§ 24. Right Bank and Left Bank Hetman in60-80's XVII.
1. When and in which the events took place split Ukrainethe Left Bank and Right Bank? 2. What the state wanted to acquire Ukrainianland?
1. Hetman Doroshenko, reunification of Ukraine. Fundamentallynew situation that happened after the conclusion Andrusovo truce demandedUkrainians of cohesion in defending their own interests. For thethis line was needed strong personality. That person became hetman Peter Doroshenko (1665-1676 biennium).
The figure in the history of
Among the leaders of the Cossack state that era figure Hetman Doroshenkois the brightest. He is even called "Ruins of the Sun." Doroshenko was born in1627 in Chygyryn in Cossack family. His grandfather was a hetman Doroshenko M.Zaporizhia Army (tragically died), and his father - a colonel during the B.Khmelnitsky.
Doroshenko took extensive education, knew Latin and Polish.Heroic death of his grandfather was for him a brilliant example of unconditionaldevotion to the nation. In single parent in 1930 he became colonelGood Friday regiment, and then Cherkasky Chigirinskogo regiments in the army B.Khmelnitsky.
For a time he worked with Hetman Ivan Vyhovsky and then with Y.Khmelnytsky. While in Chyhyryn, he had the opportunity to meet with governmentproblems and formulate our own opinion on the situation in Ukraine. And becoming Hetmangot a chance to realize their vision in life.
Originally Doroshenko subordinated all his powerRight Bank and by austerity measures brought order: city under reconstruction,Updating economy and government. It was created 20-thousandth armySerdyuk. But the visionary plans for the Right Bank resources wereenough. The war that was fought here in 1648 killed 65-70% of the population.
Serdiuky on the march
Terms and concepts
Serdiuky - Mercenaries are recruited hetmans mainlywith Moldavians.
For the unifying policy of P. Doroshenko, asB. Khmelnitsky ever decided to rely on the Crimean Khanate. He firsttried to conquer the western lands: Volyn, West Podolia, Galicia,that would create the basis for further combat. There were significant human resources and thisterritory relatively little affected by the fighting. However, it Western campaign (September-October1667) together with Tatars proved unsuccessful. Tatars do not miss the occasionyasyr to rob and that even caused the resistance of the population. This advantagePolish crown hetman Jan Sobieski, who skillfully forged defense. Butfinally plucked plan Doroshenko - march of Kharkiv regiment I. Sera fromCossacks in Crimea. In the decisive moment (Jan Sobieski was besiegedUkraine-Tatar army in the fortified camp near Pidhaitsi) concluded Tatarspeace with the Poles and returned to Crimea. Doroshenko had to make the PolesPidgajets'ka contract (1667)under which he acknowledged allegiance to the king and allowed the Polish nobilityreturn to their estates.
Hetman invites the tsaraccept the protection provided reunification Cossack Ukraine. For Moscow thiswould mean breaking Andrusiv agreement, and that she did not want to go throughinternal problems (raging insurgency S. Razin (1667-1671 gg)).
Meanwhile, the Left broke antymoskovskeuprising. In February, 1668 Bryukhovetsky disappointed kingnationality, seeking to retain power, announced a break with Moscow. Shortlywith most of the Left-bank Ukraine was driven royal magistrates. Flaredrebellion and the Slobidska headed by Ivan Sirko.
This situation decided to use P. Doroshenko.With the support of the Left Bank and the ruler of the Crimean Khanate, it is in June1668 joined the Left Bank. Left-bank Cossacks regiments killedBriukhovetsky and joined Doroshenko. OnTotal Cossack council elected hetman Doroshenko entire Cossack Ukraine.It was an undeniable success hetman, but this development did not suitneighbors. Associates Hetman Kyiv Metropolitan J. Tuhalskyy orderedremember the Left Bank in churches not king, but "pious and God givenHetman Petro.
Meanwhile, Polish troopsinvaded by Bratslavshchina. To organize the resistance of Poland was forced Doroshenkoreturn to the right bank, leaving the Left acting hetmanDemian Mnohohrishny. Beating the offensive Poles, Doroshenko was beforenew internecine strife. Zaporozhye, which supported the Crimean Khanate, declaredHetman of Zaporozhye scribe Peter winds(1668-1669 biennium).
Dry wind obtained the support of the Crimeaback with him an agreement that recognized the supremacy of the Crimean Khan over Ukraine. Twoarchenemy, the Crimea, Zaporozhye, united, each pursuing its goal.Crimea was burdened with dependence on Istanbul and tried to find yourself an ally, Zaporozhye- Tried to maintain their independence and believed that it should be Januaryplay a leading role in Ukraine.
2. Internecine struggle. Adoption of the Turkish protectorate(1668-1669 biennium). Trying to avoid internecine strife and war in the Crimea, P.Doroshenko has written to the embassy to Istanbul with the proposals, in which Ukraineagreed to accept Turkish protectorate. Termswere as follows: within the country should be all Ukrainian landswas from Wisla bridge and Przemysl and Sombor in the west to Sevska and Putivlya onthe east, population zvilnyalosya from taxes and tributes; Orthodox Churchwas to obtain autonomy, Turks and Tatars in Ukraine are prohibiteddestroy the village, take yasyr, make mosques more. Most of these conditionsTurkish Sultan Mehmed IV took.
Sultan Mehmed IV
Terms and concepts
Protectorate - A form of dependence of one state from another, more powerful. State whichis under the protectorate, enjoys some autonomy in internalcases, while the side issues, foreign policy, andmost important domestic issue to be controlled by the strongerside.
Meanwhile, the Left Bank of Moscow moved troops toled by G. Romadanovskym. Mnohohrishny offensive and could not stand the pressure ofelders and the clergy went to the side of Moscow, passing oath king. In December1668 Council on petty Chernihiv, Nijinsky and Starodubregiments he was proclaimed hetman.
This situation was exploited by dry wind, which took undercontrol south of the Left Bank. Hostilities erupted. Mnohohrishny with Moscowforces ousted the winds and Tatar troops supporting it onRight Bank.
Getman D. Mnohohrishny
During the election Д. Mnohohrishny hetman of total Cossack council in March1669 in Hlukhiv adopted new treaty article with Moscow.Signing Glukhivs'ka articleThe king's government, scaredscale antymoskovskyh sentiment went to some concessions. In particular, Moscowmagistrates had to stay only in five cities (Kyiv, Pereyaslav, Nizhyn, Chernigov,Oster), and their functions are limited to only military matters. Collection of taxeslocal people went to the hetman officers. Hetman, stillforbidden to conduct foreign relations, but his representativesallowed to be present at the ambassadorial conventions where issues were resolved,connected with the Cossack Ukraine. Getman was entitled to a wageCavalry troops "kompaniytsiv" number one thousand. They relied functionmaintaining order. A separate paper is provided for the return to Ukraine gunsbells, silver vessels and books seized by soldiers G. Romadanovskoho. Transitionpeasants in Cossack limited. Ukrainian prohibited from selling tobacco and vodkain Moscow city.
Getman moved his residence (capital) of Hadiach toBaturin. As of Moscow took a thousand archers. From that timeMoscow's troops were always assigned to the residence of the left bankhetman.
At that time the embassy has returned from Istanbul. P.Doroshenko in the third decade of March held in Korsun enhanced officers' councilwork in which representatives of the Left Bank and Zaporozhye. She decidedaccept the protectorate of Turkey (without swearing Sultan) and confirmedlife right Hetman Doroshenko on both sides of the Dnieper. Against suchdecision made by the Cossacks, the steward of the Cossacks, peasants and commoners, inconsciousness that Turkey remained mortal enemy.
In May Cossacks again declared droughts P.Hetman, on the side which went Korsunskogo Cossack regiments and Uman.Fierce fighting ensued, in which dry wind was defeated. In August ofCossack hetman declared Colonel Uman M. Khanenko(1699-1670 biennium), which Poland has supported and armed resistance continued.Dry wind became a clerk with him.
Hetman M. Khanenko
In September 1670 signed Khanenko Ostroz'ki articleFor which the Cossacks returned to nationality inPolish king and refused any kind of relations with other states. In returnCossacks preserved ancient liberties, proclaimed "security, freedoms and respectin perpetuity "to the Orthodox clergy.
From the "report to" Lviv Bishop JosephShumlyansky (March 1671)
Doroshenko verystrong, absolutely dominates and uses them publicly with love. Whilethere ... (In Chygyryn - Ed.), And while returning back, did not hear about itNo bad words. These people are peasants, and independent nation. Disappeared therehrubiyanstvo tyranny. Drunkenness and other barbarity. The people of Tukals'kyyspends the night or morning. Prosperity, pomp seen - it's not like the CossackHetman, and as the greatest Polish master.
1. As Bishop describes the situation on the Right Bank.To which he draws attention? 2. What mark gives Doroshenko bishop?
3. Treason against D. Mnohohrishny. Konotop article1672 Shortly after the signing of left-bank Hlukhivsky articlesHetman led course to restore the rights of Cossack Ukraine during Khmelnitskogoand ceased to coordinate its policy with Moscow. He restored ties with APDoroshenko and began to provide him with military assistance, has deprived many posts promokovskyminded officers. In 1672 these officers fabricated the case of "treason"Hetman, conspired with the Moscow shooter was arrested and Mnohohrishnyhis companions and sent to Moscow. After the torture was sentenced Mnohohrishny D.to death by a last minute replaced by exile to Siberia.
New Left Bank Hetman was elected loyalconfigured to Moscow John Samoilovych(1672-1687 biennium). When his election was approved KonotopArticleWhich basically repeated Glukhivs'ka article in 1669, butand new restrictions contained power Hetman:
- Prince had no right to dismiss and judgeofficers without board with all the officers;
- Hetman prohibited without the king's decree and consentCouncil officer to write to foreign sovereigns, and especially to the Hetman PavloDoroshenko;
- Provisions on the need for the presence ofHetman messengers at the convention when discussing the cases, which affected the Ukraine wereremoved.
4. Fighting for the Right Bank. OnRight Bank in the late 60-ies XVII. situation was very difficult.Go to the internecine fighting added military rivalry for this region of Poland,Muscovy and Turkey.
The Polish government recognized the right-bank hetman M. Khanenkoand summer 1671 began military operations against Doroshenko. Autumn crownHetman Jan Sobieski captured Bratslavshchina. In 1672 side DoroshenkoTurkey acted. She demanded her transfer from Eastern Poland skirts.The worst thing was that the Ukrainian took part in the confrontation with bothsides nyschachy each other in fratricidal war.
In July 1672 Turkish army led by Sultansituated in Chernivtsi. Meanwhile Doroshenko led successful actions against Khanenko andPoles Bratslavshchina. Soon after, he united the forces of Turks took to siegeKamenets and soon it got. More integrated troops approachedto the city.
These defeats forced the Poles to sign in October 1672 Buchach in generalTurkey. By Buchatskiy peace treaty recognized the existence of the CommonwealthUkrainian Cossack state under the protection of the Turkish sultan withinBratslavshchina and South Kiev. Eastern Podolia passed under the powerTurkey and the rest of Right Bank remained under Polish rule. Polandobliged to pay tribute. Buchatskiy peace proved wrongPolicy Doroshenko, who in the struggle for unification of Ukraine hoped to leanon Turkey.
Polish Diet refused to endorse Buchatskiy peace and warcontinued. Spring 1673 Polish army led by Jan Sobeskimrouted the Turkish army in Chernivtsi. However, Jan Sobieski, who wasproclaimed king of the Commonwealth, resolving the fate of the Ukrainian lands postponedand then to focus on European affairs. In 1676 he concluded Zhuravnenskyy peace treatyBy whichPoland recognized by Turkey skirts, but for most of the hetman Doroshenkoof the Right Bank, but Bilotserkivskyi Pavolotskoho and regiments. In returnskasovuvalasya annual tribute to Turkey. But this agreement was not approvedDiet, and then the fighting resumed.
Moscow State accepted the agreement as Buchatskiydenial of the Commonwealth of Right-Bank Ukraine at the end of 1673launched military action against Doroshenko. Prior to March 167470000th Muscovite-Ukrainian troops came over the major cities of the Right Bank.On board for the petty Pereyaslav March 17, 1674Samoilovych proclaimed hetman "both sides of the Dnieper. However, the associationall of Ukraine under the same mace was not long. Turks and Tartars, who cameto help Doroshenko, forced Moscow-Ukrainian troops retreatLeft Bank. Turkish troops destroyed the church, demanded payment of tribute,robbed and took captive population. Moreover Bratslavshchina again capturedPoles. Doroshenko was in a quandary. His authority extended onlyon Chigirin and its environs. Seeing how everything is destroyed, he decided to abandonfrom Turkish protectorate and recognize the power of the Muscovite tsar. He swore to herbefore ataman I. Sirko, and he reported it Samoylovych. AsZaporozhye did not recognize the legality of Hetman Samoylovicha, it is hopedspring of 1676 to convene a general council to elect the Hetman of all Ukraine.But the Moscow government did not recognize the act and demanded an oath repeated the oath. InSeptember 1676, when the army surrounded the Moscow Chyhyryn Doroshenko toavoid bloodshed, put the mace of the gates and took the oath the king.
With the abdication of Hetman Doroshenko, according to historians(V. Smolii, V. Stepankova et al.) Ended the last phase of Ukrainiannational revolution, which began in 1648
5. Hetmanship I. Samoilovych. HetmanSamoilovych lasted 15 years. He tried to reunite Ukraine's Cossack forcerelying on Moscow's troops. To drain their opponents, he destroyedRight Bank towns and villages and their populations forced to move to the leftbank of the Dnieper ("Big Unit 1678-1679 biennium). However, to connect the Right BankSamoylovych and could not, because he faced the fight for the interests of ThingsCommonwealth, the Moscow State and the Ottoman Empire.
Stronger measures Hetman protydiyavZaporizhzhya Sich attempts to play the role of independent political force. Getman,in fact, ended the convocation of general councils and the Cossacks called themselves"Supreme ruler and master of the fatherland." Samoylovych Institute launched "Bunchukovyh comrades", Which belongedChildren, elders, which my youth, being surrounded by hetmanprepared to embrace the future leadership positions. Hetman promoted becomingHetman tenure.
The desire to Samoilovych an exclusive power of attraction tointroduction of the monarchical form of government in Ukraine worried royal government. AmongLeft Bank officers were many unhappy greed and extortion hetman.That denunciation by officers that Samoylovych going to betray the king, and it wasremoved from office. The new Hetman was Ivan Mazepa(1687-1709 biennium).
6. The return to power Khmelnitsky Yu. Chygyryns'kaTurkish army raids. Bakhchisarai peace 1681 Afterdenial of Hetman Doroshenko Turkish government tried to keep it under hisRight Bank protectorate by Khmelnytsky Yu. In 1677 sultanMuhammad IV presented him with mace loud the title "Prince Sarmatia and UkraineZaporizhia Army ruler. Spring 1677 together with the Turkish armyYu inc appeared in Ukraine. However, local people with disbeliefregarded to obey his call Turks and expressed particularready to go at the new hetman.
In early August 1677 100,000thTurkish and Tatar army together with a detachment of supporters came to KhmelnytskyChyhyryn and took it to the siege. Attempts to persuade Yuri Khmelnitsky Cossacks on theside were in vain. Assault City, too, was unsuccessful. Once on the supportGarrison Chyhyryn came 57000th Muscovite and Ukrainian troops, led byRomodanovskym Samoylovych and the Turks were forced to lift the siege and withdraw.
In July 1678 200,000th Turkish-Tatar armyagain invaded Ukraine and again tried to grab Chigirin. In supportbesieged came 70000th Moscow and 50000th Cossack army. EventuallyTurks undermine undermined by a shaft and broke the lower city. Cossacksretreated to the fortress. Moscow army refused to help.Romodanovskyy had a secret order of the king to hand over the city, but do as ifTurks captured. King believed that by sacrificing Turks Chyhyryn he retainat a Left Bank.
Turks completely destroyed it. It was a desperate step.Bleeding long siege, they have not been able to go on the offensive and returnto Moldova. Chigirinsky second trip as the first, ended in failure.Grab all the Right Bank Turks could not. However, for the destruction of UkrainianCossack capital was a painful loss.
Samiylo Velichko on the situation on the Right Bank
"From Korsun and White Church, and then to VolynRus principality in that city, Zamosc, Brody still traveling, I sawmany towns and castles and deserted empty walls ... which became a shelter and housingonly for wild beasts. Moore, the same as that in Cholhanskomu, Constantine,Berdichev, Zbarazh Zocalo that only the way we in the military campaign occurred,I saw one chamber, others completely ruined ...».
1. As described the effects of Ruin for the Right Bank SamiyloVelichko? 2. What had caused this situation on the Right Bank?
After the devastation Chyhyryn Right Bank governor Turksleft Khmelnitsky Yu. The seat he chose the city Nemiroff. Controlit carried out the Turkish pasha of Kamenetz-Podolsk. But his power was notlong. According to one version Turks arrested, strangled and thrown from the wallsKamenetz-Podolsk in the river canyon.
In the years of confrontation between Muscovy and Turkeyon Ukrainian territory has grown into a long conflict in which neither partydid not have enough force to resolve the issue in its favor. Eventually January 13, 1681 parties signed Bakhchisaraipeace followed by:
- Located along the border between the states on the Dnieper River;
- Left-bank Ukraine, Kyiv with surrounding cities andZaporozhye recognized by Muscovy, and South Kyivshchyna and skirts - onTurkey;
- Both parties are committed to not build andrebuild fortifications between the Southern Bug and Dnieper, and do not populate theseland;
- Tatar hordes were free to roam inSouthern plains, and the Cossacks and the entire population - fish inDnipro, get salt, hunt and navigate the rivers to the Black Sea;
- Turkish Sultan and the Crimean khan is not obligatedassist the enemies of the Moscow State.
Thus, due to circumstances and political errors had been lostanother chance to win independence for Ukraine. Cossack State, which was formed bynatsionalnovyzvolnoyi result of the war led Khmelnitskogo wasdivided between neighboring states: Moscow State, Commonwealth andOttoman Empire.
Abandoning his intentionRight-Bank Ukraine in a vassal state, Turkey would notBratslavshchina lose control and Kyiv region. Because these lands were brought toMoldavian master of H. Dutsi that tytuluvav a "masterLand Moldovan and Ukrainian lands. He appointed acting hetman J.Dragic. Last, settling in Nemiroff, began to appoint colonelsformer regimental cities and engaged in active colonization policy. Heproclaimed "universal right to freedom across Ukraine and the Cossack recoveryregiments. These events have caused concern in Moscow, which condemned the actions Duky.Left Bank Hetman I. Samoylovych even made a raid on the Right Bank andbroke new settlers. Summer 1683 Council convened to decide the CossacksJ. Drahynycha drive and chose S. Kunitsky. The latter received from the PolishKing Hetman title. In late 1683 - early 1684 hemade a successful expedition against the Tartars and Turks in Moldavia and Budzhatski steppes. Butafter returning from the hike was killed by Cossacks. Becomes the new Hetman A. Tomb.It was his Cossacks took part in the war with Turkey in the army of Jan Sobieski.
- P. Doroshenko, Hetman became the Right Bank, leddecisive struggle for the reunification of the Ukrainian Cossack state. However, this successwas short lived.
- Neighboring states were not interested in a strongUkrainian state. Besides its unity pidtochuvala fight pettygroups for power. This struggle resulted in the fact that in Ukraine there were severalHetman simultaneously.
- No attempt Doroshenko by Turkishprotectorate, not I. Samoilovych attempt by Moscow's resumethe unity of Ukraine did not succeed. The interests of Moscow and Istanbul to Ukraine werereconciled complete extermination of the Ukrainian lands between the Southern Bug and Dnieperthat was fixed in the contract Bakhchysarayskyy 1681
1. As a result of the events became hetman Doroshenko?2. What year Hetman Doroshenko managed to unite Ukrainian Cossackstate under their power? 3. With whom Moscow has Hetman Glukhivs'ka article?4. Between the States was concluded Buchatskiy peace? 5. What happenedChigirinsky Turkish army marches? 6. In what year and under what circumstances, APDoroshenko was hetman's mace? 7. When and under what conditions was terminatedstruggle between Turkey and Muscovy in Right-Bank Ukraine?
8. What was the objective of the policy Hetman Doroshenko? Orhe achieved it? 9. What part of peasants and townspeople of Western Ukrainerefused to support Doroshenko and moved to the side of the Poles? 10. Considerwhy the military and the Hetman Doroshenko alliance with Turkey has led tonew outbreak of civil war in Ukraine? 11. Why return Y.Khmelnytsky to power ended with the collapse? 12. What are the main policy objectivesput in front of I. Samoylovych? Why he was deprived of the Hetman's mace?
13. Follow the map, what were the main trendsmilitary campaigns and battles which took place in the 1665-1681 biennium 14. CompareArticle Glukhivs'ka 1669 Articles from Moscow in 1665 What was betweenthey shared and what is different?
15. What do you think the role of Hetman Doroshenkoevents in ruins? Is it fair to call it "The ruins of the Sun"? 16. What achievementsUkrainian National Revolution of the mid-seventeenth century. to saveafter the events that became known under the name "Desolation"?