§ 16. Deploying natsionalnovyzvolnoyi struggle in1648-1649 biennium
1. What was the military skill Cossacks?2. What are the methods of struggle used by Cossacks during the Cossackspeeches 20-30's XVII.? 3. What event caused NatsionalnovyzvolnuWar of the Ukrainian people mid XVII.?
1. Battle for YellowVody and Korsun. Forces of the Commonwealth gathered to fight rebelsheaded by Crown Hetman Nicholas Potocki andPol'na Hetman Martin Kalinowski, situatedbetween the camp and Korsun Chyhyryn. Crown Hetman was planning to take punitivecampaign against the forces of Zaporozhye two groups. The first - headed by the son of M.Stefan Potocki, had to move by land, while the latter mainly fromregistered Cossacks, led by captain I. Barabash and I. Karayimovychem - onDnipro boats.
Inc perfectly organized thanks to timely intelligencelearned of the plan and went with Host against S. Potocki. April 19Tatar cavalry troops, led by Perekopsky beyem longing, joined battlewith Poles in the top, the Yellow Waters, leftInhulets tributaries. Soon, with the main forces came and started Hetmansiege of the Polish camp. Number of Khmelnytsky's forces was 14 thousandCossack, Tatar hordes - 20 thousand people, the Poles were 10 thousand soldiers.
B. Khmelnitsky ZhovtiWaters
C. Potocki through the siege it was impossible to tellfather. Meanwhile, the fleets of registered that the fits to the Host, supportersHetman revolted. Barabash Karayimovycha and they killed and joined theKhmelnitsky. Once they arrived to yellow water on the side of Hetmanmoved from the camp also reyestrovyky Pototsky.
Once a critical juncture, the Poles on the night of 5 to 6May tried to break through the environment. However, the Cossacks and Tatars surrounded them on allsides and at noon May 6 defeated utterly. Seriously injured were PototskyTatars in exile and on the way to the Crimea, he died.
Having gained a brilliant victory in the yellow waters, incdecided not to waste time to move on Korsun,to strike on the main forces and Anti-Monopoly Crown Hetman. Magnatereplenished by new forces units and the number of Polish troops reached 12-14thousand.
Upon learning of the approaching Khmelnytsky, the Poles decidedunder the shelter of the camp to move zpid Korsun Bohuslav. On their way, intract pea Dubrava, Cossacks, led by M. Kryvonosa ambushed.
At dawn 16MayWhen the Polish camp, surrounded by eight rows of carts, moving Bohuslavway he came across debris from trees and dug ditches. Cossack-Tatararmy attacked the camp and broken his defense in three places. Fourcruel sicha ended in defeat Poles.
Battle of Korsun
According to the Ukrainian chronicler M.Hunashevskoho, after the battle Khmelnitskogo met with M.Potocki. Probably something to annoy the winner, with unconcealed Crown Hetmancontempt and bad irony said: "peasants," ... so what do zatsnomu rytserstvu hordesTatar (which victories and prypysovaly) will pay? "What got the answer:"You ... and others with you. " Indeed both Polish Hetman and almost allprisoners were transferred Tugay-beyu as war booty.
2. Increaseliberation struggle. Battle Pyliavtsi. Victory,Khmelnytsky won the first battle at Yellow Waters and Korsun, hadessential for the deployment of the liberation struggle. It was a painful blowfor the Polish army, contributed to a weakening of power in the CommonwealthUkraine. Rapidly growing insurgent army. During the summer of 1648 ofPolish noble domination rebels released the Left Bank.
From a letter Bratslav province to Adam KysilArchbishop Matthew Lubensky (governor of the Commonwealth at the time"Mizhkoroliv'ya" after the death of W
Our army crushed and broken to pieces ...Slaves rule over us now; traitor established a new principality ... Foolish rabbleglad that it protects inc, exposing fire and sword only one noblestatus, opening the city, the locks and entering it there as a triumphant victor,takes his nationality. Kyiv declared it his capital ... Horde isagainst us; Tatar Kish and the camp of Tamerlane nechystyvoho are still underWhite Church. But to reach us news and rumors that he wants to furtherincrease our troubles and successes. Even so, and the Kiev province, Bratslav,Chernihiv considered her, threatening to Volhynia and Podolia, and Ruthenian lands and ...
1. Strata which reflects the mood of the author?What are they? Explain your opinion. 2. Give the facts from the documentindicate the attitude of the Ukrainian population to Khmelnitsky. 3. What,according to the author of the document were Khmelnitskogo's next?
Flames of War has also affected the Right Bank. Cherkasycolonel M. Sergeant, is written here, Khmelnitsky,organized in a short time in Podolia and Volhynia south 20000th rebelarmy of peasants and townspeople. They liberated the Poles Polonnoe, Zaslav, jail,Tulchin, winery, Bratslav, Nemiroff and dozens of other cities.
Meanwhile, fierce storm swept Ukrainepeasant war. Long time nakopychuvana fury of villagers to their oppressorsled to the fact that they destroyed their families and their landlords, tenants and killedofficers, without distinction of their nationality and religion.Villagers smashed noble estates, occupying arable land and property.
After fruitless peace talks in September1648 hostilities resumed. In Volhynia during Cholhanskym stones wereconcentrated 80-90000th Polish army in which soldiers were 40 thousand people, andall others - ARCHITECTURE and servants. Commanded this army of three generals: Vladislav Zaslavsky, Dominic, NicholasOstroroh and Alexander Koniecpolski.
B. Khmelnitsky moved toward them with an army, the numberwhich reached 100-110 thousand people, including 50-60 thousand were experiencedsoldiers, and the rest - from farmers plow. The battle took place near townPyliavtsi near Starokonstyantynova. She began 11September 1648 fight for the dam across the river Ikva. Evening damcaptured by the Poles. The next day both sides were preparing for the final battle.
Bohdan Khmelnytsky, the aid which came September 125 6000th budzhatskyh horde of Tartars, was able to mislead the Poles, dissolvingrumor that joined him 30 thousand Tatars.
The morning of September 13 the battle was renewed. Ukraine-Tatarforces captured the dam and, crossing to the left bank, was the crownPoles. In the afternoon, the advantage was on the side of Khmelnytsky's forces.Evening among the Poles have spread rumors that troops ukrayinskotatarskiappeared in the rear of the camp. There was panic. Throwing the wounded, weapons and equipment,Poles began to flee. And Zaslavsky, Ostroroh and secretly Koniecpolskiescaped from the camp first.
Because win Cossacks reached tensthousand chariots of property, 92 guns and even lost during flight hetmanV. Zaslavs'kogo mace. Winning the battle opened the way for PyliavtsiLiberation zpid Polish domination of Western Ukraine.
3. LiberationUkrainian army raid in Galicia. Relieved September 161648 Starokonstyantyniv of Poles, Khmelnytsky called the officers'Council, where it was decided to move to the city. Siege inclaunched 26 September, and already October 5th Regiment captured M. Krivonosa High Castle. InDuring the negotiations, which at that time began with the hetman commoners, incagreed to lift the siege in a relatively small ransom.
October 16 inc journeyed Zamosc - importanton the way to the Polish capital Warsaw. Approaching the city walls, heZamosc burghers offered to give for the redemption, but was refused and orderedtake it by storm.
Three of assaults were unsuccessful. The situation uskladnyuvalageneral fatigue Ukraine-Tatar army approaching winter, the lack of horses,artillery, ammunition and fired plague from which he died in December, M.Sergeant.
At this time in Warsaw in May instead of deceased1648 King Wladyslaw IV was elected to the throne of his brother Jan Kazimierz. Soon it came to Khmelnytsky messengerwith a proposal to conclude a ceasefire. November 10 first officers' and thentotal military council decided to stop military campaign and retreat"On Ukraine. November 14 Ukraine, the Cossack army and left around Zamoscwent home.
4. Programconstruction of the Ukrainian Cossack state. Simultaneously with the liberationstruggle Khmelnitskogo formed ideas about what should be the futurefree Ukraine. For the first time the idea of establishing autonomous Ukrainian Cossack state,albeit to a restricted area, he put forward after the end of the battle of KorsunMay 1648 Through Tugay-bey B. Khmelnitsky handed the crown hetmanM. Potocki program requirements to the Polish authorities. It included aautonomous state "troops Zaporizhzhya, directly subordinate onlyKing of the Commonwealth, with defined borders in the White Church and Umanincluding the Left Bank. Authorities on the magistrates and chiefs "korolivschyn, cities andcamps on its territory skasovuvalas. Potocki refused to transfer theserequirements to Warsaw, explaining that the government never does not deliver.
At the end of December 1648 Khmelnitsky afterend trip to Galicia solemnly entered Kyiv. He was metMetropolitan of Kyiv Sylvester CBS,Jerusalem patriarch Pais, who was then in Kiev, thousands of residents and the Cossacks.A few days later patriarch of Jerusalem, blessed KhmelnytskySt. Sophia Cathedral to war with the Poles.
The talks with Polish Commissioner in Pereyaslav(February 1649) and the Moscow embassy G. Unkovskayain Chyhyryn (April 1649) inc a whole program unveiledthe Ukrainian state.
He stated, "to kick all the people captive LyadskyRus, and that first I fought for the damage and iniquity, I will now fight for ourOrthodox faith. Hetman believed that the Ukrainian state has unezalezhnytysya ofCommonwealth. Moscow ambassador H. Unkovskaya reported that "hetman andArmy Zaporozhian Kiev and all Russia under the rule of lords and King of Polanddo not want to be. " Inc argued that "our God from them (Poland and Lithuania)uvilnyv - King, we did not choose and do not cross and crowned him not kissed ... andWe will of God these are free from them. "
The future Ukrainian state, according to Khmelnytskyshould occur in ethnic settlement within the Ukrainian people. Onnegotiations with the Polish Commissioner, he said: "The border war not to marry this year,the Turks and Tatars not raise sword. Just us in Ukraine and Podolia, and Volhynia;now quite abundant in land and livelihood and his Duchy of Lviv, and HolmGalich. And standing on the Vistula, continuing Poles say: sydite, movchite, Poles.
Base system Ukrainian CossackState were to become orders troops Zaporizhzhya, common to allits population. "Not a single foot should rest in E and Prince shlyahotky here in Ukraine -proclaimed hetman - and zahochet Lee bread which of us eat, let TroopsZaporozhian be obedient ... "According to Khmelnytsky Ukrainian Cossack stateis the successor of Kievan Rus. According to G. Unkovskaya, hetmanbelieved that the Polish authorities should recognize the Ukrainian state "in those boundaries,as pious possessed great princes, and we submit to and be in captivity in themdo not want. "
Celebrate the Ukrainian Cossacks State had toAccording Khmelnytsky monarch. "The truth is the book - he said - that I'm evil and smallman, but God gave mi that yep yedynovladtsem and autocrat of Rus'.
5. Zbarazhskoy-Zborivskacampaign. In February, 1649 the negotiations between the Commonwealth commissionersB. Khmelnytsky and reached agreement on a truce. However, the Government of the Commonwealthdeveloped a new plan of attack to inflict Cossack Ukraine combined forces of the Polishand Lithuanian armies. May 20, 1649 Poles violated trucecrossed Horyn, invaded south-eastern Volhynia and reached Starokonstyantynova.Learning about the restoration of military action, inc moved their armies toVolyn. June 16 is already stopped when the hetman Pyliavtsi.The sudden appearance caused a retreat Hetman Poles under the protection of the walls Zbarazh castle.
Meanwhile, from Belarus to Ukrainian lands beganoffensive forces Lithuanian Hetman Janusz Radziwiff.Acting hetman Mikhail Krichevsky, by order of Khmelnytsky triedstop the Lithuanian army near Richytsia, but the battle was lost. Krichevsky,getting seriously injured, died, and the Cossacks retreated. But the task of Khmelnytskyhave been met. Due to the tremendous loss Radziwill refused to implement the orderKing of the invasion of Ukraine.
During Zbarazh to Khmelnitsky arrived 30-40000thTatar horde led by Khan Islam-. July 3,disposing 80-90 thousand soldiers, Hetman attack began.The number of Polish troops was 15 thousand people and the servants reached 28Siege of thousands Zbarazh and fierce fighting continued in its walls nearly six weeks.
From exploration inc and Islam-have foundrevenue moves from the besieged 35000th troops of King Jan Kazimierz. It wasdecided not to allow the Poles to join forces and split the royal army on the march. Innight of 3 to August 4, almost 40 thousand 20 thousand Cossacks and Tatars, ledHetman and Khan, moved in the direction towards King Zborov.
Battle Zboriv was 5-6August 1649 Only the evening August 6th battle was stopped andnegotiations have begun. Through the mediation of Islam- August 81649 concluded The Treaty.
By its terms, passed under the rule of HetmanBratslav, Kyiv and Chernihiv province. Out of this territory to appearPolish troops. Limited number of Cossack register 40 thousand people, notincluded the Cossacks returned to him under the rule of lords. Confirmed long-standingrights and privileges of Zaporizhia Army. The lands that passed under the powerHetman, the Polish government pledged to appoint to administrative postsonly Orthodox nobles.
All parties to the war oholoshuvalasya amnesty. Nobility,estates which were located on the territory subject to the Hetman had the rightback to them, and her subjects had to perform all the duties thatbefore. Kyiv Orthodox metropolitan was promised a place in the Senate.The elimination of church union and its return Orthodox Churchproperty should have been resolved at the next Diet. In possession of HetmanChigirin passed.
- Brilliant victory, won B.Khmelnytsky during the military campaign of 1648 confirmed polkovodnytskyyHetman and the talent he chosen the right tactics.
- Proholoshena Khmelnytsky Ukrainian building programCossack state was through the creation of an independent Ukrainian state inwithin the Ukrainian settlement.
- Results Zbarazhskoy-Zboriv Campaign 1649was the recognition by Poland of the autonomous status of Cossack Ukraine. This is notmeet the construction program launched by the Khmelnytsky Ukrainian Cossackcountry, but created the basis for the continuation of the liberation struggle.
Questions and Tasks
1. What was the number of members of Cossack and TartarTroops at the Battle of Yellow Waters? 2. What is the trick used by the Cossacks toKorsunsky win the battle? 3. What were the results Pylyavetskoyi battle? 4.What forces ended the siege of Khmelnytsky city? 5. When firstInc advanced the idea of creating an autonomous Ukrainian Cossack state?6. When the siege was the Cossack-Tatar army Zbarazh? 7. AsZborivska battle started? 8. Which province passed under the rule of HetmanZborivsky under contract?
9. As military skill helped them win the CossacksWinning the battle at Yellow Waters and Korsun? 10. As occurred BattlePyliavtsi? 11. What were the results of the liberation campaign in the Ukrainian armyGalicia? 12. Describe the program put forward by B. Khmelnitsky constructionUkrainian Cossack state. 13. What were the main events Zbarazhskoy-Zborivcampaign? 14. Describe the conditions Zborivsky contract.
15. Follow the map, which weremain directions of activities of participants in the war campaigns in 1648 and 1649 16.Continue drafting table Natsionalnovyzvolna War of the Ukrainian peoplemiddle of XVII century. "launched by material § 16.
17. Ukrainian historian Vyacheslav M. Lipinski wroteKrichevsky, he shut up "their way enemy corpse in Ukraine, deliveredinsurgent army from disaster to get between the two lights. Explain reproducedopinion.