§ 27. The economic life and political structure of the Left Bank Hetman and Sloboda Ukraine (textbook)

§ 27. The economic life and political structureLeft Bank Hetman and Sloboda Ukraine

1. When formed as a Left Bank Hetman? 2. Howwas administrative and structure of the Ukrainian Cossack state in theHetman Bohdan Khmelnytsky?

 

1. Administrative and order LeftHetman. In the second half of the seventeenth century. Hetman territoryrepeatedly changed, but remained unchanged polkovosotennyy System. OnDeath Khmelnitskogo Hetmanate after the election in MI Vyhovskyconfirms the republican form of government, which soon becomesреспубліканськоолігархічною. Also changing form of government. Inearly 60-ies XVII. with a single state Hetmanbecomes unstable union (confederation), consisting ofRight Bank Hetman, Left Bank Hetman of Zaporozhye. In the firsthalf of the 70's XVII. Cossack division was on the Right Bankeliminated, and Zaporozhye actually came from the subordination of the hetman. Thisway, initiated by B. Khmelnitsky structure survived only to LeftHetmanate and partially spread on the ground novoosvoyeni SlobodaUkraine. On the Left there were 10 regiments, which, in turn, divided intohundreds.

 

Terms and concepts

Confederation (From Lat.Confoederatio - Union, association) - union of separate sovereign states,united by shared governing bodies are created for specific purposes, mainlyforeign policy and war.

 

2. Authorities. Created Khmelnytskyistate apparatus during the second half of the. has essentiallychanges. Only changed the terms of reference of individual authorities and their impact onpolitical development of Cossack Ukraine. Supreme legislative, executive and judicialpower was in the hands of the hetman. At the same time resumed the practice of conveninggeneral councils, which significantly influenced the course of events. Increased roleCouncil officer, who regularly met and solved all the important currentcase. The leading positions held general officers, which sought to limitHetman's power. General Office acted as the central bodygovernance. On the ground, acting regimental and centesimal authorities.Proceedings remained unchanged.

Hetman collapse into three movements adversely affectedin the armed forces. Top 70's XVII. totalLeft Bank Hetman of Cossacks reached 30 thousand, while for Khmelnitskogothere were 100 thousand Zaporozhye could put several thousand Cossacks. Armyconsisted of infantry, cavalry and artillery. Began the creation of unitsmercenaries.

Since late 50-ies XVII. strengthenedMoscow's intervention in the internal affairs of Cossack Ukraine in order to reducepowers and independence of state governments. In 1662Little Russia Moscow government made an order which gave the consent of the kingHetman for elections, could prohibit the appointmentgeneral officers and colonels did not allow independent relations with otherStates assumed the higher judiciary, the clergy controlled the action. Ofend 50-ies XVII. early stages of implementation of provincialrule.

 

3. Social System. Afternatsionalnovyzvolnoyi war social structure of Cossack Ukraine substantiallychanged. Missing Polish magnates, nobles, Catholic clergy. Ukrainiannobility merged with Cossack leaders. In the last decades of the seventeenth century.peasants, commoners, the Cossacks began to lose their hard-won social and propertylaw. Despite changes in society continued to preserve the character of bower. Itdivided into privileged and unprivileged segments. Go to the privileged andnapivpryvileyovanyh strata belonged to the officers, nobility, clergy, Cossackscommoners. Privileged status of the society were the peasants. In the middle of eachconditions existed and property division.

 

Scheme: Socialstructure of Ukrainian society in the second half of XVIIArt. (ND 7.9 cells. P. 107)

 

4. The system of land ownership. Economic development. National liberationWar had a major impact on the system of land tenure and, respectively,economic development of Ukrainian lands, since the foundation sectorremained agriculture.

As a result, the peasantry became natsionalnovyzvolnoyi Waruse Cossack liberties. Earth and lands, which were used withincluding zaymanschynoyu they considered their property. As the Cossack Statedeclared all land owned by his old age, exiled lords and Catholicchurches referred to the military treasure, the villagers and the state becameco-owners of the land. On the Left Bank village, located on military landsTreasure, was called free military villages. Their inhabitants couldsell, buy, donate, pledge, transfer possession of the land. Simultaneouslythey were subject to state to whom perform duties and is paidtaxes.

 

Terms and concepts

Zaymanschyna - An element of common law, which allowed under the first "loan"own land.

 

Earth Cossacks were not subject to military treasure, and sothey did not pay taxes, but instead had their own expense carry militaryservice to the state. In the case of evasion of service, they are excluded fromCossack state, and lost the right to land.

In addition to individual land tenure farmers, townspeople andCossacks kept and collective forms - land ownership in rural communities.In community property were mostly land. Arable land passed inprivate ownership.

On the Left Bank was formedofficers' form of tenure, which in essence resembled gentry,Noble. Officers' tenure existed in two forms: a grade(Temporary) and private (hereditary). Formed with the rank and royal hetmanpozhaluvan officers during her tenure of office; private - with pozhaluvan "onstaff of the home "or" dome "(full) ownership.

Strengthened the position of the Hetman and the monasticland ownership. During the 1657-1672 biennium rulers, nobles and monasteriesgot possession of 275 villages and hamlets. In estates officers and gentry farmerslost freedom, found themselves in court dependency is paid various taxes andperforming duties in the monastery - sometimes served serfdom.

Thus on Leftactually there was a gradual elimination of gains natsionalnovyzvolnoyiWar and recovery raids. The new landowners becameCossack officers, and used the labor of dependent peasants.

In the second half of the seventeenth century. the Left in generalobserved rise of economic life. The leading role is stillplayed by agriculture. This was due to natural and climatic conditions. Officers',Monasteries of the economy and trade grew wealthy Cossacksbread. Expanded plantings under industrial crops, including cannabis. Commoditygradually acquired the nature of horticulture and gardening. Important role in the economyoccupied and animal husbandry. Bred cattle, horses, sheep and pigs.

The farm officers, mostly wealthy Cossacksused hired labor, but increasingly become use casesLabour subordinate peasants. At the end of the seventeenth century. boon gradually gainedpermanent nature.

At this time also developing rapidly and the citybecoming a center of crafts, crafts and trade. In general the Leftthere were close to cities. Such cities as Kyiv, Nizhyn Pereyaslav, Starodub- Had the Magdeburg Law, the smaller - Town Hall. Gradually craft comes ricesmall-scale production. The craftsmen are starting to use free-work. Having and developing sparse manufactory.

There is development and trade centers are formedfair trade. The main trade partner is the Moscow State.

 

5. The emergence and development of Sloboda Ukraine.

Starting from the second half of XVI century. And especially with30's XVII., Slobidska started to colonize Ukrainianpeasants and Cossacks from the Left Bank and Right Bank of Ukraine, who fled from the Polish gentryoppression.

 

Terms and concepts

Sloboda Ukraine (Second name - Sloboda) - Historicalregion, which included the territory of modern Kharkiv, eastern partSumy, north of Donetsk and Lugansk oblasts of Ukraine, south-eastof Voronezh, south-west of Belgorod, Kursk subregions of Russia.

 

SurroundingsKharkov

 

In 1638 moved heremembers of the Cossack uprising led by Y. Ostrainyn (they settled inChuguev). In 1652 large group of peasants and Cossacks and ChernihivNijinsky regiments headed by Ivan Dzykovskym Ostrohozk established, and settlersfrom Stavyshche Bilotserkovskoho regiment led by G. Kondratyev foundedAmounts. In 1654 on the settlement, where the river merged Lopan and Kharkiv wereestablished the region. A similar story had a foundation and such cities asSaltiv, Merepha, Romney, Balakleya, raisins and more. Together with cities aroseand new villages.

Mass migration to the Ukrainian population Slobidskabegan in the second half of the seventeenth century. and was associated with the era ruins. Inupper Seversky Donets, Vorskla, Psla and other river basins of immigrantsestablished many new settlements. At the end of the seventeenth century. the Slobidskathere were 232 settlements (in 1657 - 64), which lived about 250thousand people, among whom were Ukrainian majority (80%).

Based on the settlement of new lands were exempted fromtaxes and so called Sloboda (hence the name "Sloboda Ukraine).The rights of Ukrainian settlers were tied to the king's brevet.Recognition of the power of the king settlers exposed oath. SimultaneouslySlobidska inhabited Moscow served people who were runningroyal magistrates.

In Sloboda Ukraine existedCossack System. In 50-ies XVII. tsarist government formed in UkrainianCossack settlers Slobodskiy shelves: Ostrohozkyy (Rybyns'ka) Ohtirsky,Sumy, Kharkiv. In 1685 Izyumsky regiment was created. The shelves wereCossack military units as well as administrative andunits. The petty officer elected at a general Cossack councils.

Management consisted of regimental colonel and regimentalofficers: ARCHITECTURE, judges, captain, cornet, the two officers. Shelves dividedhundreds. Centesimal management consisted of captain, commander, captain, flag-bearerand writer. Administrative, judicial, financial and military affairs inregiments ignorant colonels in hundreds - hundreds.

Colonels elected for life. In addition, Slobozhanschineoften observed succession of positions of colonel. This was associated withsettlement edge features: Colonel, as a rule, leaders ofimmigration groups. Colonels subject directly Belgorodpalatine. Favorites colonel asserted first governor of Belgorod andthen submitted for approval by the king. Posts hetman Slobozhanschine notwas.

The tsarist government used the Ukrainian settlers toeconomic development and protection of the southern borders of the Moscow Stateattacks of Crimean Tatars and Noghay, fed them with weapons, food,Cossack settlers reserved the privileges and government. Systemtenure in Slobozhanschyna had its peculiarities. In the second halfXVII. there have been many uninhabited land and was active right zaymanschyny.Each settler was free to take as much land as was able toprocess. From time to settle zaymanschynu around town or village becameidentify some land that was distributed among the settlers. Woods,grasslands, rivers and lakes of the population used together. Each regiment had a certainreserve of pristine land to rozporyadzhavsya colonel. However, many settleabandon portions of the regimental fund, as they had tosign up in the Cossacks and carry heavy and dangerous military service. Somostly farmers settled on the lands of the regimental officers and centesimal, where theycan lead to a rather large farm. Receiving the ownership of land,they should go for it on refining - to do work on panschynnibenefit officers.

Cossack officers captured the public lands,small owners forced to sell their dirt-cheap land, owned by villagesand hamlets. During the second half of the seventeenth century. conversion process took placerich ruler of large landowners, among which can be called familyShidlovsky colonels, Donets, Kondratyev.

 

Documents tell

For residents of Sumy regiment appeal to the king

Our grandfathers, fathers, brothersand relatives, and we have come from different zadnipryanskyh hetman and cities inUkraine (meaning Sloboda Ukraine - auth.) At the urgingBelgorod and Kursk magistrates, who assured us the king's word - nottake away from us our liberties. They settle ordered us to protectMoscow is a Ukrainian city of Belgorod line in the wild on the plainsTatar Zaimysche which went under the Tatars in the cities. And to increasepopulation in these towns were commanded to call upon us to live a monk -Ukrainian. We have built Amounts judge Myropillia. Krasnopolye, and other Belopolecities and counties to their village. And we have faith and serve the truth. And when the TartarsMoscow came to plunder the Ukrainian cities, we do not no where the Dnipro Riverbetrayal. Because pozhaluvano us away with divers liberties and zaymanschyny allowed to occupy,apiary and all sorts of soils and wind up all sorts of trades without promyshlyaty chynshu(Tax - Ed.), The old Ukrainian custom.

1. As the population formed Slobozhanshchina? 2. What roleUkrainian settlers played in the development of Muscovite-Tatar frontier? 3.What was the attitude of the king's authority to settlers?

 

6. The subordination of the UkrainianOrthodox Church Moscow Patriarchate. Since the adoption of the Ukrainian state under royal protection Moscowgovernment did not abandon attempts to subjugate the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the Moscowpatriarch. This would enable not only politically, but through the soul of believerscontrol over Ukraine. In addition, vybyvalasya to another brace Ukrainianstatehood. Despite all attempts to commit this act, the Ukrainian clergyprotyvylosya him, realizing that it actually loses the existing independence(Patriarch of Constantinople had influenced the life of the Kyiv Metropolis). The largestopponent was Joseph Tukals'kyy Metropolitan of Kyiv, which strongly supportedhetman Doroshenko. After his death in 1675 Moscow has stepped uptheir attempts to subdue the Kyiv Metropolis. Watershed are the eventsfirst half of 1680-ies In 1684 Kiev-Pechersk Lavraremoved zpid authorities and subject to the Patriarch of ConstantinopleMoscow. The Moscow government has sent Jacob the Patriarch of Constantinopleroyal charter of the Moscow Patriarchate to allow the proposal to ordainMetropolitan of Kyiv. Not waiting for an answer (it was negative), KingI. Samoylovych ordered to hold elections of the Kyiv Metropolitan, which hastarried decade, and to send it to ordination to Moscow. Samoylovychnot dare to contradict the will of the king, and in July 1685 Council convenedelected Metropolitan Bishop of Kiev Lutsk Gideon (PrinceSvyatopolk-Chetvertynsky). Check out Gideon ordination was preceded in Moscow EmbassyUkrainian clergy, which was asked to confirm the ancient rights and libertiesKiev Commonwealth. Patriarch of Moscow granted the request. Gideonwent to Moscow, where in December 1685 received permission to metropolitan. Heofficially given the title "Metropolitan of Kyiv, Galician and Little Russia", andtraditional title of Metropolitan of Kiev - and All Russia "-withdrawn. Meanwhile, Moscow's diplomats zalahodzhuvaly this issue in Istanbul(Constantinople). Zaluchyvshys support the great vizier Ports and generously obdaruvavshyConstantinople Patriarch Dionysius, Muscovy in 1686 gained fromhis consent to the transfer of the Kyiv Metropolis Moscow Patriarchate.

This event was for the Ukrainian Orthodox Churchdisaster. It has lost its former self. Moscow Patriarchinitiated the process of falling away from Metropolis individual dioceses (first becameChernigov) and monasteries (Mezhyhirska Kyiv and Kyiv Pechersk Lavra), whichwere directly subordinated to the Patriarch. But most important was thatUkrainian church began to lose its identity, and the Moscow government receivedsignificant factor of influence on the Ukrainian soul.

 

Conclusions

- Left Administratyvnopolitychnyy SystemHetman was based on the principles firmly established during the formationUkrainian Cossack state. However, changes occurred in the role of some bodies limitedHetman's power.

- The Left Bank Hetmanate and SlobodaCommunity bower nature preserves. Actively shaped ruling cliqueCossack society, the nobility and higher clergy. Rapidly growingraids.

- During the second half of the. israpid development of agriculture, which was caused by increased demandfor agricultural production, population growth and developmentnew lands.

- Mass colonization Slobozhanshchina Ukrainian populationwas caused by wartime second half of the seventeenth century. EndXVII. Slobozhanschine existed on dozens of cities and towns. They successfullydeveloped crafts, crafts and trade.

- Submission of the Kyiv Orthodox MetropolisMoscow Patriarchate weakened political position of the Hetman government and littlefar-reaching consequences for the Ukrainian state, culture and church life.

 

FAQtask

1. What were the territorial-administrative system andmanagement system of the Left? 2. What was in this time of social structureUkrainian society? What were the ruling strata? 3. What were the reasonsUkrainian colonization Slobozhanshchina? Whence comes this region name? 4. Thatis "zaymanschyna? 5. What forms of land tenure have characterized the Cossackspeasantry? 6. What were the territorial-administrative structure and management systemSlobozhanshchina? What is their specificity? 7. What was the economic developmentUkrainian lands?

 

8. Due to what was of greatland ownership in Ukraine? What were its main form? 9. What factorsinfluence on the economy and Left Bank Hetman Slobozhanshchina? 10.Under what circumstances Ukrainian Orthodox Church lost its autocephalous? Whatthis has consequences?

 

11. Identify the main stages of the Ukrainian colonizationSlobozhanshchina. Write them down in a chronological table. 12. Comparesocial order Left Bank Hetman Slobozhanshchina. The answer should contain thea table.

 

Generalization on "Ukrainian lands in the 60-80's being restored. "

1.         Foldlist of events in the Ukrainian lands during the 60-80's seventeenthArt. that you consider most important. Justify your choice.

2.         Explainvalue concepts and terms "Left Hetman", "Sloboda", "Desolation""Chortomlyk Sich", "protectorate".

3. Analyze the content of the most important agreements between foreignStates concerned Ukrainian lands: Andrusiv Truce (1667)Buchatskiy peace treaty (1672), Zhuravnynskyy peace treaty (1676), BakhchisarayContract (1681).

 4.        What are the names of prominent historical figuresthis period. What do you see their contribution to the history of Ukraine in XVII century.

5.         Dotask for historical maps: a) Follow as varied territoryHetman in the events 60-80's being restored. B) compare the territory Hetmanateby B. Hmelntskoho and after the ruins, c) name the territory Hetmanatewhich were controlled by Poland, Muscovy and Turkey, d) show onmap: events Muscovite-Ukrainian war 1658-1659 biennium; Polish troops marchand Cossack regiments Hetman P. Teteria on the Left Bank, hiking Hetman P.Doroshenko, hiking Chygyryns'ka Turkish-Tatar army, the most important placesbattles, the signing of major contracts; centers regiments Left Bank Hetmanand Sloboda Ukraine; residence Left Bank and Right-Bank Hetman.

6.         Why doyou believe in the events 60-80's being restored. failed to preserve the unity of Ukraine?What are the facts that prove that none of the allies Ukrainian Hetmannot defended the interests of Ukraine, and concerned only its own interests.

7.         Setchronological sequence of the reign of Hetman 1657 to 1687

8.         Comparedomestic and foreign policies Left-bank and right-bank hetmans. Definecommon and different, point value and impact.

9. Make a table: "Moscow-Ukrainian agreements1659-1687 biennium.

 

Testtask to the theme of Ukrainian lands in the 60-80's being restored. "

1.      Is it included Ukrainian Cossack state all Ukrainianethnic country? A) Yes;  B)No.

2.      The supreme organ of power in the Ukrainian Cossack state was:a) General (military) council; b) the officers' council, and c) General military office;d) Koshova Council.

3.      Hetman's power in the Ukrainian Cossack statespread: a) the Cossacks, and b) the Cossacks and peasants; c) all statesUkrainian society; d) Cossack nobility and burghers.

4.      What took place between the Battle of KonotopUkraine and Poland-proletarian forces and Moscow?  a) 1657 b) 1658;  c) 1659;  d) 1660

5.      Of which provinces in terms of the agreement had Hadiachcomprise the territory of Rus principalities? a) Bratslav, Kiev, Chernigov; b)Kiev, Podolsk, Ruthenian, and c) Podolski, Volyn, Kyiv, d)Chernihiv, Russians, Podolski.

6.      The territorial division of Cossack Ukraine and the Left BankRight bank was politically attached to the emergence of two separate Hetmanate: a)1662; b) 1663; c) 1664 d) 1665

7.      Which articles of the Ukrainian lands and cities were firstholdings declared tsar? a) Baturinsky; b)Pereyaslivska c) Moscow, d) Gluhovskom.

8.      Under whose authority was Zaporizhzhya Sich in 1667-1686he? a) Moscow State b) the Commonwealth; c) both of theseStates.

9.      What year near the town of Cossack Council KorsunDoroshenko endorsed the decision of taking the protection of Turkish sultan? a)1665; b) 1669; c) 1675 d) 1676

10.  Aftercreation of the Ukrainian Cossack state Zaporizhzhya Sich: a)retain some autonomy and authority subject to the hetman; b) lostautonomy and was subject to a hetman in) gained full independence andadhere to the Hetman.

11.  In 50-iesXVII. the Slobidska formed four Cossack regiments: a) Izyumsky; b)Ostrohozkyy; c) Ohtirsky; d) Slobodskoy; d)Sumy; e) Kharkov; E) Chernihiv g) Starodubsky.

12.  Slobodskiyshelves administratively and militarily subordinate to: a)left-bank hetman b) Slobodian Hetman; c)Belgorod Province GovernorD) ataman Zaporizhzhya Sich.

 

EncyclopediaPage

1652-1709 biennium - January Chortomlyk

50-ies of the seventeenthArt. - Formation of regiment Slobidsky

1658 -Hadiach agreement

1658-1659 biennium -Ukraine-Muscovite War

09/08 July 1659R. - Battle of Konotop

1659 -conclusion of the Moscow-Ukraine Pereiaslav articles

1660 -conclusion of Ukraine-Polish treaty Slobodyshche

1663 - DivisionUkrainian state into right and left bank Ukraine

1663 - elected for the first time I. Sulfur ataman

October 1663 -March 1664 - march Tatar-Polish-Ukrainian forces on the Left Bankled King Jan Kazimierz

1664-1665 biennium -anti-Polish and antyhetmanske revolt on the Right Bank

1665 -conclusion of Moscow Moscow-Ukraine articles

1665-1676 biennium - hetman Doroshenko

January 30, 1667- Signing between Muscovy and the Commonwealth Andrusovotruce.

1669 - conclusion of Moscow-Ukraine HlukhivskyArticles

1670 - signing the Ukraine-Polish Ostrozki articles

1672 - conclusion of Moscow-Ukraine BaturinskyArticles

1672 - signing the Polish-Turkish peace Buchach

1676 - signing the Polish-Turkish Zhuravnenskohopeace treaty

1677 - First trip Chigirinsky Turkish-Tatartroops

1678 - Second trip Chigirinsky Turkish-Tatartroops

January 13, 1681 - the signing of peace between BahchisarayskogoMuscovy and the Ottoman Empire

1686 -subordination of the Kiev Patriarchate, the Moscow metropolis