§ 10. Church life
1. What was the Orthodox churchXVI century.? 2. What was the Brest Church Union in 1596?3. What were the results and consequences of the Brest Church Union?
1. ImpactUnion of Brest on church life in Ukraine. The Union of Brest led to a split between supportersOrthodox churches and hrekokatolytskoyi in Ukrainian society. Immediately afterconclusion of the union, December 15, 1596, King Sigismund III issueduniversal requirement of the Orthodox clergy and believers to recognizeunion. Using the "right of patronage, handing out episcopal chair toto recognize the union, effectively eliminating hierarchy. On the ground inforce the Orthodox churches and monasteries were taken and handed Greek Catholic.But the Orthodox have resisted this. So when in 1599 King appointedhrekokatolytskoho Metropolitan Ipatii PotiiArchimandrite of Kiev-Pechersk Lavra, burgers and Cossacks are not allowed him tomonastery. 1609 armed attack on Kiev s independence, wheregovernor hid hrekokatolytskoho Metropolitan Anthony Hrekovych. Their actions preventedthe latter, despite the support of government to seize St. Sophia Cathedral and Kyiv PecherskLavra. In 1618 Cossacks Hrekovych drowned in the Dnieper River. Actions townspeople supportedKyiv governor Prince K.-V. Ostrog. As a result of fighting Orthodoxgentry in the Diet of the Commonwealth Zygmunt III officially recognized the Kiev-Pecherskundergraduate Orthodox.
Kiev Metropolitanate actually break into a recognizedPolish authorities Greek Catholic ("Connection") and illegal, not recognizedauthority and patronamykatolykamy, Orthodox (Nez'yednanu ") church. Inthese conditions the Orthodox Church in Ukraine has stood by the support of believers. Ondefense of Orthodoxy rose brotherhood. Brother made a collective protest againstGreek Catholic and illegal actions of their protectors and thick on dietines SeimCommonwealth, led processes church property and submitted relevant materialsDiet ambassador. The reason for their actions and speeches in defense of Orthodoxyrepresentatives of other sectors was a tradition to ensure the kings of the Commonwealthright to freedom of conscience within their state.
In May1599 initiated Vilnius Brotherhood Union was signedbetween the Orthodox and Protestants for the common defense of its freedomreligion.
Actively led the fight for their rights UkrainianOrthodox nobility at the Diet of the Commonwealth. This was only possible legalway for the restoration of the Orthodox Church. 1601 and 1603 OrthodoxAmbassadors with Protestants disrupted work policies. After the participation of the Ukrainiannobility in an armed attack on the King (1606-1607 biennium) Diet decidedwhich is orthodox barriers shall be undertaken in celebration of worship, and confirmedrights and privileges of the Orthodox Brotherhood. 1609 the existence of the Dietin the Commonwealth as hrekokatolytskoho and Orthodox clergy.Harassment of any of them should have been punished at the state level. Importantvalue was adopted in 1618 Diet decisions that no one can forceforced to change their faith.
However, gains in the Diet against the state differed fromOrthodox Church in the field. Against the Orthodox still do arbitrarinessand coercion: monasteries and churches by the power transmitted Greek Catholic, in limitedrights of the Orthodox nobility, were not allowed to attend the magistrates'Orthodox burghers.
From the speech of the Volyn Ukrainian nobleman L.Derevinskiy to entangle the Sejm in Warsaw (1620)
... In large cities, the church sealed,Church possessions destroyed, rather than in the monasteries of monks holding cattle.Go to the Duchy of Lithuania: there in the border towns of Moscow bydone the same. Mogilev Orsha and sealed the church, priests scattered around. InPinsk done the same. From the monastery did Leshchynskyy tavern ...
Look at the image before and unprecedented oppression- Is not oppression of our people Ruthenian that, among other cities, is inLviv? Who keeps the Greek faith and joined the union, he can not livein town to measure elbow and quarto and be accepted into the shop, is not allowedusher at church ceremonies residents of the city ... In addition, the monks are notjoined the union, Uniates Novogrudok and catch on in other cities, to rozdyahayutfree path and arrested. Similarly, in municipalities not brought peopleand decent scientists who do not belong to the union, as a simple man, not educatedto what some people are not able to determine what is justice, fill this placeshame Ruthenian court.
1. What facts are the document author? 2. Whatinformation can be obtained and what conclusions do on the basis of these facts?3. As the author refers to events which tells? Why you happenedimpression?
2. Restorationhierarchy of the Orthodox Church. In the early 20-ies XVII. important role inprotection of Orthodox churches in Ukraine have played Cossacks.Registered Cossacks Hetman P. Konashevych-Sahaidachny, together with the HostZaporozhian entered the Kiev Brotherhood. He supported the idea that was born inOrthodox circles, the reopening of the Orthodox hierarchy without the consent of the Polish authoritiesCommonwealth. For this it was decided to use in coming to Kyiv1620 Patriarch Theophanes of Jerusalem. It provided protection fromSahaidachny his Cossacks.
At the request of the Orthodox burghers and the nobility Cossack Theophanesconsecrated Metropolitan of Kiev Job Boretsky, andalso Lutsk, Vladimir, Chelm, Przemysl, Polotsk andTurov-Pinsk bishops. Thus was restored hierarchy.
Commonwealth Authorities refusedrecognize ordained by Cossacks Orthodox hierarchs in ubachayuchyThe violations of the royal "patronage rights. Began a long struggle.Important role it played Cossacks, which at that time was a powerfulmilitary force. Only in 1632 When electing a new king of the Commonwealth Vladislav IV agreed to officially recognize the Orthodox hierarchschurch. This decision was incorporated into compound 1632 "Articlesto calm the people of Rus ". They Updating election lawMetropolitan Orthodox "for ancient rights and customs - the nobility,Greek clergy and ordinary people of faith who were not in the union. SameOrthodox have the right to choose their four bishops - Covers, Przemysl,Lutsk and Mstyslavs'ka.
3. ActivityMetropolitan Peter Graves to strengthen the Orthodox Church. After1632, when Wladyslaw IV agreed to legalize the Orthodox Church,privilege of Kyiv metropolis he gave Archimandrite of Kiev-PecherskMonastery of Peter May.
The figure in the history of
Peter Graves (1596-1647) came from a Moldavian princely family. Educated atLviv Brotherhood school and several Western European universities.First served in the Polish army, participated in the battle Khotyn1621, and in 1625 tonsured a monk. From 1627 - ArchimandriteLavra, and since 1632 - Metropolitan of Kyiv and Galician.Much effort was launched to legalize the Orthodox Church, has achieved a returnUniates seized the monasteries and churches (St. Sophia Cathedral and Vydubytskymonastery in Kiev, etc.).. His efforts and funds were first thoroughly renovatedSaint Sophia Cathedral and many buildings Lavra. The tomb was initiatedCollege of Kiev (1632), its affiliates in the winery, and KremenetsHoschschi opening and Slavic-hrekolatynskoyi academy in the capital of the MoldavianDuchy of Iasi in 1640 The huge role played in updating the OrthodoxTheology and the strengthening of the Orthodox Church in Ukraine.
Becoming the Metropolitan of Kiev andChee, Peter Graves has directed its activities to reform the church. Firsthe ordered all church life. Now, no bishop could not takeDepartment without the consent of the Metropolitan. By order of Mr. Graves was conductedthorough check on compliance with the canons of the church during the pastappointment of all ordinary priests and publishing them for new certificates with detaileddefined responsibilities. For control of church life and behaviorclergy to parishes, monasteries and bishops sent special"Metropolitan governors" and "Visitor." Introduced special examinationsknowledge on pastoral duties for the priests. To solve the current problemsin meetings convened annually diocese priests - Diocesan cathedrals. With the eradication of custom solutions including lawsuitsclergy, secular courts established Tomb P. metropolitan consistory - Church judicial body.
Metropolitan ordered relationsof church fraternities, limiting some of their claims and forcing themreckon with its power. Mr. Tomb has made easing the negative impactCopyright patronage of church organization. Clearly defined rights and obligationsammunition, secured by influential patrons of the parish of the Orthodox nobility orBrotherhood. Metropolitan leave the right to refuse to ordain churchpositions offered patrons unworthy persons.
Much attention is paid Tomb P.development of Orthodox doctrine and ordering rituals.Metropolitan and his associates prepared a new OrthodoxCatechism ("Orthodox confession of faith") with the presentation of the foundations of Christian faith,adopted by the council of Kyiv 1640 P. Grave wrotegreat polemic "Litos, or stone" (1644) and "Yevharistion orTrebnik "(1646), which defined dogmas and rites of the Orthodoxchurch.
4. SituationGreek Catholic Church. Becoming hrekokatolytskoyi church was quitesuccessfully with the support of the Commonwealth government and the Pope. However, ratherit is often accompanied by oppression and violence against the Orthodox. Simultaneouslypromised seats in the Diet of the Commonwealth hrekokatolytski bishops did notreceived.
Metropolitan IpatiiPotiy (1599-1613) to actively engage hrekokatolytskoyi Ukrainian Churchgentry. Yes, 1603 thanks to his perseverance became Greek CatholicRepresentatives of 50 genera of Volyn nobility. In 1605 I. Potiy received fromKing Zygmunt III right superiority over all the churches "and GriegoRuthenian Rite in the Commonwealth. He founded the firsthrekokatolytsku seminary in Vilna and Brest in school. Reforms system hrekokatolytskoyiChurch made a metropolitan Joseph-Velyamin Rutsky(1613-1637). To improve the educational level of the clergy he hrekokatolytskohoachieved by the Pope permission to study in the Western Catholicseminaries. Seeking to prevent polonization and stick a catholic faith and UkrainianBelarusians Y.-V. Rutsky 1615, with the permission of Rome, equalized statushrekokatolytskyh and Jesuit schools. In 1617 Painter CatholicMetropolitan monks made a reorganization hrekokatolytskoho monks,joining him in the Basilian Order. In his insistence Basilian monksalmost every monastery founded his school.
After the restoration of the Orthodox Church in 1621Metropolitan Y.-V. Rutsky started negotiations with its bishops of reconciliation"One of Russia with a second and a single in the Commonwealth of the Kiev Patriarchateunited to the Orthodox churches and hrekokatolytskoyi subordinated to Rome.Attempts to unite the Orthodox and Greek Catholic Church was oneunsuccessful. Against this were strictly orthodox gentry and CossacksCossacks. Creation of the Patriarchate Ukrainian and Belarus are also notthe interests of the Catholic clergy. They were unhappy thatas a result of reforms Y.-V. Ruts'kyj Catholic Church is losing profits from theseland because he drag himself to the faithful.
In the 30's XVII. after legalizationOrthodox Church of King Wladyslaw IV hrekokatolytska Church received sevendioceses. During this period, the situation is complicated hrekokatolytskoyi church. PowerCommonwealth, making sure it is impossible to unite all Ukrainian and Belarusianhrekokatolytskiy in one church had to go for dialogue with the Orthodox Church,which has kept its influence and importance.
- Due to the Union of Brest the Orthodox Churchfound itself in a tight corner. She could only stand out thanks to the supportgeneral population of Ukraine.
- Restoration of the Orthodox Church hierarchy has occurred,first of all, thanks to the support of the Cossacks, who acquired the role of defender and exponentaspirations of the Ukrainian people.
- Reform of the Orthodox metropolitan P. Graves contributedstrengthen the church administration, discipline and morality clergy.
- Greek-Catholic Church in this period experienced a periodformation. Contributed to strengthening its system of church reform Metropolitan Y.-V.Ruts'kyj.
1. What were the main achievements Diet FightOrthodox ways for their rights? 2. When the Orthodox hierarchy has been restoredchurch? 3. Who was the first metropolitan of Orthodox Church? 4.When the Orthodox Church was legalized the government of the Commonwealth? 5. What measuresmade to arrange for the church, Metropolitan Peter Graves? 6. ThatMetropolitan's consistory? 7. What measures to manage life hrekokatolytskoyiMetropolitan Church made Y.-V. Rutsky?
8. Describe the changes in church life of Ukraine,occurred as a result of the Union of Brest. 9. As Orthodoxecclesiastical hierarchy in Ukraine? 10. What measures to strengthen the Orthodox ChurchPeter made a grave? 11. Describe the situation in the church hrekokatolytskoyifirst half of XVII century.
12. Make a comparison chart "of the Orthodoxand hrekokatolytskoyi Church in Ukraine in the first half XVII.. QuestionComparison define yourself.
The question of comparison
Greek Catholic Church