§ 11. The struggle of the Ukrainian Cossacks by foreigninvaders.
Hetman Pavlo Konashevych-Sahaidachny
1. What was the military skill Cossacks?2. What role was played by the Cossacks to protect the southern borders of the Ukrainianlands in the second half of XVI century.? 3. As the Cossacks supportedOrthodox Church in the first half XVII.?
1. PrerequisitesMarine Cossack marches. At the beginning of the XVII century. Ukrainian Cossacks take effectand acts as an important factor not only in the Commonwealth, but also on the internationalarena. Cossacks become a major obstacle for the Turkish-Tatar attacks onUkrainian lands, protecting them from attacks while making trips toTatar and Turkish possessions in return. This creates many difficulties in the relationshipCommonwealth of the Crimean Khanate and the Ottoman Empire, but alsopromotes that the Cossacks became known in Europe. It see defenderEuropean Christian civilization of Islam offensive.
At the beginning of the XVII century. Tatar troops repeatedlyappeared on Ukrainian territory, "umyvayuchys - According to contemporaries, - onelbow in our blood and devastating all fire and sword. " On the Ukrainian landsTatars were yasyr, capturing men, women and children. Those who resisted,killed. Nevilnytskyh captivity sold on markets. Ukrainian girls andwomen are taken to harems or were maidens. Boystaken to military barracks to educate them Janissaries. Men waitedhard work on construction work or they survived his age constrained tofunny hrebtsyamy on Turkish servitude.
At the end of the XVI century. Cossacks, cohesive organizationalin the current Sich, was not only protect the Ukrainian land, but also makemilitary raids to the Crimean Khanate and the Ottoman Black Sea possessionsEmpire.
Terms and concepts
Yasyr (From Turkish "prisoner") - prisoners who werecaptured by the Turks and Tartars during the attacks on the Ukrainian, Russian and Polishland.
Harem - Women's room in the house Muslimwhere kept women and concubines owner.
Janissary - Preferred shares in the Turkish infantry Armyreplenished boys forced a set of subjects-Christians who were brought upfor military service.
Servitude - The name of a large wooden oarmilitary vessels in the Ottoman Empire.
2. Sea toursCossacks. The first two decades of the XVII century. are called the heroic days of trekking Ukrainian Cossacks.It was in this period were made extremely brave sea journeys to the OttomanEmpire, which spread the glory of the Cossacks in the whole Europe. They gained victoryshowed that the Cossacks were unsurpassed masters of sea battles.
G.-L. Boplan Cossacks on the organization of marinecampaigns against the Turks
When Cossacks devise a sea trip, thedo not have permission from the king, but get it from their Hetman and convenecouncil of war. It purchased the acting hetman who should lead theircampaign, it is just like when choosing hetman, but the original chieftainselected only for a while. Then they were going to the military treasury,which is a place of their collection. They are building boats about 60 feet long, 10 or12 wide and 12 deep. Those boats have no feed, reduced from trunkBoating trees - willow or linden - 45 feet long. The side of obramovuyutsya andsupplemented boards 12.10 feet long and 12 to one foot wide. Theyfasten them with wooden nails, nastelyuyuchy one row to the second, as itdone in ordinary river boats ... Usually, their boat is ten or fifteenpairs of oars each side, and those boats sail faster than the Turkish oargalleys. On the boats also put a mast on which bend slightly awkwardsail, which dismiss only in good weather, while high winds preferrow ...
Every Cossack armed with two guns, a sword.And on each boat are also four to six falcon (small cannons)need to hike food. Cossacks dressed in shirts and trousers, still haveremovable clothing and hat blahenkoyu retinue, take six pounds of gunpowder,sufficient lead-core for their guns. Everyone has a compass ...
The Turks, of course, alerted to the raid andheld in the mouth of the Dnieper several galleries ready to keep out of the Cossacksestuary. But the Cossacks are cunning dark night, when to appear in the skyMoon-Moon, and are hiding in the reeds by trychotyry miles from the mouth of the Dnieperwhich do not enter the Turkish galleys. Turks still waiting for them near the mouth, but alwaysremain cheated ...
1. Identify the major stages of the Cossacks'maritime campaign. 2. Describe the appearance of the Cossack gulls. 3. What wasCossack outfit - marcher? 4. How the Cossacks entered misleading Turksto exit to the Black Sea?
In 1602 Cossacks 30 Seagulls and more reflected inTurkish galley came into the Black Sea and in the Turkish fleet defeated the Kilo. Already1606 Cossacks took Varna, the largest Turkish fortress on the westernBlack Sea coast, which had been considered impregnable.
After taking Zaporozhian Cossacks Varna angrySultan. He brought the island perehorodyty Sky Tavani iron chain betweenKiza fortress-Kermen and Aslan-Kermen to prevent release of seagulls in the CossackBlack Sea. In the middle of the Dnipro was left a small passage, whichprostrilyuvavsya guns on the walls of both castles. However, this has not stopped the Cossacks.They trick or overcome this passage, before assuming a heavy oak log,chains that tear, or pulled their gull 25-60 km drawing dies.
In 1608 Cossacks "amazing tricks" captured,Perekop destroyed and burned, and the next year attacked the Turkish Pridunayskiefortress of Izmail, Belgorod and Kilo. 1614 Cossack flotilla of 40 gulls,led by Hetman P. Konashevych-Sahaidachny overcome the Black Sea, attackedCutoff and, moving westward, devastated the coast. Sturm wasSinop is taken is taken and burned the entire Turkish fleet, which stood in the harbor. NextGulls, 80 and 4 thousand Cossacks led Sagaidachnogo approachedBosporus and attacked the Turkish capital Istanbul. Finally, in 1616Sahaidachny a huge flotilla of 150 seagulls and 7 thousand Cossacks brokeTurkish fleet under Ochakovo, went to the fortress Kafa and took her to the siege. AfterCossacks took several days of siege and burned Cafu, who was chief Slavemarket area, and liberated prisoners. One of the brilliant marches onCossacks made in Istanbul in 1624 They were planted at three timescoast, took a big booty and returned home.
FightCossack Turkish galley of seagulls
Sturm KafiCossacks in 1616
Marine Cossack raids were importantvalue. They contributed to the weakening Ottoman Empire, obstructing theits aggressive plans for Ukraine and other European countries have contributedactivation natsionalnovyzvolnoyi fight it conquered peoples. However,Although these campaigns have played a positive role, not always, they werereasoned only noble intentions fellow liberation, a war for the faithetc.. For the Cossacks, they were also getting through livelihood andpart of the campaigns was to plunder the Turkish coast.
3. ActivityHetman P. KonashevychaSahaydachnoho. Day trips heroic UkrainianCossacks become a period of one of its most prominent leaders Peter KonashevychaSahaydachnoho.
The figure in the history of
Peter Konashevych-Sahaidachny (C. 1577-1622) was born in a noble family in Sambirschyni. He studied atOstrog school and later went to Zaporozhye. Soon took an important place amongCossack. In 1614-1616 and 1620-1622 biennium Registered elected hetmanCossacks. In its hetman of guided sober calculation,pragmatism, both hardness and tendency to compromise. He headed severalvictorious campaign against the Ottoman Empire and Crimean Khanate. He was knownas patron, defender and supporter of Orthodox brotherhood movement.
As an experienced and moderate manSahaidachny tried defending the interests of Ukrainian Cossacks and generalpeople reach an agreement with Polish authorities. Getman agreed to the terms Vil'shans'ka(1617) and Rostavytskoyi (1619) agreements that establish quantitativeRegistry staff respectively 1 and 3 thousand Cossacks. But do not hurrythose provisions that did not satisfy the Cossacks.
Successful campaigns, organized Sahaidachnyagainst the Tatars and Turks, have drawn attention to it in Europe. As commanderSahaidachny marked penchant for active offensive and wideusing its suddenness. Procure Hetman victory allowed reformedCossack army, which he turned into the regular armed forces ofiron discipline.
Sahaidachny also become famous for itseducational activities and protection of the Orthodox Church. He is the product of"Explanation of unity, which contains strong criticism of the Brest Church Union.He, as you already know, along with the Zaporozhian entered the Kievfraternity and did much to restore the hierarchy of the Orthodox Church in the PolishCommonwealth. For assistance in Kiev Sagaidachnogo acted kulturnoprosvitnytskyycenter, which belonged I. Boretsky, E. Pletenetsky, K.Sakovich, N. Smotrytsky and others. Getman took care of churchesmonasteries, schools, and before his death bequeathed large sums of money and LvivKyiv Brotherhood and other charitable purposes.
4. PartUkrainian Cossacks in Khotyn war. In 1614-1618 he Marinehiking Cossacks to the Turkish port of western and southernBlack, as well as support by the Polish authorities in anti-Turkish uprisingsWallachia and Moldavia triggered in response to devastating Tatar and Turkish raidsUkrainian lands. Beginning of the Polish-Turkish war of 1614-1621 biennium
In September 1620 Polisharmy led by Crown Hetman Stanislaw Zolkiewski was brokenTurks in the village Cecora. Having beaten in Moldova, Sultan Osman II wasprepare for the conquest of the Commonwealth. Was collected a huge army, whichOsman II was headed by himself. King Sigismund III of the Commonwealth appealed for helpto the Austrian Habsburgs and the Pope, but did not get it. As a result,Sigismund III was forced to seek support in the Zaporozhye Cossacks.
In response to King James Cossack hetmanUnborn, who was nicknamed wart, said that assistance will onlyterms of recognition by the Polish authorities restore the hierarchy of the Orthodox Church.
In June 1621 Dry oak forest in the tract betweenRzhyschevym and White Church, met the Cossack Council. Into account the danger thatthreatened Ukraine, the Cossacks have decided to participate in the campaign against the Turkstogether with the Poles, and for the Harmonization of aid sent to the Kingembassy headed by Sahaidachny.
Since returning to Warsaw SahaidachnyPolish camp, located near the walls Khotyn fortress. However, the Cossackarmy has not yet arrived there, he moved with little protection to meetCossacks, who fought under probyvalysya Chernivtsi. Sahaidachny came across the Turks and Shothand barely made it to his. At the Council convened, he described the promisePolish government. Cossacks dissatisfied command Warts, saved hisgovernment and elected a new hetman Sagaydachny.
Sahaydachny, avoiding bright environment, brought the Cossacksin Chernivtsi. Almost simultaneously, under the walls of the fortress appeared 250,000th Turkish-Tatararmy led by Osman II. She resisted 80000th Polish-Cossackarmy, from which 40 thousand were Cossacks. In KhotynWar 2-28 September 1621, as mentioned this battle decided the fate ofCommonwealth and the Ukrainian lands. Thanks polkovodnytskomu talentSagaidachnogo and heroism of the Cossacks, Polish-Cossack army win.
As a result of the heroic actions of the Cossacks under the walls KhotynFortress was dispelled the myth of invincibility Turkish army. Further plansOttoman conquest of European countries have failed. Ukrainian andPolish lands were saved from conquest by the Turks. Prestige Commonwealthincreased. The news of the victory helped intensify the liberation struggle of the Slavpeoples against the Turkish oppression.
In terms of the peace, Crimean Khanate and Turkeyobligated to not attack the Ukrainian and Polish land. Rzeczpospolita, inturn has a duty to prohibit shipping Cossacks on the Dnieper Riverand avoid trips to the Cossacks and Crimean Turkish possessions.
To win under Hetman Sagaidachnogo Khotin waspolkovodnytskiy last in his career. As a result of injuries he receivedill and died a few months.
- In the first half XVII. Zaporozhye Cossacksbecome a force that could not only successfully reflect tatarskoturetskiattacks on Ukrainian land but also land and make far sea tripsto the Crimea and the Ottoman Empire.
- The most famous leader of Ukrainian Cossacks firstdecades XVII. became hetman Petro-Sahaidachny Konashevych.
- During the war Khotyn Zaporozhye Cossacks showedits ability to act as an influential factor of international life.
Questions and Tasks
1. What yasyr? 2. Who are janissary? 3. When the Cossackflotilla, led by Hetman Sahaidachny captured Cafu? 4. When heldBattle Cecora? 5. How many days lasted Battle Khotin? 6. What wereobligations of the Ottoman Empire and Commonwealth by an agreement made The OldWar?
7. Why the first two decades of the XVII century. called"Heroic era marches" Ukrainian Cossacks? 8. Describe the activityHetman P. KonashevychaSahaydachnoho. 9. How has the Cossacks in Khotynwar? 10. What were the results and consequences Khotyn war?
11. Make a table "Activity of Hetman PavloKonashevich-Sagaydachny.
Field of activity
12. Using additional literature, prepareKhotyn message about the war and participation in the Cossacks.
13. Ukrainian historian IvanKrypjakevych wrote: "In the battle for Khotin 1621 Turks were the bruntdirected to the Cossack camp, and the Cossacks with their defense and attacks have gained agreat fame throughout Europe - panegyrists compared them with the Spartansdefended Thermopylae from the Persians. " What do you know about the exploits of the Spartans, whodefended Thermopylae of Persia? Look for additional literature Hotinskuyuwar facts to compare the Cossacks of the Spartans.