§ 12. Cossack movement 20-30's XVII.
1. What were the causes and consequences of the first Cossackrevolts in the 90's XVI century.? 2. Name Featuressocio-economic development of Ukrainian lands in the Commonwealth infirst half of XVII century. 3. What facts show that the CossacksCossacks is an important factor in social life of Ukrainian lands?
1. The situation inUkraine in the 20-ies XVII. The Old War 40000th Cossackarmy returned to Ukraine. However, played a crucial role in getting inIt wins the Commonwealth, while the Cossacks lost. PromisesCossacks before the war Sigismund III, were not fulfilled. Already in October1621 Polish government ordered to leave in the registry only 3 thousand Cossacks, andrest immediately back into the power of their masters and stewards. In addition, the Cossacksnot been paid the promised money in the war.
Much of the exclusion from the registry after the Cossacksreturn was placed in the landowners' estates in the Kyiv region, kept militarysystem and refused to obey orders landowners "starostkiv and royalofficers. Unfolding massive "Cossacks" peasants and townspeople, who throughdeterioration of living conditions did not recognize the local administration and claimedCossacks. By "arbitrary" Registered Cossacks joined, unhappythat at a time when they fought, their farms were ruined Panama.
The situation is complicated and attempts to Polish authoritiesprevent the Cossacks make expeditions against the Tatars and Turks. Indignant behaviorCossacks authorities were not going to comply Khotyn agreement. Whenroyal ambassador, who arrived at the Sich, a rebuke by the Cossacksviolation of its terms, the Cossacks declared: "Peace King had signed, but not us?"
У 1621 and 1622Cossacks sought to Sigismund III of petitions, which were obligated not to attackTurkish possession of Crimea and if the King will meet their requirements. Theyasked to keep their ancient liberties, increase the registry, and timely pay increasepay. They would be allowed to settle and enjoy their rights ason royal lands, and in the landowners' estates, to prohibit the placing onconstant royal troops in the Kiev province and allow Cossacks tothe attention of King hired the service of other Christian monarchs. Cossacksalso insisted on the abolition of the Union of Brest and the legalization of the Orthodoxchurch. However, the Commonwealth government was unwilling to consider the request and the Cossacksdecided to curb its strength.
2. Polish-Cossackarmed conflict in 1625 In September 1625 of Bar in Podolia in the Dnieperset sail 30000th retaliatory forces, headed by Crown Hetman Stanislav Koniecpolski. Under pressure from the Crown forcesCossack units from separate Fastova, Kano, Cherkassy and other cities moved indirection of Zaporozhye. Host With their aid went Hetman MarcoZhmaylom. Soon they joined the 20-thousandth army. South ofKrylov they held a fortified camp. October 25 punitive troops attackedCossacks. After the bloody battles that lasted all day, rebels to withdraw ZhmaylomKurukove lake where arranged in marshlandnew campus, surrounding him several rows of carts.
Koniecpolski attacked the rebels, but hitting theMochar, retreated with great loss. Grow Meanwhile, snow fell.Both sides were not prepared for a long siege, and held talks. CossacksPoles rejected the request to issue leaders. However, instead of a new hetman Zhmaylomchose moderate Mykhaylo Doroshenko, who November 6, 1625 signedwith Koniecpolski Kurukove agreement.
Under this agreement, all participantsrebellion received amnesty. Number of Registered Cossacks increased from 3to 6 thousand people, of which 1 thousand had to be on the Host and not in the currentthere allow fugitives from landowners estates. Set by annual feeregistered Cossacks in the amount of PLN 60 thousand officers and additional benefits. The Cossacks, whoremained outside the registry, back under the rule of lords. Foreman obligednot accept the register of excluded from it and to suppress any"Stubbornness". Registered Cossacks were allowed to settle and own land only"Korolivschynah (public lands). Those who lived in the landowners' estates shouldto leave them for three months. For Cossacks kept the right to chooseHetman, but it had to approve the King. Registered obligated notinterfere in religious affairs in Ukraine to give up partnerships with foreignStates and the implementation of campaigns against the Crimean Khanate and the Ottoman Empire.
Kurukove agreement, as expected the Polish government,Registered isolate had that were in the public service ofother states. Creating six regional regiments - Korsunskogo,Cherkasky, Pereyaslivska Chigirinskogo, Belotserkovsky, Kanev -Registered forced to maintain order and suppress these rebel landsperformances. But the authorities failed to fully implement the terms. In Host of 1628formed unregistrated Cossacks independent from the Polish government, whichown elected hetman. Registered in the future repeatedly joinedto the rebels.
3. RevoltT. F. (Tryasyla) 1630 End1629, after the war with Sweden Polish government rozkvartyruvavits troops in Ukraine. Robbery Polish soldiers, religious oppression, growthdiscrepancies between registered and unregistrated Cossacks were the main reasonsrebellion led T. F. (Tryasyla).
The figure in the history of
Taras F. (Tryasylo) in 1620's was a Cossack colonel, Cossack hetman unregistrated(From 1629), the same year led the Cossacks in the campaign in the Crimea. In March 1630 stood atled the peasant-Cossack revolt against Poland. In the battle at Korsun andPereyaslav rebels defeated the Polish army in June forced the PolishHetman S. Konetspolskogo sign an agreement in Pereyaslav. Dissatisfied agreementF., deposed from hetman went away dissatisfied CossacksZaporizhzhya Sich, which attempted to raise a new uprising. Participated inMuscovite-Polish War of 1632-1634, which was conducted by Chernihiv-Siver and Smolenskland on the side of Moscow. At Cossack council in Kano winter 1634-1635 bienniumcalled for an uprising against Poland, but found no support and with partDon Cossacks followed. In 1635 he negotiated with the Government of Moscowrelocation of 700 Cossacks Sloboda Ukraine. In the spring of 1636 after returningwith Don traveled to Moscow to ask for transition of Ukrainian Cossacksthe service of the Moscow State. But his proposal was rejected, becauseMoscow government did not want to aggravate relations with noble Poland after an unsuccessfulMuscovite-Polish War of 1632 - 1634 рр. F. fate is unknown.
Nereyestrovi Cossacks Cossacks refused to obeyHetman Registered Gregory Black and chose their ownT. F. Hetman. In mid-March he and 10000threbel army departed from Host to Cherkasy. Having taken the city that was the seatHetman Black, Cossacks executed for his betrayal of the Cossacks of interest.
Uprising quickly spread. The Cossacks were F.Korsun, Kano and Pereyaslav. Protect the Orthodox Church called on rebelsMetropolitan Job Boretsky. F. called on Ukrainian joinCossacks to defend the Orthodox faith and get rid of the Polish authorities.T. F. Therefore revolt is the first major performance of Cossack,who had natsionalnovyzvolnu orientation.
When was Pereyaslav battle with insurgentsretaliatory forces crown hetman S. Konetspolskogo. Almost three weekslong and bloody fights between rivals. The central event was the so-called"Tarasova night," as he called it in the poem about the insurgents Shevchenko.May night a small Cossack detachment penetrated unnoticed in that part of the Polishcamp, where there headquarters Konetspolskogo and completely destroyed his health- "Golden mouth" of the 150 young nobles of nayznatnishyh families.
Failure to defeat the rebels ledKonetspolskogo make them Pereiaslav agreement under which the Cossackssubject to punishment for his speech, continued in force Article Kurukoveagreement, but the registry has increased from 6 to 8 thousand. F. refused to enter intoagreement with the Poles, and its newly elected Hetman signed Anton Konashevych-Gen.
4. Revolt John Sulima1635 Seeking to curb the Sich, the Sejm of the Commonwealthin February 1635 approved a resolution on terminationCossack arbitrariness. According to the resolution on the right riverbank oppositefirst (Kodatska) threshold had to build a fortress. Placed in the garrison there shouldwas isolated from the rest of the Sich Ukrainian lands. In July1635 building Kodatska fortress whichled the French engineer GuillaumeLevasser where BoplanWas completed. The castle housed a garrison of 200 Germanmercenaries.
Plan of fortressKodak (1635)
Cossacks knew of the dangers to theirexistence of Kodak, which blocked the movement of fugitives in January and raids of Cossacks in the topDnieper. Cossack Hetman unregistrated Ivan Sulima togetherSich officers decided to destroy the fortress. Around mid-August1635 night detachment of Cossacks, led by Sulyma, Kodak has conquered and destroyedCrown garrison troops. Then Sulima tried to raise the peasants and townspeople touprising. However, the government was able to suppress it in the bud. PolishKodak troops surrounded and Registered squad that entered the fortress, capturedSula and issuing authority. Leader of the rebels were sent to Warsaw where he was beheaded.
Kodak Fortress of Cossacks destroyed several times and polishvidbudovuvala power. Once again, restore it ordered in 1638 afterrebellion Bute, Huns and Ostryanytsi great crown hetman StanislawKoniecpolski. There is a legend that when rebuilding the fortress was completed,Koniecpolski personally, with unconcealed satisfaction examined its fortifications.Then he asked ironically not very famous then Chigirinskogo CenturionRegistered Cossacks, who accompanied the crown hetman: "Well, as you Kodak?"Witty, well educated and rebellious captain replied instantly impeccableLatin «Manufacta manu distuo» («created by hands, arms destroyed"). ThisCaptain was Bogdan Khmelnitsky, who led the fight in a decadeUkrainian authorities against the Commonwealth.
5. CossackUprising 1637-1638 biennium New high performance was natsionalnovyzvolne rebellion1637-1638 biennium, headed by Paul Butomy (Pavlyuk), James Ostrainyn (Ostryanytsi) and Dmitri Huneyu. The impetus forstart of the uprising was carried out in late April 1637 Pol'na HetmanNicholas Potocki "cleaning" of the Cossacks, which resulted in the registry were onlythose for whom ruchalysya local headman.
Rebellion led by Paul Booth, was elected hetman of Sichunregistrated Cossacks. Speaking in the name of destruction of traitorsstarshynreyestrovtsiv, struggle with "Poles", the protection of the Orthodox faith and "ourgold liberties, rebels urged to join them in the rest of the population.But quickly gathered under its banner almost 10 million people. However, rebelunits were separated and were poorly armed.
At the end of December 1637 Polish army, led byNicholas Potocki, opposed the rebels. December 16, 1637 in the decisive battles of the Polish 15000thArmy of the 10000th Cossacks with. Kumeyky, Near Cannes, the insurgents were defeated. They retreated,but were surrounded and were forced to surrender Potocki. Bute and otherCossack leaders, officers issued Poles were executed later in Warsaw.
But rebellion is not stopped. Spring 1638fighting continued elect Cossacks hetman unregistrated J. Ostrainyn. InMarch, he made a Host, trying to destroy part of the Crown forces toLeft. In April Ostrainyn won a large Polish army under Govtva. Andforces were not equal, especially when the aid came from the Crown army majorreinforcement and the Potocki M. magnate Jarema Wyszniewiecki.
In May, the rebels have failed under Lubny. FierceOstryanytsi fighting between the army and punitive opened under Zhovnyne. Having losthope for success, the hetman of several hundred rebels crossed over Suluand his way into the territory of the Moscow State. Detachments remainingcontinued struggle led by the newly elected Hetman D. Huneyu. He wentsouth and established a fortified camp in the natural course of the old elderDnieper. Almost half months besieged by rebels, but to learn thattroops that were coming to their aid, broken, laid down their arms. Rebellion suffereddefeat.
6. AdoptionThe ordinance troops Zaporizhzhya. In early September 1638 Pol'na Hetman M. Potocki convened in Kiev, "general counsel" RegisteredCossacks, which announced The ordinance Zaporizhia Army, whichserves the Commonwealth "Adopted by the Diet in March 1638 It revoked "in perpetuity allrights and privileges of registered, they used a reward for services renderedour ancestors, and which are now (they) are denied due to riots. " The officeSenior Zaporizhia Army (Hetman) forever forbidden to vote in personCossack. Instead, the recommendation of the crown hetman Dietappointed Royal Commissioner to register. He belonged to all judicial and militarypower in the registry. Election of officers and Cossacks proceedings were canceled.
Register of 6 thousand Cossacks. It could enter thosewho have not participated in the uprising. All expelled returned to theirprevious state. Dwellers and peasants forbidden to join the Cossacks under threatconfiscation of property and even give daughters married to the Cossacks. Registered Shelveshad to take turns to carry the service on the Zaporizhzhya Sich. They had "warningdiscretion not to perehovuvalosya the islands and rivers and there will not be sent tosea trips.
In early December 1638 in the natural butter has become(Near the modern village. Mironovka) was "the final commission with the Cossacks, whereRegistered had to accept the ordinance troops Zaporizhzhya.
- The basis of the Cossack movement 20-30's XVII.was dissatisfaction with the representatives of different strata of the Ukrainian population in Polishpolicy.
- Despite the defeat, the uprising 20-30's XVII.had important historical value. Cossacks formed the vindication of theirnatsionalnovyzvolnoyi privileges came in the form of struggle. Nominated slogans protectionorthodoxy, liberation of peasants from their landlords and the whole Ukraine from Polish ruleprovided support to the rebels by the majority population.
- Cossacks demonstrated ability to perform roleUkrainian leader natsionalnovyzvolnoho movement. It gained experiencetook during the war of Ukrainian people Natsionalnovyzvolnoyi middleXVII.
1. Who led the rebels during the Polish-Cossackarmed conflict in 1625? 2. How many registry was installedKurukove agreement? 3. Name the Cossack regiments established after the conclusion Kurukoveagreement. 4. What events are called "Night of Taras? 5. What changes undergonequantitative composition of the registry Pereiaslav Agreement in 1630? 6. When John SulimaKodatska ruined fortress? 7. Who led the Cossack rebellion in 1637? 8.When was adopted The ordinance troops Zaporizhzhya? 9. Who led the RegisteredCossacks by The ordinance troops Zaporizhzhya?
10. What were the main causes of early performances of Cossackin 20-ies XVII.? 11. T. F. Describe the rebellion.12. What are the limitations imposed on Cossacks The ordinance troops Zaporizhzhya? 13.What is the historical significance of the Cossack movement 20-30'sXVII.?
14. Decide on the map that the territory coveredCossack movement in the 20-30's XVII. 15. Make a table"The Cossack Uprising 20-30's XVII..
Date of rebellion