§ 26. Zaporizhzhya Sich in the second half of the seventeenth century.Ataman Ataman Ivan Sirko
1. What role was played in the events of JanuaryNatsionalnovyzvolnoyi war? 2. What was the structure of Zaporizhzhya Sich?
1. Role in Zaporizhzhya Sich voyennopolitychnyh eventssecond half of the seventeenth century. After the creation of the Ukrainian Cossack state ZaporizhzhyaJanuary subject to the Hetman's power, although it retained some autonomy in domesticlife. However Zaporozhye officers wanted to play an independent role inpolitical life of the Cossack Ukraine. This weakened the power of the hetmandestabilized the situation in the country. Realizing this, Bohdan Khmelnytsky and his successorssometimes suppressed by force antyhetmanski performances Cossacks. After the death of B.Khmelnitsky Zaporozhye vyokremylosya state formation in which formallypidporyadkovuvalosya Hetman, conducting independent internal and externalpolicy. This policy was often contradict with the policy of Hetman.
The confrontation between the hetman and the officers were Zaporozhyaprofitable royal government. In particular, Hetman Vyhovskyy appealCossack chieftain James Barabash assistance from Moscow gave her an extra reason tomeddling in the Cossack Ukraine. As the Cossacks stood forHetman's power restrictions, the royal government was beneficial to maintain them inconflicts. Thanks to the support and assistance of the Cossacks of Moscow, as you knowwon the hetman's mace I. Bryukhovetsky.
After the conclusion of a truce Andrusovo 1667 ZaporizhzhyaJanuary was under control of the Commonwealth and the Muscovite state, and in factcarried out an independent policy, guided by only their own interests. In "Eternalpeace "in 1686 January subordinated only to the Moscow Tsar. It was fromthis time were forbidden any relationship with Poland and the Cossacks CrimeanKhanate, and for control of lands Zaporozhye Cossacks built a fortressplaced where the Moscow garrison.
In 1652 Cossacks have shifted theircapital from the open steppe before Mykytyn in the Horn region Dnieper flowing onChortomlyk island that was located at the confluence of the Dnieper Strait Chortomlyk(Near the modern village of Kapulovka Nikopolschyni). The area was moreprotected from attacks of Tatars natural hazards. From the description in 1672known that the Cossacks erected here and the powerful artificial reinforcement.
2. The device Sich. For years natsionalnovyzvolnoyiWar on Sich too, there were certain changes. Cossacks united in booths -military and адміністративногосподарські unit. They were also young men andboys who were preparing to become Cossacks - moons and djour. He headed the battalionAtaman. His Cossacks chose a booth. During military campaigns smoking-Cossacksformed regiments and hundreds, colonels and captains were elected.
Union of Cossacks in one organizationcalled Koshem, Zaporizhska Sich. Her head ataman. Smokingatamans with kosh ruled Sich. Under conditions of almost constant fightingTheir role grew. Even the title appeared Cossack hetman.
In the tradition followed in the current Sich Cossackdemocracy and social equality. There were Cossack Council. They, in particular,Cossacks were divided between land booth, chose Kosh, clerk, judge,captain and other officers.
Prolonged war and turmoil contributed to the influx of willingjoin the "brotherhood" Cossacks. Most of them were impoverished and insulted by thatJanuary turned a potentially explosive environment in which sharply reacting toany harassment and restrictions on rights and freedoms.
Council to Host (diorama)
3. Ataman Ivan Sirko. One ofknown atamans Zaporizhzhya Sich second half of the seventeenth century. JohnLassie (early seventeenth century. - 1680). He made more than 60 battlestroops against Turkey, the Crimean Khanate and Noghay hordes. It is believed that underhis leadership, the Cossacks fired more than 100 thousand prisoners.
IV Sirko in battle
Polish chronicler of Vispasian Kohovskyy I.Sulfur
"Terrible horde was because he was experienced inmilitary actions and courageous knight. In Crimea the name suggested afear that kept the horde daily and was ready to fight if Lassie hasattacked. Tatars seriously considered it Shaitan and even their children whenthey cried and they could not calm down, frightened Lassie, saying: "Lassie goes.Lassie was the man hozhym, combat character, not afraid nor slush, nor frost, norheat. He was alert, careful, patient znosyv hunger was strongest in militarydangers and always sober. In the summer he was on the threshold (Dnieper) andwinter - the Ukrainian border. He did not like to waste time or upadatyWomen's circle, constantly fought with the Tatars, against which was a natural hatred. Onface he had a natural sign, as if some kind of purple.
1. How characterizes I. Sulfur Polish chronicler? What henotes? 2. Who is considered the main enemies of I. Lassie?
The figure of John Sirko - one of the most controversialUkrainian history. For the first time in written sources mention the name of Ivan Sirko 1653In 1658-1660 he was Podolski Cossacks elected its Vinnitsa (kalnytskym)colonel. Lassie was among those who opposed Hetman I. Vygovsky.He organized and carried out military campaign against Ackerman, causingdecay Ukraine Tatar Union and gave the possibility to use Vyhovskyresults of the victory of Konotop. IV Sirko with his Cossacks forcedVyhovsky deny mace and did his best to hit it into the hands of J.Khmelnitsky. For this he received the award from the Russian Tsar - "two hundredgold and three hundred rubles sables.
IV Sirko(Reconstruction in skull)
After signing Slobodyshche treatise in 1660,made against him, left polkovnytstvo went to Kiev. In 1660-1661he participated in campaigns against the Cossacks of Crimean Khanate. AfterI. Briukhovetsky elected hetman in 1663 became the first Lassie koshZaporizhia Army chieftain. In 1663 Lassie made two successful trips toCrimea, causing significant lesions Mongol hordes. The following year, together withMoscow's troops, he made a trip to the Right Bank and defeated troopsPolish Colonel Stefan Chernetsky and right-bank hetman PavloTeteria.
After the conclusion Andrusovo truce in 1667 betweenMuscovy and the Commonwealth Lassie II while maintained in Doroshenkohis struggle for the reunification of Cossack Ukraine, but afterright-bank hetman decided to accept the protectorate of the Turkish sultan, gaveagainst him. Autumn of 1667 was colonel Ivan Kharkov Lassie regimentSlobozhanschyna and made a trip to Crimea: Cossack 8000th army routedTatar horde at the very Kafa (Feodosia), and liberated about two thousand prisoners.This triumphant march turned defeat for Doroshenko in the fight for unionUkraine, he lost allies Tatars.
In 1670 the Cossacks again elected Sulfur his kosh.That year he made a trip to Ochakov, Turkish fortress on the coastBlack Sea, conquered and destroyed it.
In October 1671 a new volte-face - together with Ivan SirkoM. Khanenko sworn Commonwealth and pledged to fight with the CrimeanKhanate.
In 1672 after removal from power Mnohohrishny D.IV Sirko decided to fight for the hetman's mace, but was defeated.Poltava Colonel Theodore Zhuchenko took Seurat captured and deliveredMoscow Tsar. Sera was sentenced and sent to Siberia.
Spring 1672 moved to Ukraine 300,000thTurkish army. The Turks threatened to destroy not only the Ukrainian lands, but alsolands of the Commonwealth and Muscovy. It appeared that the commander whocould not counteract it. And then, at the request of the Polish king, I.Sulfur was removed. In June 1673 he was already back on the Sich. CollectedCossacks, the glorious leader of Cossacks storm took Aslam, then Ochakov andcaptured a large group ordyntsev.
Angry Sultan Mehmed IV in 1674 sent to the Cossacksletter of request to stop the attacks, to surrender and accept his protection. Cossacksanswered biting letter. (For this historic artist Ilya Repin plotcreated the famous picture "The Cossacks Writing Letter to Turkish Sultan").
Winter 1675 Turkish-Tatar armyunexpectedly moved in January. Cossacks, albeit late and rushed to find enemies indogfight. Host fled with only fifteen hundred Janissaries, 150 are incaptivity. Cossacks in this battle lost only 50 people. death.
Summer 1675 IV Sirko made a trip to the CrimeanKhanate. He destroyed many towns and villages, as well as the capital of khanate Bakhchysaray.Host Khan was broken, and he was forced to flee.
However, the use of Ukraine won chieftain could notDesolation was given effect.
In 1676 during the abdication of power received from Doroshenkoit Regalia hetman. During the marches in 1677 and Chigirinsky 1678 basketfought against the Turkish-Tatar army troops and Y. Khmelnitsky. ItsLassie made a last trip in early 1679, when completely destroyed TurkishFortress, which hindered the release Cossack "Seagull" from the Dnieper to the Black Sea. For thisdesperate action sultan sent a large army to curb the Cossacks. However,when the Turks found the Cossacks were prepared for defense and forward, backback.
In the summer of 1680 the old basket was sick and died soonon his farm Hrushivka (now Dnipropetrovsk region Illinka Tomakivskyregion).
3. Economic development Zaporozhye. In the secondhalf of the seventeenth century. economic life of Zaporozhye little changed compared withprevious period. Every year between Kurens distributed prairie lands, rivers andlake. There Cossacks were hunting, beekeeping, fished. Mostvalue for them it was fished. The need for salt for this fishery has contributedchumachestvo development.
In addition to the Cossacks, in the summer crafts engaged in ZaporozhyeLeft Bank and Right Bank cossacks and peasants and townspeople from all Ukrainianlands.
The basis of the economy as constituted Zaporozhye cattle.Him engaged primarily in winterers - hamlet farms where winterkept livestock. Mostly bred cattle, horses and sheep.Insufficient farming through constant military threat and nolarge numbers of workers. In addition, the Cossacks, who condescendingly treated peasantsfelt that farming is not worthy for them exercise. In the Host worked many artisansthat produced weapons, gunpowder, balls for guns, ammunition, economic tools,sea and river boats and more.
Important role played by Zaporozhye and trade. ThroughZaporozhye laid the important trade routes. Cossacks gathered from merchants dutycarries, and on ferries, styahuvaly various fees for providing leadership, healthetc.. Cossacks maintained trade ties with Hetmanate, Crimea, Poland,Muscovy. Cossacks took out the fish, oxen, horses, sheep, honey, wax, and purchasedgrain, salt, weapons, textiles and more.
But economic activity Cossacksdid not provide the full needs. Additional source of their financialwere the king of salaries and wages hetman money, cloth,military supplies, and war booty.
- In the Ukrainian Cossack state Zaporizhzhya Sichsubject to the Hetman's power, although retained some autonomy in domesticlife. Zaporizhzhya officers wanted to play an independent role in politicslife of the Cossack Ukraine. This weakened the power of the Hetman, destabilizedsituation in the country.
1. How did administrative powersZaporizhzhya Sich during the second half of the.? 2. What was the systemHost Department? 3. Where there and wore that name in January of 1652? 4.In which sectors of the economy based economy Zaporozhye?
5. What goals had set the Cossacks, makingcampaigns against the Ottoman Empire and Crimean Khanate? 6. Why Moscow kingsCossacks supported the rivalry with the hetman of Ukraine? 7. What changesoccurred within Zaporozhye company? How are they affecting the Host?
8. Make a historical portrait of Ivan Sirko. 9. Foldtable "Facilities Zaporizhzhya Sich.
Role in the economy Host
10. Can I say that in 1660-1670-iesZaporizhzhya Sich played a destructive role
11. What do you think the role of the Cossack Ataman I.Sulfur events in ruins? Can I say that his victory brought moreUkraine grief than good?