Theme IV. Ukrainian lands in the 60-80'sXVII.
§ 23. Hetmanship I. Vygovsky. Dissension CossackUkraine. Andrusiv truce
1. In what position was the Ukrainian state totime of death Khmelnitskogo? 2. What were the social consequencesNational Liberation War?
1. Domestic and foreign policy I. Vygovsky.Hadiach contract. After the death of B. Khmelnytsky in Ukraine there was a verydifficult political and socio-economic situation. Defeat Ukraine-Transylvanian military campaign in 1657 againstCommonwealth adversely affected the moral and psychological state of society.Besides aggravated Muscovite-Ukrainian relations by ignoringtsarist government interests of Ukraine. The long war has caused a sharp deteriorationfinancial position of peasants and Cossacks. Many of the Cossacks, who did not receivecharges for the service, focused on in the current Host, which turned intocenter of a possible social explosion.
In an environment shaped Cossack groupsthat did not share the principle of heredity and Hetmanat launched the struggle for power. Infight for the most successful acting hetman's mace John Vyhovsky(1657-1659 biennium), which is September 15, 1657 for petty Chyhyryn was happy inelected Hetman Yurii Khmelnytsky to adulthood, and in October the Cossack Council inKorsun elected its already full hetman. However, many did not like the CossacksVyhovskyy called "Liakh, reproaching him for his noble descent.
Hetman Ivan Vyhovsky
After being elected hetman Ivan Vyhovsky followed foreign policyBogdan Khmelnitsky. He supported the allied relations with Sweden andTransylvania, the Crimean Khanate, and Muscovy.
Track your recent policy formulated Vyhovsky I.succinctly: "Let Velykorosiya will Velykorosiyeyu, Ukraine - Ukraine, we are the hostinvincible. Of course, such attitudes and such a policy could not to pleaseMoscow.
At the time of election Hetman Vyhovsky was already quitean experienced statesman. However, he has made very serious mistakesits social and economic policy:
- Hetman strongly supported the Cossack officers and nobility,while neglecting the interests of ordinary Cossacks, peasants and townspeople;
- Blighter for the Ukrainian state was that forcombat antyhetmanskymy Vyhovsky performances began to seek help Moscowand used with the Crimean Khan.
Hetman errors caused that from October1657 Cossacks in Ukraine started riots, which led the basketAtaman Cossacks Jacob Barabash and Poltava colonelMartyn Pushkar. Rebel leaders soughtassistance to the Moscow government, which is officially in the events in Ukraine not to interfere,but relations with the rebels supported and financially assisted.
J. Barabash and M. Pushkar
To quell the rebellion Vyhovsky first time in historyUkraine and Crimean Tatars used rozplatyvsya permission for their helptake yasyr from Poltava. During the bloody battles that there were inMay-June 1658 between supporters and opponents of the hetman of Ukrainelost about 50 thousand people, including leaders of the rebellion. In fact, theseevents initiated during the civil war. In his Ukrainian historyalso called the era ruins.
Terms and concepts
Civil War - form of political struggle, which is the armed clash between classes,social groups, nations to achieve full state power.
Ruin - a term that refers to the process of decay andUkraine devastation during the civil war, severe struggle for officersconstant power and aggression of neighboring countries.
The double policy of Moscow finalVyhovsky convinced of the need to fundamentally change its foreign policylandmarks. From spring 1958 in Mesopotamia continued negotiations on the conditionsreturn of Cossack Ukraine to the Commonwealth. As a result of thesenegotiations September 16, 1658 the Cossack Councilclose Gadyach approved Ukraine-Poland agreement which:
- Ukraine in the Kiev, Chernigov andBratslav province called Ruthenian principality is part SpeechesCommonwealth Federation as the third component - along with the Polish and the GreatDuchy of Lithuania;
- Federation ob'yednuvalasya person sharing a king,elected representatives of all three states;
- At the head of the Rus principality was hetman, whichKing asserted the four candidates who were representatives of the Cossackofficers. Getman was elected for life;
- Hetman banned foreign relations withother states;
- Polish and Lithuanian army had no right to be inUkraine;
- Cossack register was to be 30 million people. Getmanhad the right to submit annually to the King of 100 Cossacks from each regiment forproviding them with noble dignity;
- Church union was to be abolished. However, fiveOrthodox hierarchs got a place in the Senate;
- Allowed to establish in the Ruthenian principality two Academiesand an unlimited number of gymnasiums, schools and printing presses.
Hadiach agreement was not implemented. Although the PolishDiet and ratified it (except for the point of abolition of church union) doterms of the agreement were not going to Poles.
According to modernUkrainian historians and V. V. Smolii Stepankova "Hadiach contract deceivedundermine the sovereignty of Cossack Ukraine and significantly changed its political system ...unemozhlyvlyuvav achieve independence and collegiality (only part of the Ukrainianland belonged to the principality), eliminated the social and economic gainsPeasants, townspeople and unregistrated Cossacks, his basic position lateat least 100 years. " But there are other opinions. In particular, the historian W.Shevchuk said that "it Hadiach agreement was high political ideaUkrainian, who competed for his state and wanted to defend the political sovereigntyUkraine.
2. Ukraine-Moscow 1658-1659 war heBattle of Konotop. The Moscow government has supported those who resisted and Hetmanautumn of 1658, announcing Vyhovsky traitor offensive launched in Ukraine.Started Ukraine-Moscow 1658-1659 war heTaking advantage of the existing contradictions in Ukraine, Moscow urged Ukrainianpeople do not obey the Hetman. Moscow army led palatine G. Romodanovskym"Fire and sword" of the population tended to nationality Moscow Tsar. Partleft-bank Cossack regiments moved to the side of the king.
In turn, sent a letter to VyhovskyEuropean yards, which signaled the break with Moscow and its causes.
With reference to the European courts I.Vyhovsky
"We all Army Zaporizhia, and letbefore God and the whole world witness that our sincere and frank statement: inOur war started and conducted with the Poles, for no other reason, norother tasks and goals, but defense of the Holy Eastern Church, as well as ourancient freedom that we love passionately ... Because we have concluded that above all friendship withTatars and brightest Queen Christina of Sweden, then of the glorious KingSweden KarlomHustavom that we all kept constant loyalty. Even withPoles we dare not break the agreement at any time, but to all of our allegiance,hody contracts and we have kept motionless. We accept the protection of Grand DukeMuscovy is for something other than just to be with God's help to getand secure a large and repeated bloodshed and preserve our freedomincrease for themselves and for our descendants. "
How do I. Vyhovsky explaining the outbreak of war with MoscowPower?
In early April 1659 Muscovite army ledwith Prince Trubetskoy O. approached Konotop and took him under siege. Cityprotected 4 thousand Cossacks, led by acting hetman G. Gulyanitskii. Heroicdefense allowed I. Vyhovsky with Poles and Tatars on the moveassistance to the besieged.
09/08 July 1659 was critical of Konotopbattle which dealt a crushing defeat Vyhovsky 100,000thMuscovite army led by Prince A. Trubetskoy. In the battle of fallen flowerMuscovite cavalry, frightened the king even left Moscow, fearing the hike Cossacksthe city.
Battle of Konotop
The battle was unfolding as follows. In the morning of July 8I. Vyhovsky of Ukrainian and Polish regiments went to the crossingr.Kukolka near s.Sosnivka, 12 km from Konotop. Meanwhile, the Tatars and the Ukrainianthe horses went around Sosnivka. At a meeting of Ukrainian troops moved qualified and selectedMuscovite cavalry. Near the crossing plumages fierce battle. Ukrainianimaginary armies retreated, zamanyvshy part of Moscow's cavalry on the oppositeriverbank. Meanwhile, the army struck the rear of Moscow and the TatarUkrainian cavalry. In Russians, the panic started and they began to flee, but notmany managed to escape. In captive princes got Pozharsky Semen, Semen Lionsand others. Night Trubetskoy ordered to remove the siege from the city and retreat. In thismoment smote Konotop Gulyanitskii camp and took part in Moscowtroops. Later naspily Vyhovsky of Islam-and the Russians have caused even greaterdefeat, had their three days. Moscow's troops could remnantsget to Putivel.
But fierce political situationto reap the fruits of victory Hetman failed. The movement against the government Vyhovskyembraced the Left Bank and Right Bank partly. Which led him Somko, BasilZolotarenko, Ivan Bohun, Ivan Sirko, John Bryukhovetsky quieter Tsytsyura. BesidesUkraine again in Moscow moved troops. During this time, Hetman yourCrimean Khan left the army because Vinnytsia Colonel Ivan Sirko withCossacks made a military campaign against Ackerman. Dissatisfied policyVyhovsky Cossack officers headed by Ivan Bohun united behind YuKhmelnytsky and leveled him as hetman. September 211659 under Hermanivka held in Kyiv region Cossack Council, which electednew Hetman Khmelnitsky Y.. Vyhovsky escaped fled to poyalkiv,but in 1664 he was accused of conspiring against Poland and shot.
3. Hetmanship Y. Khmelnitsky. The division of Ukrainian lands onLeft Bank and Right-Bank Ukraine. Deciding to make peace with MoscowPower, Yuri Khmelnitsky supporters on the board in Zherdoviy Valley, nearTrahtemyrova developed a draft of the future contract, which agreedrecognize the power of the Muscovite tsar. Articles predicted, especially union ponovnennyawith Moscow, the inclusion of the Cossack state of North ChernihivBan stays on its territory and Moscow's troops magistrates (exceptKyiv), freely elected hetman, lifting the ban on independentforeign policy and more.
Yuri Khmelnitsky Hetman
But during talks in Moscow Pereyaslav Palatinerejected the Ukrainian draft decision and imposed a new contract that wasname Article Pereiaslavs'ka 1659
Key provisions of these articles were:
- Deprivation of rights without the permission of the ruler of the king re-electHetman;
- Loss of Hetman own right to appoint, removeor condemn to death the officers and colonels;
- Placing the Moscow troops, in addition to Kyiv, inPereyaslav, Nezhine, Chernigov, and Bratslav Uman;
- The subordination of the Kiev Moscow MetropolisPatriarch (this story was later canceled);
- Prohibit the Ukrainian government to maintain diplomaticrelations with other countries and organize military campaigns without permissionMoscow.
Pereiaslavs'ka article caused deep resentment inMost Cossacks.
Meanwhile, the Commonwealth and Muscovy prepareda new war to finally end the struggle for Ukrainian lands. In militarycampaign in 1660, which was called Chudniv(The battle took place near Chudnov) Right Bank Ukraine Polish-TatarArmy defeated Moscow-Ukrainian. Political consequences of the transitionYuri Khmelnytsky toward Poles and signing Slobodyshchetreatise in 1660 It was concluded on the basis Hadiach agreement, butwith some modifications:
- Removed article on the Rus principality;
- Prince was obliged to provide military assistanceRech in its wars with other states;
- Hetman ban confirmed the independentforeign policy;
- Polish gentry and magnatesreturn all estates in Ukrainian lands.
Conclusion Slobodyshche caused political treatisesplit in Ukrainian society. If on the Right Bank cossacks advice thatheld in autumn 1660 in Korsun, endorsed it, some left-bank Cossacksregiments refused to support them and their elected acting hetmanColonel Pereyaslivska Joachim Somka. Yu incby Tatars tried to restore its power of the Left and remove from powerSomka. But this only aggravated the situation: in May 1661 nearly all the Left Bankrecognized the power of Moscow. In late 1662, desperate for their ownopportunities to unite under his mace all of Ukraine, Khmelnitsky, Yu deniedHetman and postryhsya a monks under the name Gideon.
At the time when the division was formed on the territory of UkraineRight-Bank, which recognized the Polish government and the Left Bank, is subjectMuscovite state. In both parts of the Cossack state in 1663 wasestablished separate Hetmanate: Right Bank in January 1663 CossackCouncil elected hetman in Chyhyryn Paul Teteria (1663 -1665), the Left after a short Hetman J.Somka (1662), which did not recognize Moscow, June 27, 1663 onblack happy around Nizhyn elected hetman John Briukhovetsky(1663-1668 biennium).
So Cossack State found itself in deep crisis.Soon, this division was secured.
4. Attempts to combine Teterya `Right Bank and Left BankHetmanate. Andrusiv ceasefire in 1667 After the electionHetman Teteria's goal was to unite the Right Bank and Left Bank Hetmanate.He tried to win over Ya Somka and other left-bank officers. Butthe past were unwilling to share power.
In October, 1663 the territory of the left-bank Ukraineinvaded the Polish army led by King Jan Kazimierz, the Tatars andRight Bank Cossack regiments headed by P. Teteria. Hike Left Bank continued toMarch 1664 and was fully defeated.
Hetman Pavlo Teteria
Returning from an unsuccessful raid, the Polish nobility zealouslygentry began to restore order on the Right Bank. In response to flashedanti-Polish uprising, which has put out and Vyhovsky II, who soughteliminate P. Teteria from power. Insurgents led ataman AI Sirko,Colonel Vasily Verenytsya, Basil Derrick, Ostap Gogol, Basil Drozdenko, KozakSulima. Brutal confrontation continued until June 1665 when Mr. Teteriafled to Poland. In liberated uprising was elected hetman of Right Bank Peter Doroshenko (1665-1676 biennium).He managed to tame the anarchy that reigned on the Right Bank, to reactivate thegovernment and strengthen his power. His first priority Doroshenkoconsider merging the two parts of Ukraine.
Election of the Left Bank Hetman Zaporizhzhya Sich Cossack chieftain John Briukhovetsky was firstall thanks to the support of Moscow. Another contender for the mace was I. Somko,who advocated a strong government and condemned the hetman of arbitraryMoscow magistrates in Ukraine. Moscow decided to bet on Bryukhovetska,who did not hide their sentiments openly pro-Moscow. Newly elected Hetmanhas repeatedly argued for the elimination of Ukraine's hetman and its transformationon principality headed by the Moscow prince Fedor.
Hetman Ivan Bryukhovetsky
New Hetman in November 1663 signed withrepresentatives of the imperial government Baturyns'ka article.In confirmation of agreements with Moscow and Y. Khmelnitsky B. Hecontained five new items:
- Hetman government pledged to freeprovide food Muscovite garrisons located in theUkraine;
- Hetman government pledged to implement measures forgrip and the return of Russian refugees (their shelter was punished by death);
- Prohibition was installed for Ukrainian buyers in MoscowState to sell wine and tobacco, because it inflicted damage kingmonopoly on sales of such goods;
- Not to be selling bread to the Right-Bank Ukraine andCrimean Tatars;
- Had to make a list of all the Cossacks, and townspeoplelocate and specify the size of their landholdings.
In September 1665 Bryukhovetsky first UkrainianHetman paid a visit to Moscow, where signs new articles, which significantlyenhanced the dependence of the Cossack Ukraine tsarist government.
According to the Moscow articles:
- Ukrainian lands and possessions of declarativetsar, and their population (except the Cossacks) levied to the kingtreasury taxes;
- Hetman elections took place in the presence of Moscowrepresentatives and the newly elected hetman hetman's Regalia received from the king;
- Diplomatic Relations with other countries Hetmanprohibited;
- Kiev metropolitan of Moscow had to head henchman;
- Hetman pozbavlyavsya rights to Ukrainian citiesgovernment, is now performed exclusively king;
- Increased number of Muscovite garrisons, theylocated in all major cities, and the powers of Russian magistrates significantlyincreased (collection of nekozatskoho present population of bread on holdgarrisons, taxes from the buyers, fees guilty of leases, etc.).
Sam Bryukhovetsky for demonstrating compliant received fromboyar tsar title and large estates.
At that time, continued war between Muscovy andCommonwealth. Vysnazhyvshy material and human resources, both stateinclined to reconciliation. When to start negotiations learned Doroshenko,realized that count on Poland's struggle against Moscow hasthings. He then defeated by the Tatars in Braylov Polish troops (December 19, 1666), thereby givingplaced him on the Right Bank.
Meanwhile, the result of long negotiations January 30, 1667 inVillage Andrus, Near Smolensk, between Russia and Poland reached agreementArmistice 13,5 year (Andrusiv truce). On signing to Andrusovanot invited or left-bank hetman Ivan Briukhovetsky or newlyright-bank hetman Doroshenko, which proves that the attitude of Moscow andWarsaw to Ukraine. Under the terms of truce fitted division of Ukraine:Right-Bank Ukraine (excluding Kyiv) went to Poland and the Left Bank and temporarilyKyiv (2 years) remained in Muscovy. Zaporozhye was to recognize the power of bothStates.
- During the period of Hetman Ivan Vyhovsky through internal andexternal factors in Ukraine erupted into civil war.
- Concluded an agreement with Polish Hadiach foundsupport in most of the population that was the main cause of lossVyhovsky Hetman's mace. His authority is not even saved the victory forKonotop.
- Election of Hetman politically dependent YuKhmelnitsky could not save Ukraine from the Civil War. Politicalrocking from Muscovy to Poland eventually led to his removal from power, andthe next battle for the hetman's mace led to a split in HetmanateRight-Bank and Left Bank.
- Commonwealth and Moscow State, clinching a miAndrusiv truce arranged legal division of Ukraine. Andrusiv trucecaused a serious blow to the Ukrainian state. It was the brake on the wayunion of the Right Bank and Left Bank and pryrikalo Cossack Ukrainethe political decline.
1. As a result of the events became hetman Ivan Vyhovsky?2. Who antyhetmanske led revolt which was brutally suppressed I.Vyhovsky by Tatars? 3. From which state has signed Vyhovsky I.Hadiach contract? 4. Where was the battle of Moscow-Ukraine war1658-1659 biennium? 5. What agreements with the States were signed by HetmanKhmelnitsky Yu? 6. When there was a division of the Ukrainian state into right andLeft Bank Hetmanate and how it was fixed?
7. What are the policy failures led to Vyhovsky I.exacerbation of social and political situation in Ukraine in autumn 1657 - winter1658? 8. Describe the contents Hadiach contract. What was the differenceThis document from the contract Zborivsky 1649 and March articles1654? Terms of agreements with the States were more favorable forUkraine: Moscow State or of the Commonwealth? Justify their thoughts.9. Why not victory at Konotop added credibility Hetman I. Vyhovsky? 10.Explain what the policy nedalekozorist Y. Khmelnitsky. 11. Whymarch Polish King Jan Kazimierz to the Left Bank in 1663 undergonedefeated? 12. With the purpose Moscow State each time a new hetmanconcluded a new agreement? 13. Why Andrusiv truce has brought a heavy blowby the Ukrainian state?
14. Follow the progress of war cardUkraine-Muscovite War 1658-1659 biennium 15. Make a comparative tableAgreements concluded by the Ukrainian state with neighboring states. IssuesDevelop a comparison yourself.
16. Which year should be considered the year of the split Ukrainianstate on the Left Bank and Right Bank Hetmanate: 1660, 1663 or 1667?