6. When and under what circumstances was P. Orlikelected hetman?
9. What pushed Ivan Mazepa on the union with Sweden? 9. Why I.Mazeppa was unable to prepare to join the Swedish army in the Ukraine? 10. ThatCossacks led to support Ukraine-Swedish alliance? 11. What hetmancy P.Orlik different from all its predecessors? 12. With the purpose P. OrlikCossacks proposed "Covenant and Constitution ...»? 13. Why hikes in P. OrlikUkraine defeated?
14. Make a historical portrait of Ivan Mazepa and P. Orlik.15. Follow the map for events Great Northern War in Ukraine. Markmajor milestones. 16. Make a chronological table of "Ukrainian lands underNorthern War.
17. The fate of the battle of Poltava in Ukraine decided withoutUkrainian participation. Why did it happen?