§ 17. Establishment of the Ukrainian Cossack state - Zaporizhia Army (textbook)

§ 17. Establishment of the Ukrainian Cossack state - HostZaporozhye

1. As you got terytorialnopolkova systemRegistered Cossacks? 2. Name shelves Registered Cossacks. 3. Whatwere especially political and military structure Zaporizhia Army?

1.   PoliticalSystem. On Liberated izpid Polish noble dominationterritory during the war formed Natsionalnovyzvolnoyi Ukrainian and fixingsCossack state. Its official name at this time was the Army Cossacks.Due to the territories in which it was located, subject toHetman government, informally called her Hetmanate. Today, researcherscall it also Ukrainian Cossack or Hetman State. States became the newly formed embryotraditions and customs of the Zaporizhzhya Sich Cossack democracy and basic principlesZaporizhia Army system.

The basis of the political system of the Ukrainian hetmanstate system was laid prewar government troops Zaporizhzhya.

Political structure Zaporizhia Army midXVII.

Total  (General) Military Council

 

Getman

 

 

 

Officers'  Council

Council of  hetman

 

 

General  Government

 

Regimental  Government

 

Centesimal  Government

 

Urban and  rural Cossacks

 

By Cossack (Sich) tradition in higher authorityHetmanate rozporyadchozakonodavchymy of functions was Total(General) Military Council. Participated in it all the Cossacks, and sometimesrepresentatives of the burghers and the clergy.

Hetman belonged to the high military, administrative and judicial authority,that extended to all states. He was head of state and was elected to his post The overallmilitary council indefinitely. Getman led General governmentcalled Universal military and Officer council, utilyuvav life in their adopteddecision. He signed "own hands" out proclamations, orders anddisposal. Hetman complaints against decisions and centesimal regimental courtsmaybe financial, to address the Council started the war and had signed peace in commandArmy maintained diplomatic relations with other states.

Gradually growing influence Council officerConsisting of general officers andcolonels. She solved the military, administrative, household, and legalforeign policy issues. Its decisions were binding for the hetman. Italways stayed at the residence of the hetman.

Council ofhetman was an advisory body, consisting of his trustedpersons. She discussed with the hetman possible solutions to the most importanton public life and preparing draft decisions for the officer council.

The central executive body was General government. He solved all current internal affairsDepartment of Foreign Affairs and Zaporizhia Army. General governmentconsisted of General Staff, who initially elected, and in time became the appointedHetman. It consisted of: the chancellor (head of General Militaryoffice, engaged foreign policy and conducted all affairs of the government),judges (one or two) (performing direction supreme court when Generalgovernment), ARCHITECTURE (provided the Army Material supply and artillery)pidskarbiy (head of the state treasury and finance. The introduction of thispositions in 1654 these functions are performed Hetman), head of intelligence (engageddisclosing conspiracies against Hetman, struggle against the Polish secret agents,gathering intelligence, etc.).

When hetman also existed General Staffat large - two captain (Military adjutantHetman) cornet (Guard military banners) Bunchuznyj(Guardian Hetman horsetail) and acting hetman (Temporaryhead of the armed forces for military operations).

On the shelves there own governments, which consisted of Colonels and regimental officers (Clerk,Judge, ARCHITECTURE, osavul, cornet). The colonel was the chief representative of the centralauthorities in the regiment. Regimental Colonel elected to Council, but often itappointed by the government. The regiment was made up of hundreds, each of which was a government centesimalCenturion chancellor commander, captain andcornet. In towns and cities in the Cossack community chose "steward atamans"and burgers ruled "voit", which asserted the hetman. In rural areas, power overpeasants carried elder, and the Cossacks - rural chieftain.

 

2.   Administrative andSystem. Under the agreement Zborivsky, Ukrainian hetmanstate included into the former Kiev,Chernihiv provinces and Bratslav. These lands covering about200 km2 at that time lived more than 3 million people.

State was divided into regiments, which were simultaneouslyadministrative and units and subdivisions of the Cossack army. In1649 the Left were seven regiments (Poltava NIZHYN, Chernigov,Mirgorodsky Prilutsky, and Pereyaslavs'kyi Kropyvnenskyy) and Right Bank- Nine regiments (Kyiv, Kanev, Belotserkovsky, Umansky,Chigirinsky, Cherkassky, Kalnytskyy, Korsunsky and Bratslav). Numberbands was not constant and varied according to military andsituation in Hetman. In 1649 There were 16 in 1650 - 20 andin 1954 - 18 regiments. Each regiment, depending on the area and numberpopulation was 10-20 and hundreds more. In hundreds could be from a few dozen200-300 to the Cossacks.

The territory of Zaporizhzhya Sich of itholdings amounted to a separate administrative unit. Functions of the nation's capitalserved Chyhyryn, the former residence of the hetman.

The new administrative and territorial division, introducedin the Ukrainian Hetman State, different from the old division ofprovince and parts of what shelf and hundreds were relatively small військовоадміністративнимиunits. As a result, the government was becoming closer to people's needs, implementationmanagement of cities became simpler and more efficient.

 

3.   Ukrainianarmy. After the battle of Korsun Khmelnytskyi starteda Ukrainian Cossack army. Its core steel Registered andCossacksCossacks joined revolted "pokozachene" peasants andtownspeople. For further formation and organization of the Ukrainian armed forcesIntroduced inc territorialRegimental-centesimal system: Specific area exhibited several hundred soldierswhich joined the regiment. This Hetman attracted to armed struggle againstenemy of the entire population Hetmanate. Despite the message to some sourcesa huge number of members Khmelnitskogo army during the war actuallyregular combat-ready troops, according to the researchers, was 40-60 thousand people.At that time it was a powerful army.

The basis of the army was equipped with a firearminfantry. Lack of the cavalry (which had the advantage of the Polish Army)especially at the beginning of the war protest by union Tatar cavalry.

Khmelnytsky's forces had considerable artillery. It wascreated a separate regimental artillery and artillery command chief(Hetman). This was used guns, captured by rebels in the liberatedtowns and castles, as well as established manufacturing cannonballs Nizhyn.

Command positions in the Ukrainian army possessedrepresentatives registered Cossack, Ukrainian nobility and honoredCossacks.

 

4.   Financeproceedings. Financial system Hetmanate to 1654, as alreadynoted, personally supervised B. Khmelnytsky. In liberated fromPolish noble domination territory was eliminated all the old statetaxes and introduced new ones. The main sources of replenishment of the state treasuryare taxes, border trade duties, income from fishing and from landfund. Yes, taxes were established mills for the production and sale of vodkameeting on fair trade and so on. Peasants who lived on the former government and privatelands, paying now "chynshi Khmelnytsky. Only lastprovide revenues to the state treasury Hetmanate 100 thousand PLN annually.

In the Ukrainian Hetman state there own systemproceedings. During the war destroyed all state (hrodski, and Zemskovchamberlain), the courts and established a military general, and regiment centesimalcourts. Cossack courts were subject not only to the Cossacks, but also nobles, burghers and peasants,especially severe crimes (murder, robbery, etc.).

General court-martial was the highest judicial bodyHetman of government. It included two judges and the general court clerk,that worked with. General Military Court considered appeals against decisions of the courtslower courts, as well as rare cases of which the applicants soughtdirectly to the hetman.

Moreover, in the cities of Magdeburg law, aspreviously, there were magistrates courts. Cases dealt with the clergy in the churchcourts.

 

5.   Changes insocio-economic life. Multiple Natsionalnovyzvolnoyi War was a strugglepeasants for the right to be free masters in their own land. After the conclusion Zborivskycontract farmers, who lived in the former state lands (korolivschynah "), atHetman territory gained personal freedom and right to own land. Theirestates were called free military villagessubordinate military treasure. With land ownership had to payState fixed tax.

Much more complicated was the situation of the peasants who livedon private lands. By Zborowski contract gentry rightreturn to their estates and the peasants were obliged to perform all the duties,as before the war. Farmers perceived attempts to restore his power gentrywith indignation and claim denial Zboriv agreement.

Khmelnitsky, the complaints of some nobles, they publisheduniversals, where villagers demanded that they master their "utmost humility andnationality, as before, and gave out, and all of his master ... hear;no riots, did not stubbornness. However, despite the hetmanproclamations that were directed against insurgents, punitive troops could curbpeasant discontent. Getman also understood that the struggle against Polish rulenot completed, and without the participation of the peasantry in vain hope of winning.

Hetman government in its internal political activitiesfully supported the interests of the Cossacks. Individuals who were entered in the register,together with their families were exempted from serfdom and received the right to freelylive in towns and villages to own land, have their own government and the Cossackproceedings. The leading place among the Cossacks took the officers who focus ontheir hands the power and wealth.

 

Conclusions

- On the domination liberated from Polish territoryformed Ukrainian Hetman State - Army Cossacks. Historicalof circumstances caused the paramilitary nature of the Ukrainianstatehood.

- An important component of successful development and a guarantorUkrainian state has its army, established at the organizational principlesZaporizhzhya Sich.

- Having their own financial and legal proceedings showedfull nature of statehood Zaporizhia Army.

- Significant changes occurred in the socioeconomic lifeUkrainian people. Significant impact on the socioeconomic situation in Ukrainehad incomplete liberation struggle.

 

Question  and objectives

1. What wasofficial name of the Ukrainian Cossack state? 2. What was the basis forpolitical structure of the Ukrainian hetman state? 3. What officials wereGeneral to the Government? 4. How many bands there were in the Hetmanate1649? 5. What city was the capital of the Cossack? 6. What type of militaryunits was based Ukrainian Army? 7. What was the numberKhmelnitskogo regular army during the war? 8. What are the main source of replenishmentHetman state treasury. 9. What was the supreme judicial body Hetmanate?

 

10. What were the features of the political systemHetman? 11. Describe the powers of higher authorities UkrainianHetman State. 12. Both the administrative and territorial structure of ArmyZaporizhia Cossack tradition of self-implemented? 13. Namepeculiarities of the Ukrainian army days Khmelnitskogo. 14. Explainwere organized as a system of finance and justice Hetmanate. 15. What changesoccurred in the socioeconomic life of the Ukrainian people?

 

16. Identify by name and card centers regiments Hetmanatein 1649 17. Make a comprehensive plan of "political andadministrative and structure of Ukrainian Hetman State.