§ 18-19. Voyennopolitychni events 1650-1653 biennium
1. What are the most important battle Natsionalnovyzvolnoyiwar years 1648-1649 2. What were the most important political event of thisduring the war? 3. What were the conditions Zborivsky peace treaty?
1. Restorationhostilities. Battle Berestechko. From November 1650 PolishGovernment is actively preparing for war against Ukraine. In early 1651King ordered military commanders to launch a new campaign. February 8Commanders Polish troops Pol'na Hetman HalcyonKalinowski and Bratslav province StanislavLanckoronski launched the attack on the Ukrainian lands. 10-12 February pensM. Kalinovskiy captured after a fierce battles on the eastern town of KrasneTail. In combat with the enemy killed one of the closest associates KhmelnytskyBratslavsky Colonel Daniel Nechay. Trying to master the Eastern Podolia, M.Kalinowski and S. Lanckoronski 1-10 March were besieged winery. Despitea significant quantitative advantage of the enemy, the Cossacks, led by Col. JohnBohun, fail to capture the city. March 10 came to the aid of the besiegedJoseph Umansky regiment dead and hit the Polish units, which in panicretreated. Developing the offensive, the Cossack troops captured bar ChmelnikShargorod, Medzhybozh and other cities. Trying to master the Polish EasternPodolia ended in failure.
A decisive battle of the military campaign in 1651 wasin June in Volhynia, near the city these days. The Polish army, led byKing Jan Kazimierz, numbering 100-120 million people, and the servants - about220-240 thousand June 15 zpid Ternopil army moved to Berestechko Khmelnytskohowhich counted about 100 thousand people. It joined 30-40000thTatar army led by the Islam-Khan.
Battle Berestechko started June 18. The first battlebetween the Polish and Tatar cavalry ended in defeat last. Nextday showed no advantages of any party.
Perelamnym day was June 20. The Poles came from hiscamp and deployed troops in the line of 8-9 km, center to protect the flanks and strongartillery. The main forces in the command center of John Casimir, groups ofright flank - S. Lanckoronski, on the left - J. Wyszniewiecki. Opposite them,under the cover of the fortified camps, arranged his troops Khmelnytskyi. Onleft wing houses the Tatar cavalry Islam-. But before KhanHetman said that the day will be the Muslim holiday during which the Tartarscan not fight, and warned his soldiers prior depressiondefeat. In this situation, inc tried to avoid a decisive battle in thisday.
In the morning of June 20 Polish King John Casimir beganoffensive. About 15 hours Poles realized that avoids battle inc. Ofpermission of King Vishnevetsky attacked the right flank of the Cossack troops whoIvan Bohun managed. Islam-ordered his cavalry to attackVyshnevetsky and troops of the king, who tried to support it. Ofcannon and fire toward mushketnoho rates Khan, who launched in responsePoles, Tatars dissension among panic, and they began to flee. Islam-could not stop it and to his retreating troops, leaving the fieldbattle.
Realizing that the battle is lost, the army brought incto the fortified camp, held at the valley of the Plyashivka, Stir tributaries.After leaving acting hetman F. Dzhedzhaliya, he removed the khan. NazdohnavshyIslam-, Khmelnytsky was forced to agree with him, return to fieldBattle of exhausted and demoralized flight Tatar army impossible. Furtherevents suggest that while Khan led his army in order, Hetman decidedretreat to the White Church and Korsun. Replenished by new forces is withdrawn fromenvironment zpid Berestechko remnants of the Ukrainian army, inc goingalong with the Islam-stop promotion of Poles in White Church.
Meanwhile fortified Cossack camp Berestechkowas besieged Poles. Withdraw from the environment was commissioned I. Bohun.At his behest through swamp and Plyashivka built with improvised meanscrossing, which was removed the main forces of the Ukrainian army and all the regimentalartillery.
A. Danchenko. Three hundred Berestechko Feat. Etching. 1954
To cover the retreat of the enemy surroundedCamp was formed unit of 300 kozakivdobrovoltsiv. They had no rightretreat and were all, without forsaking any step. The Poles have offered themmoney and save lives if they lay down their arms. Cossacks rejected thisproposal and in the eyes of Poles gathered from wallets all the money in the waterdemonstrating its contempt for them. All 300 Cossacks died as heroes.
2. ConclusionBelotserkovskoy agreement. At the end of August 1651 Khmelnitskogo managedcollect 60000th army, which joined the 40000th Tatar army.Ukraine-Tatar army occupied the well-fortified positions in the WhiteChurch. This zpid Berestechko came 35000th Polish army, led byM. Potocki. He was joined by troops J. Radziwiff (20 thousand) and M.Kalinovskiy (15 thousand).
Fights 13-15 September have failed to Poles forcedPotocki abandon efforts to battle and temporary camp. Due to lack ofPolish food in the camp began hunger and disease. BeganRumors spread that the Crimea to help the day will come from Brusselslarge army of Islam-.
In this situation, the Poles agreed to the proposalKhmelnitsky start peace talks, but put forward conditions thatperekreslyuvaly most gains Natsionalnovyzvolnoyi war. This causedrebellion "mob" in the Cossack army, which supported part of the Tatars. Cruellyprydushyvshy rebellion, Hetman agreed to sign a contract for the difficultHetman conditions. Probably he knew his weakness neobstrilyanohotroops, the best part of which fell in plyashivskyh Berestechko marshes, andsignificant loss of the Tatar army.
By Bila Tserkva contractHetman limited territory of the Kyiv province, and the Cossack registershortened to 20 thousand people. The Cossacks were allowed to settle exclusively on governmentlands of Kyiv province, and those who remained outside the registry, back totheir masters. Magnates and gentry came back thereof, and to Bratslav andChernihiv provinces returned to Polish administration. Getman hadsubject to the King and Crown Hetman, pozbavlyavsya right of diplomaticRelations with other states and had to break the alliance with the Crimean Khanate.Masters had no right to bring his subjects to the court for participating in the war. Rights andprivileges of the Orthodox Church preserved. Polish troops forbiddenPlaced in the Kyiv province. Getman was appointed generalofficers and colonels, with the consent of the king. Hetman Khmelnitsky kept the post,but after his death the right to appoint and dismiss Hetman passed to the king.
Polish party believed that, having concluded Bilotserkivskiyagreement, she finally tamed Ukraine. However, when his approvalconditions of the Commonwealth Sejm invincible obstacle emerged: one from Lithuaniagentry their "veto" blocked the decision. Since this wastantamount to breach of contract, Bohdan Khmelnytsky was to consider it invalid.
3. Moldovanhikes. During Natsionalnovyzvolnoyi war. Bohdan Khmelnytsky andTymish his son in 1650, 1652 and 1653 carried out campaigns to Moldavianprincipality, which wasally of the Commonwealth. The purpose of trips was udaremnyty intentions Polesuse the territory of Moldova as a bridgehead for an attack on Ukrainian land andachieve the largest possible political isolation of the Commonwealth. But hetried to convince the Moldavian principality good neighborly relationsHetmanate with and strengthen its position.
У August-September 1650 wasfirstMoldavian campaign, led by Bogdan Khmelnitsky Tartarkalhasultanom KrymHireyem. Ukrayinskotatarske army (60 thousand Cossacks and 30thousand Tatars) came over the capital of Moldova - the city of Iasi. Moldavian masterVasile Lupu has concluded an agreement under which vstupav in alliance with the Khmelnytsky and promised not toassist the Commonwealth. The guarantee of this union was to be his daughter's marriageRozandy Timosha Hetman and son.
After the defeat of Ukrainian troops in the BattleBerestechko V. Lupu broke an agreement in 1650 As a result, in July-August 1652, afterwinning the battle Batozkiy, T. Khmelnitsky led 35000th Cossack-Tatartroops went to KSS. Ukrayinskomoldovskyy Union were restored, there waswedding Timosha Rozandy and Lupu.
У April1653 V. Lupu, due to the coup, lost the throne andenlisted the help of Bogdan Khmelnitsky. Hetman sent to Moldova 8000thdetachment of Cossacks led by T. Khmelnytsky. After returning power of V. LupuTimosha urged to campaign against Wallachia. Trip ended in defeat and becameleads to creation of anti-coalition of the Commonwealth, and WallachiaTransylvania.
In July 1653 V. Lupu again lost power, andanti-coalition joined the Moldavian principality. LastMoldavian campaign held in August-September1653 By order of the hetman Tymish led 6000th Cossack detachmentV. Lupu assistance. However, the campaign ended in defeat. Cossacks found themselves under siege inSuchaskiy fortress. Tymish was mortally wounded and died a few days. Byhonorable terms of surrender, the Cossacks ceased resistance, and left Suceavahome.
4. Batozka battle.The defeat of the Ukrainian army Berestechko, as you know, again causedV. Lupu, Moldovan owner to abandon an alliance with Khmelnytsky. GetmanTimosha sent his son to the army to recover it. Since it did not meetinterests of the Commonwealth, Pol'na M. Hetman Kalinowski decided to preventthis campaign. In the area. Whip, near Ladyzhin on the way of UkrainianKalinowski arranged troops fortified camp of the troops. Inc inquite ironic form offered him not to interfere with the campaign.
From a letter to the Anti-Monopoly Bogdan KhmelnitskyHetman Martin Kalinovskiy
... I do not want to conceal your mercymy son saucy, Tymish gathered several thousand troops to get tomarried a daughter of the Moldavian master. Warn you, your grace, that youretired from the army to the Polish border and freed Volos'ke border,occupies, my son inflammatory in nature and in your face can makefirst tried his luck war.
1. What the Anti-Monopoly reported Mr HetmanInc? 2. Why do you think, M. Kalinowski considered the contents of the letterinsult to his dignity?
Inflammatory in nature, as Kalinowski took thischallenge. Him figure with a large military experience, the main enemy of Polandthreatened the young man who was also the son of a rival in Kalinovskiy harassmentRozandy hands. Kalinowski decided provchyty cheeky "peasants".
In mid-May 1652 Inc with myTimosha son went in the direction of Korsun whip. His army consisted of15 thousand and 20 thousand Cossacks Tatar cavalry. In the army there Kalinovskiy35 thousand persons, of which only 20 thousand were soldiers, and others - servant.
The morning of May 22 came under whip and evaluatingsituation, inc found that the size of the Polish camp muchexceed the number of troops Kalinowski. He ordered to attack the camp from allsides, because the enemy was not possible to protect the entire camp at a time.Attack of Cossacks and Tatars on the camp lasted for May 22-23and resulted in utter defeat of the Polish Army. In the battle killed about 10thousand Polish soldiers and himself M. Kalinowski.
The news of the death of the Polish Army under Batihshocked the government of the Commonwealth. Khmelnitsky after a winrequire renovation of Warsaw Zboriv agreement.
Execution of Poles captured after the battle ofPyliavtsi
5. Zhvanets'kasiege. In 1653, restoring the quantitative composition of the army afterlosing a whip, the Poles continued to fight against Hetman. In FebruaryBratslavshchina invaded 12-14000th Polish army led by Stephen Charnets'kogo. It devastated towns and villages,leaving behind a still smoldering and death. The enemy came to Uman. However, units hereCharnets'kogo were pointedly defeat of Cossack units Bohun IV and leftBratslavshchina limits.
In May, 1653 Inc from 30 thousand Cossacks and12-15 thousand Tatars went to Uman in the new campaign against the Poles. However, acuteshortage of food and feed resentment Cossacks rise robberyTatars, the news of the failure caused the fourth Moldavian campaign speechCossacks against Hetman in June 1653 As a result, the first time since warKhmelnitsky campaign was derailed.
Meanwhile, the Polish army led by King JanCasimir, moving Ukrainian lands in autumn 1653 reachedZhvaneckogo castle, which was next to Khotin, and stopped there in fortifiedcamp. Her number along with the servants was 60 thousand.
October 11 after troops arrived here and KhmelnytskyIslam-Khan, began fighting. Hetman was subordinated to30-40 thousand Cossacks and was about the same number of Tatarcavalry. Since mid-October began with the siege of Ukraine-Tatar armyPolish camp. At the beginning of December in the ring of the siege of starvation, cold anddisease killed about 10 million people. Under the pressure of circumstances, the Poles launched negotiationsof peace.
Mediator in negotiations between the Cossacks and the Poles againmade by the Crimean khans. December 5, 1653 underKamianets Podolsky-Khan Islam-Jan Kazimierz and concluded orallyCrimean-Polish agreement. His conditions predicted cessation of hostilities andPoles agree to pay the ransom Crimean Khan (called "wake"). Ondetermine the legal status of the contract Hetman, unambiguous informationno. One source claimed that the conditions of the contract Zborivskyrecovering, and another - the Cossacks are only in their past (beforebeginning of the war) rights and privileges.
Khmelnytsky, who was not involved in signing the contract,learned of its contents, gathered officers' council. Informing theKamenetz agreement, Hetman said the need for a complete break with the thingCommonwealth.
6. Intra-andForeign position Hetmanate late 1653 At the end of1653 Hetman situation became critical. Goals Right Bank areas,where hostilities occurred, were devastated. Tens of thousands of people caught incaptured by the Tartars, killed in battle, died of starvation, epidemics of cholera and plague1650-1653 biennium During the period 1648 - end 1653 populationUkraine has decreased by 30-40%. Unfolding mass migration of Ukrainianwar affected areas on the Left Bank, Slobodian to Muscovy and Moldova.
Pohlyblyuvavsya decline of agriculture, crafts,craft and trade, which made impossible the further conduct of the war. In 1653the first time since the beginning of the fight could not get inc planned numbersoldiers in its army and collided with performances dissatisfied Cossacks. InUkrainian society inspiration and exaltation of the early years of the war yieldedthe place of despondency and frustration.
Noticeably worse as the foreign situationHetman. In particular, it is complicated because of mistakes in Hetmanassessing the balance of power in Southeastern Europe. Attempts Khmelnytskyestablish dynastic ties with the Moldavian principality Finally led toappearance of anti-coalition of the Commonwealth, Wallachia, Transylvania andMoldova.
Commonwealth Government did not consider war with Hetmanatecompleted and prepared for its continuation. Internal problems didobvious fact that it beat Ukraine can only with strongallies. Thus the Turkish sultan and the king expressed Moscow's principledagreed to provide protection and protected Hetmanate.
- Defeat in battle Berestetskyi was bitter, butenlightening experience for the Bogdan Khmelnitsky. It unaochnyla that the Polish armyto understand the experience of previous defeats and learned to confront the Cossack tacticswarfare.
- Events Berestechko of defeat and the restorationhostilities under White church showed great will and considerableKhmelnitskogo organizational skills.
- The brilliant victory won in the Battle of HetmanWhip, testified that he Berestetskyi into account the experience of battle. Contemporariesreasonably compared the victory of the Khmelnitsky it Carthaginian victorycommander Hannibal over the Romans in 216 at Cannes by BC. e.
- Thanks to the Moldavian campaign sought to incstrengthen the position of their state in Europe at that time.
- At the end of 1653 exacerbated in Hetmancrisis caused by the protracted war. They questioned the possibilityfurther successful struggle with the Commonwealth and forced Khmelnytskyseek help in the Turkish sultan and tsar.
Questions and Tasks
1. What wasquantitative composition of the armies of opponents Berestetskoy battle? 2. Who supervised withdrawalwith surrounding residues zpid Berestechko Ukrainian army? 3. What was the numberCossack registry Belotserkovskoy agreement? 4. How many trips to Moldova was carried outUkrainian troops? 5. What were the results of the Fourth Moldavian campaign?6. What were the reasons Batozkoyi battle? 7. The conclusion of a treaty concludedZhvanets'ka siege? 8. How has the population of the Ukrainian lands inNatsionalnovyzvolnoyi years of war? 9. What country offered to provide protection Hetmanatein its war against the Commonwealth?
10. As there was Berestetskaya battle? 11. Compareconditions and Zboriv Belotserkovskoy agreements. 12. What were the causes of andmajor events Moldavian campaign? 13. Describe the causes and consequencesBatozkoyi battle. 14. As military action took place in 1653? 15. Whydomestic and foreign situation Hetmanate end of 1653consider the crisis?
16. Follow the map, what were the main trendsmilitary campaigns and battles which took place in 1651-1653 biennium 17. Continuedrafting table Natsionalnovyzvolna War of the Ukrainian people, the middleXVII. "Launched by material § 16.