§ 13. Education, literature, book
1. What features of social and political situationUkrainian lands in the first half XVII. had influencecultural development? 2. How education developed in the Ukrainian lands inXVI century.? 3. What were the most significant achievements of the Ukrainianpublishing the XVI century.?
1. Education. In the firsthalf XVII. in Ukrainian lands evolved SchoolEducation. The main type of schools where children of Ukrainian winning educationtownspeople, clergy and Cossacks were Slavic-hrekolatynski school. These schools, asbefore, when fraternities were founded. At the beginning of the XVII century. in UkraineThere were about 30 mass schools. In 1615 have a school in Kiev,in 1620 - Luck in 1636 - Kremenetskom fraternities.
In the communal schools worked well-known scientists, educators andartists. Yes, rector of the Kyiv Brotherhood schools were comingOrthodox Metropolitan of Kyiv Job Boretsky scientistwriter and polemicist MeletiiSmotrytsky, Poet and church figure Kasian Sakovich.Her teachers were Belarusian educator Sava Andriyevychand renowned Orthodox theologian Zechariah Kopystensky.
Spring 1631 Kyiv has another educationalinstitution. In Kiev-Pechersk Lavra Archimandrite P. Grave founded school(Gimnazion). By their training program she reminded Jesuit colleges,which at that time in Europe the quality of education were considered the best.
In the first half XVII. growing in Ukrainenumber of Jesuits, Protestant and hrekokatolytskyh schools.In 1608 Jesuit colleges were opened in Lviv and Lutsk in1615 - Humenna in Transcarpathia. Protestant schools existed in Hoschi,These days, Khmelnik, Krylov and Panivtsi. Higher type of Protestant Schoolfounded in 1638 Kysylyni in Volyn. For example Jesuit collegesGreek Catholic Basilian schools were organized in Brest, Vladimir-Volyn,Shargorod and Hill.
2. FormationKyiv-Mohyla Collegium. Activities "gimnazion" Mr. Graves inKiev-Pechersk Lavra Kyiv Brotherhood caused concern, which is not likedits similarity with the Jesuit colleges. In 1632 It was agreedAssociation of Brotherhood and Lavra schools. New school, patronwhich was Mr. Tomb, was named Kiev-Bratsk, orKyiv-Mohyla Collegium. Later it becameAcademy call for a high level of teaching.
In Kyiv-Mohyla Collegiumfull course of 12 years and divided into seven classes (schools). InFaria-preparatory classes and the three lower classes - infimi, grammar and syntaksymisubjects studied the series of seven free of Science, Church Slavonic, Greek and Latinlanguage. The next two - poetics and rhetoric - were average. Teaching themcarried out mainly in Latin. In poetics students familiar with differentgenres of poetry and the basics virshoskladannya. In rhetoric, they ovolodivalythe art of making speeches and writing letters.
Higher level teaching college students gained intwo-year "school philosophy" and four-year "school of theology." Students thesenamed students of classes (students).
As the then European University, Kyiv MohylaCollege had its shkolyfilialy who worked for his program in the winery andKremenets. Teachers College were outstanding scientists of the time and educator,particular CBS Sylvestre, Joseph-Horbatskyy Kononovich, InnocentGizel, Yepyfaniy Slavynetsky and others.
3. Literature. In the firsthalf XVII. Ukraine continued to grow in polemical literature.Thus, the beginning of the century is istorykopolemichnyy pamphlet "Warning".It is unknown author vividly depicts the persecution of the OrthodoxCatholic clergy and hrekokatolytskym. It is with great affectiontreats kulturnoosvitnoyi of fraternities, sees the developmentSchooling important means of fighting and stick a catholic faith polonization Ukrainian.
The prominent writer was polemic M. Smotrytsky. First place among the ranks of his polemical"Trenos" ("Lament"). It offended the image of the mother-widow Smotrytskydescribed the Ukrainian people who suffered from social, national and religiousoppression.
One of the most interesting monuments chronicle firsthalf XVII. was Gustynsky chronicle, called by GustynskogoPriluk monastery near where it was created only remaining track. Scientistssuggest that the record was about 1623-1627 years Z.Kopystensky. Using a large number of sources, the authorof the events from ancient times to 1597 In the chronicle contained somethematic stories about the origins of the Cossacks and the Brest Church Union.
During this period, were created and other records, including Kyiv chronicle Ostrozhsky chronicle, chronicle of Lviv. Annalisticrecordings were conducted in Gustynskogo, Mezhyhirsk and other monasteries.
In the first half XVII. Ukraine is also acquireddevelopment of literary genres such as pastoral-oratorical prose, memoirsprose and poetry. Oratorskopropovidnytska prose works include the interpretationevangelical moralistic texts and teachings. The most prominent preacher was Cyril Trankvilion-Stavrovets'kyi (Zyzaniy) of the "MIRRORTheology, "" Gospel uchytelnoye "and" Pearl bahatotsinne. One of the firstUkrainian prose works of memoir memories were kievlyanina Bogdan Balik On Moscow and about Dmitry, Moscow tsarkafalse ", telling of the Polish army to march in Moscow1612
Terms and concepts
Memoirs - Autobiographical notes in the form of memoriesabout past events they witness or participant.
At the end of XVI - early XVII. therepolemical poetry. Yes, the "complaint of the poor to God" in the poetic author unknownthe form of sharply opposed polonization stick a catholic faith and the Ukrainian Orthodox.Founder epihramnoyi genre of poetry, poetic epigrams heraldic (stamppoems), dedication and a preface Gerasim Smotrytsky.
Terms and concepts
Epigram - Short poetic description of the subject,suggestions, etc. witticism.
Among poetivepihramistiv this period known as Damian Nalyvayko Paul and Stephen Berynda, Andrew Rymsha, LawrenceZyzaniy, Cyril Trankvilion-Stavrovets'kyi (Zyzaniy) and others.
With the development of publishing collections of poetic appearpieces for recitation, written by students to perform during ceremonyevents. In particular, 1622 Kasian Sakovich was Poems on zhalosnyy Cellar ... Peter KonashevychaSahaydachnoho.Although the work was written at the death of Hetman, by its general moodhe Drovers - uslavlyuye courage and bravery of soldiers that protecttheir homeland from the enemy.
4. Publishing. With the development ofculture growing demand for books that promoted the development of book publishing. In the firsthalf XVII. been active printing Lviv DormitionBrotherhood that was a real school for a whole galaxy of Ukrainianprinters. It was published grammar of Greek and Church Slavonic languages, collectionspoetry, dramatic works in Ukrainian.
Most of that time Ukraine was in Kiev-Pecherskprinting house, founded Archimandrite Monastery Elisha Pletenetsky.Among the first of its publications were "Prayer Book" and a collection of holiday services "Anfolohion.In Kiev, there are first private printing-based burgers SpyridonSable and Timothy Verbitsky. Ukraine began to act as nomadic (mobile)printing, which printing the book in one city, pereyizdyly work to the customerin another city.
Total to mid XVII. the Ukrainian lands invarious times there were more than 20 print. This role was not confined to printing housespublishing. They were important centers of education and culture around whichthere were groups that united artists, scientists and highly educatedpeople.
- During the first half of XVII century. in Ukrainianlands has increased the number of schools that promoted growthnumber of educated people.
- Kyiv-Mohyla Collegium was another schoolinstitution of higher type, teaching in which equaled the then universities.This Kyiv gradually turned into a cultural center whose valuenot outside of Ukraine.
- Availability of different genres in Ukrainian literature of the firsthalf XVII. showed its progressive development.
Achievements of Ukrainian publishing contributed to the developmentUkrainian culture and education, helping them stick a catholic faith and resistpolonization.
Questions and Tasks
1. How much mass of schools existed in Ukraine at the beginningXVII.? 2. As was established Kyiv Mohyla Collegium? 3. Howtook a full course of study at the Kyiv Mohyla Collegium? 4. Who is the authorpolemical "Trenos? 5. What is memoir? 6. In a literary genregained recognition for its creativity Gerasim Smotrytsky?
7. What were the achievements of the first Ukrainian schoolhalf XVII.? 8. Tell us about the activities of Kyiv-MohylaCollege. 9. What evidence of progressive development of Ukrainian literatureduring the first half of XVII century.?
10. Start of Table "The development of Ukrainianculture of the first half XVII..
Major accomplishments and achievements
Illustrations. Fig. 1.Meletii Smotrytsky. Fig. 2. Fraternal monastery. Fig. 3. The building of the Kiev city council.Fig. 4. "Discussions John Chrysostom. Title page. Fig. 5. Pidryznyk. Fig.6. "Chynopochytanyye. Fig. 7. Innocent Gizel.