§ 15. Natsionalnovyzvolna war (textbook)

Theme III. Natsionalnovyzvolna War of the Ukrainian people, the middleXVII. Revival of the Ukrainian State

§ 15. Natsionalnovyzvolna war

1. Move the worsening socio-economic factsnatsionalnorelihiynyh situation and oppression of the Ukrainian populationPolish authorities. 2. What were the causes of Cossack appearances in 20-30'sXVII.?

 

1.   Background andNatsionalnovyzvolnoyi causes of war. The most important eventUkrainian history XVII. was National liberationwar Ukrainian people. Itsoutbreak was caused by an aggravation of contradictions in the various spheres of society,conditions that caused the war.

At that time, very complicated situationsocioeconomic sphere. As a result of growth in Ukraine landowningPolish nobility, peasants lost their land and became serfs. Much worsetown dwellers and also were registered Cossacks. Critically, the situation innatsionalnorelihiyniy area. Ukrainian strenuous limited opportunities to takenative language. One by one in Ukraine appeared the Catholic churches, monasteriesand Jesuit colleges. Despite the government declared freedom of religiondid not stop oppression of the Orthodox. At that time in Ukraine is religious oppressionwere the factor that united the various groups in their protestsagainst the Polish authorities.

 

Documents tell

Bogdan Khmelnitsky primary reasonNatsionalnovyzvolnoyi War

The reason, which led the Cossacks to risewar against the Poles was not that Poles unjustly taken away in their villages andhouses, not that deprived of their earthly homeland, not what obtyazhuvaly their work,Nemilostivy like the pharaohs (all else could tolerate the Cossacks), and thatPoles, Cossacks forced to retreat from pious tenets and jointo incorrect teachings bad craziness destroyed villages and houses imperishable souls.

1. What Bogdan Khmelnitsky ubachav main reasonUkrainian war with the Poles? 2. Give examples of the fight for UkrainianOrthodox faith in the first half XVII.

 

I wonder

During the war each Natsionalnovyzvolnoyiwarring parties tried to look for his actions fighting for the faith. By BogdanKhmelnytsky came from metropolitan Greece Yosaf Corinth and brought the swordconsecrated in Jerusalem at the Holy Sepulchre. This meant that the Orthodox Church inOttomans seeing in the Ukrainian Cossacks, who led the hetman, fightersfor the Orthodox faith. For its part, the Commonwealth of King Jan Kazimierzspecial legate arrived, he handed him by the Pope and consecrated swordblessings on the war with the Cossacks, as this is a fight for the interests ofCatholic Church.

 

In the political sphere of their own lack of statehood,loss through elite polonization and stick a catholic faith led to the Ukrainianpeople subject to further stay in the Commonwealth hadprospects for full development. Ripened and psychological conditionsan explosion Natsionalnovyzvolnoyi war. The extent and nature of violence in the actions of their landlords,tenants, government officials and Catholic clergy during the suppression of the Cossackperformances of previous years have caused anger in the Ukrainian society ofoppressors and the desire to avenge the wrongs inflicted.

 

Terms and concepts

Natsionalnovyzvolna fight - Movements of oppressed peoples for the overthrow of the foreign domination, eliminationnational and colonial oppression, conquest of national independence.

 

National liberationwar Ukrainian people mid XVII. - A war of Ukrainian peopleled by Bohdan Khmelnytsky's liberation from Polish noble domination.

Based on the conditions of war Natsionalnovyzvolnoyiformed its causes:

- Dissatisfaction with the various social classes in Ukraine rapidgrowth in land holdings of Polish magnates and gentry;

- Strengthening the oppression of the Orthodox natsionalnorelihiynyhUkrainian;

- Discrepancy between the actual acquisition of the Cossackspolitical leadership in the Ukrainian society and the restrictions imposedon him by the authorities "ordinance in 1638;

- Higher weakness of the government of the Commonwealth (KingDiet and) that even if the desire had sufficient authority and credibility,to control the actions of the Polish magnates and gentry in Ukraine.

 

2.   BogdanKhmelnytsky and his supporters. Natsionalnovyzvolna War of the Ukrainian people, the middleXVII. long з February1648 to August 1657 It had natsionalnovyzvolnyy,religious and social. Its driving force was the Cossacks, burghers, peasants,Orthodox clergy, some of the petty Ukrainian gentry. Headed their Bogdan Khmelnitsky.

 

Bohdan Khmelnytsky

 

The figure in the history of

Bogdan (Zinovy) inc (1595-1657) - hetman of Ukraine, the creator of the Ukrainian Cossack state.Place of birth is considered farm Saturdays. He came of it petty Ukrainiangentry. He graduated in one of Kyiv and Lviv School Jesuit College.From my youth Bohdan Khmelnytsky was in the military. In1620 together with his father participated in the march to the Polish armyMoldova against the Turks. In the battle of Cecora father died, and got to BogdanTurkish captivity, from which it bought Cossacks. After returning, he joinedto the Registered Cossack army, became a clerk. He participated in campaignsagainst the Crimean Khanate, and in times of uprisings 30's XVII.performed on the side of the Cossacks.

In January 1648 ledNatsionalnovyzvolnu war. During the competition showed natsionalnovyzvolnyhhimself as an experienced military leader, a gifted diplomat and outstanding statesmanfigure. Trying to conceive experience of the liberation struggle, formulated the idea of creatingindependent Ukrainian state in its ethnic borders and started its implementation.The recognition of the Ukrainian Cossack state as a subject of international law.He died in Chyhyryn and was buried on Saturday in Elias Church.

 

New from rebelling peasants and Cossacks combat-ready army thatfought for the liberation of Ukraine, B. Khmelnitsky could, relying on theirassociates. Among them were representatives of different states - the Cossacks, Ukrainiangentry, townspeople. During the war they were talented commanders,builders of the state, diplomats.

The nearest environment Hetman belonged Ivan Bohun, Kindrat bubble, John poise, Matt Smooth, PhiloDzhedzhaliy, Maxim Sergeant John Vyhovsky Zhdanovich Anton, Theodore Veshnyakand others.

Companions Khmelnitskogo had different views onmany issues. Some of them were very reasonable, others - set-upradically. However, Bogdan Khmelnitsky was able to rally them around the idea of fighting forUkraine's liberation.

 

PeriodizationNatsionalnovyzvolnoyi war of Ukrainian people
mid XVII.

Period

Content

1648-1649 biennium

Increase the liberation struggle. Recognition by the Government Speeches  Commonwealth certain independence for Ukraine

1650-1653 biennium

The long and exhausting struggle between Cossacks and Poles  proved unsuccessful either party

1654-1655 biennium

Providing military assistance Moscow State  Ukraine. Successful completion of Ukraine-Moscow forces of summer-autumn campaign  1655 in Ukraine

1656-1657 biennium

The conclusion of Ukraine's military alliance with Sweden and  Transylvania. Joint action of the Cossacks from the Swedish and Transylvanian army  Against Poland

 

 

The figure in the history of

Ivan Bohun name famous hero of the liberation war of 1648-1654,one of the greatest Cossack colonels Ivan Bohun will remaintablets in our history. Pet of its people, zealous defender of hisinterest until the last minute he was adamant in his commitment and diedas a hero. After the death of Maxim Krivonosa he became assistant to the nearest BogdanKhmelnytsky, who relied on it in the most difficult military situations.Bohun was a brilliant master of maneuver and use various tacticaltechniques. He thus constantly nahanyav fear of Polish commanders, who innegotiations with Khmelnytsky nominating a mandatory condition of issuing them Bohun.Significant data about his life very little. Only the outgoinghe petty Ukrainian gentry, took part in peasant and Cossack rebellion1637-1638 years. During the liberation war for the first time we see him in 1649one hundred Chyhyrynnskoho Regiment. Obviously, at that time found their Bohunmilitary capabilities, for next year was appointed colonel of Vinnitsa.In early 1651 a large Polish army entered on Bratslavshchina. Seizingseveral cities, Pol'na Hetman Kalinowski sends a winery in the cavalryby Ljanskoronska. Leaving part of his troops in the city, with the rest of Bohuncavalry to meet Poles. After a long battle he makes tacticalmaneuver: panic begins to recede. It was one of his "fihliv", as namedPoles tricks Bohun. In pursuit of fugitives, Polish cavalryman facing theSouthern Bug River, where the Cossacks made the hole in advance, raise them in strawprytrusyvshy snow. Once trapped, the Polish cavalry was almost alldeleted the Cossacks. Shortly Kalinowski obstupyv winery. However, allhis attempt to take the city and had no success. Meanwhile in the wineryCossack units came and J. M. Pushkar dead. This caused confusion inPoles and they departed with huge losses. Heroic defense wineryBohun nominated among the Cossack troops. Talent commander and personalBohun showed courage during the battle Berestetskyi in June 1651, whenUkrainian army after the betrayal of the Crimean Khan, who left the battlefield and tookprisoner Khmelnytsky hit severely. In this situation, the Cossacks electedsubstituted hetman? Mr. Ivan Bohun, who is taking all measures to convertCossack camp a fortress. With determination and ingenuityBohun, Cossacks built through the swamp and river impassable Plyashivka three ferries,in which both failed, although the price of large losses, withdraw from the environment. InMarch 1653 As Casimir threw on Ukraine choicest part of the Polishcavalry, led by the unit? him the best generals, who ever knewPoland - Stefan Czarnecki. Inc sends him against a brilliantWizard maneuverability War - Ivan Bohun. Polish nobleman V. Kohovskyyleft a description of this campaign "which he wrote that" Bohun had luck sly fox, whoshows the dogs teeth or tail: he was strong and cunning. " With muchsmaller force, Bogun enticed Charnets'kogo in Monastirishche. All the efforts of the Polishcommander to storm this fortress were unsuccessful. Bohun here again resorted totactical maneuver: pereodyahnuvshy of Cossacks in Tatar garments, hecommanded them to attack, and he hit the rest of the cavalry on the other side. Thinking that дTatar Cossacks arrived atreinforcements, the Poles have left camp and rushed to leave. About this defeat one of thechroniclers wrote that the Polish army is "great harm and shame and sawhadst known. In the same year, all in an unequal fight, in the council incCalls for citizenship Chyhyryn tsar and has support fromthe old officers. However, under the wing, headed by Ivan Bohun, stronglyopposed such an act. Bohun, as you know, did not participate in Pereyaslavs'kyiCouncil for guarding the Ukrainian borders. But he did later with all the VinnitsaRegiment not given oath Russian Tsar. Then start Polestitles to Bohun, wanting to use his military talent. But hardpatriot rejected all their insidious suggestions. In 1655 he wrote anotherheroic page in the history of the liberation war, controlling the defense of Uman, which is notmanaged to Poles. He strengthened this fortress that Polish generalsDutch compared her with Brad, then that was considered a modelmilitary engineering skills. However, after the death of Khmelnytsky (1657)situation in Ukraine is complicated by: John Hetman power grabs Vyhovskywhich kept Polish oriyentatsiyu.Vin understand who has represented Bohun: norelease it from polyazoru, surrounded by his agents. But Bogun continues to struggle:together with Ivan Sirko it raises rebellion against Vyhovskyy againstRussian stranglehold on Ukraine magistrates. But the Poles in 1662 and arrested himthrown into the fortress of Mariyenburzkoyi. Next year, the right-bank hetmanUkraine becomes the protege Polish Teteria Paul, who, seeking to useBohun in their interests, seeking his release. The arrest and deportation are nothacked fierce patriot: he again dreams of liberation of Ukraine fromoccupiers. In late 1663 the Polish king starts a war against Russiaand left-bank Cossacks. Teteria it allocates some of its regiments and assignsacting hetman Ivan Bohun. By agreeing to lead these regiments, Bohunhopes in the war to return them to the Poles. January 13, 1664Glukhova siege began, during which informed the Russian and BohunUkrainian troops on the plans of King, which resulted, finally, to the lifting of the siegecity. But the intentions were Bohun wider: he wanted to hit the enemy from the rear. With thishe sends a letter to the Russian command through messenger, but heturned traitor. Bohun was arrested, and February 17, 1664 executednear Sedniv. The memory of national hero-keeping rehlasya in songs, artwritings. His name in 1918 was named one of the regiments of the Division of Nicholas Shchorsa.

 

 

 

 

Іван Богун

 

 

 

 

Ivan Bohun

 

3.   The beginning of the war. The reason forbeginning of the revolt that developed into Natsionalnovyzvolnu war was personalinjustice caused to Brussels Chigirinsky pidstarostoyu Daniel Chaplinsky.With its servants he robbed and destroyed the family farm Subotiv Khmelnitsky,took his wife and infant son brutally killed.

Appeal to Court of Khmelnytsky and even the King ofrequirements punish the attacker had no results. Not finding justiceHe joined the Cossack, who secretly discussed plans for an armeduprising against Polish rule in Ukraine. During September 1647Inc performance plan developed with the Commonwealth. Revolt decidedLaunched in November 1648 Seizure Trahtemirova, where he was a governmentCommissioner Registered Cossacks Jacek Shemberk. Agreed to send messengers toCrimean Khan and the Turkish sultan to gain their support.

However, plans for the rebel was issued Poles. Khmelnytskyarrested and jailed in Chygyryn. From there he escaped with the help ofChigirinskogo Colonel Stanislav Krichevsky and their friends and went onZaporozhye.

In early January 1648 Khmelnitsky, with a detachmentsupporters arrived at the Zaporozhye and located near the Sich. Consultationwith the Cossacks, who were in the gland at the Sich, January 25, 1648 it without a fightmastered it. Thus much of the Registered decided to supportinsurgents. These events are considered the start date Natsionalnovyzvolnoyi war. ShortlyCossack Council was held at which Khmelnitskogo was elected hetman ofZaporizhzhya.

Newly elected Hetman Bohdan Khmelnytsky made auniversals to the Ukrainian people, which called on all concerned to share theirHomeland join the Cossack army to fight against Polish domination.However embassy Hetman in March1648 voyennopolitychnyy has signed an alliance with the Crimean Khan Islam-III. According to him, to help send the Cossacks Khan 6 thousand Tatarhorsemen.

The implemented measures allowed for late April Hetman1648 collect 5 thousand Cossacks and 6 thousand Tatars. Acted against themPolish army headed by Nikolay Crown Hetman Potocki, a populationabout 18 thousand soldiers, of whom six thousand were Registered Cossacks.

Islam-III

 

Documents tell

From a letter of the crown hetman Nicholas PotockiKing Wladyslaw IV of the situation in Ukraine (March 1648)

Pestilential fire broke out so that there wasany village, any town, which would have sounded calls for arbitrariness and whereverreaching attempt on the life and property of their masters ... Cossack officers also want togovern themselves in Ukraine, to enter into agreements with foreigners and external hostsand do what you want only their will and desire.

First rose 500 rebels - aloneafford it - pathetic force, but against them should move the whole army, for these 500raised a rebellion in the plot with all the Cossack regiments and from all over Ukraine. In shortwhen rebels rose up to 3 thousand But God forbid that he (inc)went with them to Ukraine. Then would those 3 thousand quickly grown to 100 thousand and weEnough to do with these.

1. What facts are the document author? 2. Whatinformation can be obtained on the basis of their analysis? 3. Canstate that the Cossacks, started the uprising, the role played by national elites,which reflected the mood of the majority of the Ukrainian people? Why?

 

Unlike previous appearances Cossack years,1648 struggle against the Polish gentry rule in Ukrainetook on a grand scale and became nationwide.

 

Conclusions

- At the end of the 40-iesXVII. policy taking the Commonwealth of Ukrainian lands,led to a large number of dissatisfied among the different groupssociety. This created the preconditions to the natsionalnovyzvolnoyi struggle.

- B. Khmelnitsky became the leader of the rebels and, together withhis Companions united Ukrainian people to fight for their rights andfreedom.

- War of the Ukrainian people Natsionalnovyzvolnamid XVII. acquisition began after troops KhmelnitskogoZaporozhian Sich.

 

FAQtask

1. What were the reasons Natsionalnovyzvolnoyi war? 2.What was the date wars Natsionalnovyzvolnoyi mid XVII. 3. Namenames of associates Khmelnitskogo. 4. What period is divided NatsionalnovyzvolnaWar? 5. What event became a pretext to the war? 6. What was the numberrebels gathered Khmelnytskyi end in April 1648?

 

7. What were the conditions and causes NatsionalnovyzvolnoyiWar of the Ukrainian people, the middle of XVII century.? 8. Why is the situation innatsionalnorelihiyniy area was the main precondition for the beginning of the war? 9. OnHow far is divided Natsionalnovyzvolna war? 10. Tell us how you startedwar.

 

11. Start drafting table NatsionalnovyzvolnaWar of the Ukrainian people, the middle XVII..

Period

Major events

Results

Military

Socio-political