§ 25. Economic development of Ukrainian lands in the secondhalf of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.
Upon learning this paragraph, you'll learn:
· What changes have occurred in economicdevelopment of Ukrainian lands;
· what Magdeburglaw;
· both developed and Craftstrade in the Ukrainian lands in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.
The task to repeat
1. Whatperformed the role of cities in Kiev Russia?
2. Whatforms of dependence of peasants existed in Kievan Rus' and Galicia-VolynDuchy?
3. Describedevelopment of handicrafts and trade for the Kievan Rus' and Galicia-Volynprincipality.
1. Agricultureeconomy. Peasant. During the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.population in the life of Ukrainian lands remaineddominant agriculture, which was predominantly natural character.His traditional types were: agriculture, livestock and utility industries -fishing and beekeeping. But this time it was seen rising:introduced new equipment, including wheeled plow, from the Oral and Sohashovels. This rozoryuyutsya new land. Tireless work farmersimproved productivity of land. Continued to sow barley, rye, wheat.Significant prevalent farming and gardening. Beekeeping replacedhomestead beekeeping. Continued to develop industries, especially those thatengaged in processing agricultural products: mill (makingdifferent varieties of flour, groats), distilling (manufacture of vodka) and relatedkorchmarskyy with him. An important fishing was fishing. It flourished notonly on major rivers. Feudal lords and even the villagers built ponds in the riversstreams and wetlands. Solevarinnyam engaged in the Carpathians and the saltNorthern Black Sea lakes.
During feudalism hunting wasfeudal privilege. However, the Dnieper it were local farmers andcommoners, which brought them considerable revenue.
The changes took place in the legalpeasants. In general, it depended on the legal system in the villages: Rus(Ukrainian), walnut or German. The vast majority of ruralpopulation lived in villages of the Ruthenian (Ukrainian) law. In the fourteenth century. mostpeasants in the Ukrainian lands were free and only pay tribute byuse of land, which was distributed lanamy (dies) in between 16,8-21,4 hapeasant's yard. Dvorysche consisting of 5-10 houses (fumes), in which she livedlarge peasant family. Tax - podymne - paid from each smoke. Severalyard formed a village community (village), led by chieftain. Several villagesunited the parish - the assembly, led by the aged. At the meeting Copsconsidered all important matters. Also acted shock trial.
In addition, the legal positionpeasants were divided into two main groups: "a mortgage" (free) who were entitledmove away from feudal and "nepohozhyh (" occupied the small "), deprived of this right.During the XIV - first half of the sixteenth century. conversion process took place "slaves","Servants", "serf" (ie slaves) to dependent farmers. (Third Lithuanian Statutein 1588 turned them into a state occupied the small.)
Also, farmers were divided into differentcategory for property status. Belonged to the richest farmers served - housing,who received services for obtaining land and 02/01 drawing dies rid ofother duties. Remain free and Danes, who paid tribute to the statein kind or money. Traction farmers for land fulfilledobligation (plowing fields, sowing grain, harvesting and other works) withtheir draft animals (ox) to the state and then the feudal lords. Amongimpoverished peasants were many: a neighbor and pidsusidky who settled in the courtswealthy farmers komornyky who had rented their homes and barns, gardeners(Zahorodnyky) that possessed only the towns and halupnyky who had just houses.
Farmers pay a lot of taxes andperform various duties. The main state tax money in the GreatDuchy of Lithuania was a tax on military needs. Farmers also servedand state duties: repaired and built castles and bridges builtdams, and paved the way serving others. Church tithing is paid.
The peasants of feudal estates paidservage food or money and vidroblyaly serfdom. In the fifteenth century. boon was 14days a year from farm (dies). In 1520, Polish-day setboon for a week, and in 1557 the same set in Lithuania. In TranscarpathiansThis was a boon for two days a week. In Northern Bukovina there20 duties and taxes.
A somewhat different situation wasresidents of villages where German or Volos'ke were right. Number of villagesused the German law, in the XIV century. growing rapidly due to Germanand Polish immigrants. These immigrants (precipitator) paid a certain amount of Mr.and winning the right to form a village and post log, which became hereditary andgave him a number of privileges: concentration in the hands of the administrative andjudiciary, possession twice as large plot of land and more. These farmerspaid only servage vidroblyaly and serfdom. Villages with German law did not knowcommunity-based organizations.
From the late fourteenth century. , Galicia, andlater in other parts of rural land spread with walnut law. Residents of thesevillages merged into the community, not vidroblyaly serfdom, were mainlyhusbandry. Servage tax they paid and cattle, and were judged byancient customs and law.
During the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. wasmarked increase in large feudal tenure. At the end of XIV century.in Ukrainian lands there were dozens latyfundiy - large private propertylandholdings of the natural character of entities in whichemployed job dependent population. The main sources of growthraids were the great talents, hobbies, communalland purchase in their owners' estates, development of new lands.
The vast majority of land wasconcentrated in the possession of great magnates: Ostrozkykh Czartoryski, Radziwill(Volyn), Ruzhinskogo, Zaslavsky, Nemyrych (Kiev region, skirts), Zamoyski,Potocki, Yazlovetskis (Bratslavshchina and skirts). Concentration of land in the handsmagnates indication to their offensive in the territory and the rights of peasant communities thatmanifested in the appropriation of communal lands, enslavement of peasants appointments toelective offices of its governors and others.
Growth of large feudalindication of land ownership and qualitative changes in the forms of work organization. In the fourteenth and fifteenthArt. due to the growing demand for food (especially grain andmeat) in Western Europe was an intensive development of commodity-moneyrelations grew rapidly market agricultural products. Under these conditionslarge landowners responding to market needs, make their farmson Filvarky.
Terms and definitions
Filvarky -Consumer household complexes, which were based on a continuous weeklydependent peasants and serfdom were focused on commodity-money relations, althoughretained many features of subsistence agriculture.
The most widely manorsfarms acquired in Galicia, western Volhynia, Western Podolia, KievStill alive. On the rest of the Ukrainian lands they spread only from the middle of the sixteenth century.For the existence of many manors had to land because feudal lords beganselect it from the villagers, while increasing the serfdom and introducing serfdom.
Terms and definitions
Serfdom - Asystem of legal norms that establish the dependence of the peasant and feudalright to own the last peasant serf-like property.
Starting from the fifteenth century. peasantstransferred under the jurisdiction of feudal lords. In the early sixteenth century. they already hadright to complain about the big feudal prince or king. Almost stoppedactivity stack the courts. However, limited right to resettle peasants(Transition). Yes, 30's fifteenth century. Galicia was identified some timeconversions - only during Christmas if paid master redemption. Seim 1496set: during the year to leave the village had the right to only one farmer. Seim 1503he issued a ruling that the farmers can not move without the permission of their landlords thata loss of their personal freedom. On the Ukrainian lands in the GrandDuchy of Lithuania enslaving process took place more slowly. It wascaused by the raids of Tatars and labor shortages.
The final enslavement of the peasantsheld in Poland in 1573, and on lands of the Grand Duchy of Lithuaniain 1588, which was legally established in the Sejm and the Lithuanian lawstatute.
In general, during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.was a general deterioration of the situation of peasants in Ukrainian lands.
Beat farmers built of wood ortwigs, obmazanoho clay (wattle and daub). Dressed in white linen clothes withoutextra decorations. The main meal was rye bread, porridge. From the late fifteenth century.appears vegetable-meat stewed fruit - borscht.
2. Socialperformances. Break the traditional peasant life, general deterioration of conditions in the mainmass of the population were causing frustration and sometimes people's resistance. Peasants andcommoners raised spontaneous uprising greater hash feudal estate and more. Widespreadphenomenon were escaping. Many peasants left their villages, escaping to the south and east;oselyayuchys Wild field on the border where there was exploitation by feudal lords, butconstant danger were Tatars.
The first People's resistancereached epidemic proportions in 1431-1434 he was the tail of the West, where at this timePolish orders were imposed. Villagers in the vicinity and Chmielnik Bratslavrisen to the uprising.
In the WestCarpathian (Sanok Peremyshlskaya and land) in the first third of the fifteenth century.emerging movement furiv - outcasts, who united in small groups foragainst their landlords.
In 1529 the firstmentioned rebels - People's avengers, operating mainly in the Carpathian mountains.They attacked the nobles, plundering them and spoil good handingVictim peasants.
Most powerfulpublic performance took place in 1490-1492 biennium, covering Galicia, western skirtsand Bukovina.
Summer 1490 10thousands of peasants, petty bourgeois and nobles led by chieftain Flies (nameleader is not known) captured the city Snyatok, Coloma, Galich and surroundingvillage. The rebels stretch of feudal lords, Polish officials. Extentuprising alarmed authorities and the rebels set sail against a large army, whichconsisted of detachments of the Polish king, the noble militia and Teutonicknights. A decisive battle took place Rohatyn, where rebels have beendefeat. Fly escaped fled but was caught late autumn and takenKrakow to prison, where he died.
Spring 1491rebellion led by Andrew Borulya. With a detachment Bukovynian peasants he spoke atGalicia, which released large areas. In the autumn of his army was routed, andhe himself fled to Belgorod, where he was detained. In the summer of 1492 he was onwill and again led the fight but was caught near Coloma and the orderMoldavian ruler executed in Khotyn and his fellow prisoners were droppedfrom the fortress walls.
I. Yizhakevych.Rebellion led by Mucha.
3. Cities and theirresidents. Magdeburg Law. In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. wasmarked process of urbanization - and the growth of urban population and increasingtheir role in economic and cultural life of society. Gradually butizations slow city devastated during the Mongol invasion,appear new. During this period the Ukrainian city retained feudal-agrariancharacter. Burghers engaged in agriculture, ranching, fishing and partiallycraft and trade. Thus they were depending on the moguls andlike the peasants, serving duties, to pay them servage kind, sometimesmoney. The population of many cities in the Dnieper Basin served exclusively militaryobligation that was due to the attacks of Tatars.
The legal basis for the lives of manyUkrainian cities were "Ruthenian law" that developed from Kievan Rus.Log was chief executive in town - had the right to make finaldecisions in all court cases could even condemn the culprit to death. Log inled the Board of 8-12 people.
However, significant advances haveoccurred outside the city walls, causing new phenomena and processes. Enablingdevelopment of trade and crafts, which are gradually becoming mostly thecities. Cities became centers of handicrafts, craft, trade, culture,political life.
Towns, dependingthe location - in public or private land - divided into royal(The great) and private. As in other European countries, commonerswanted to get rid of dependence on their owners or government officials andgain self-government. From the XIV century. Ukrainian cities are beginning to get socalled "Magdeburg Law", like the one that existed in the German cities.Magdeburg law determined the order of election and functions of governmentand the court, regulate the economic life of the city determined the penalties for variouscrimes and more. The first received a Magdeburg right from the Galician-Volyn princeGeorge II City Lutsk (in 1324). In 1356 Polish kingCasimir III granted it the right to lions. In 1499 Kyiv was mahdeburske right.
Magdeburg rightscomes from the privilege in 1188, which received the German city of Magdeburg. FirstIt spread to Poland, Lithuania. Lithuanian prince Magdeburg lawwas offered to Ukraine. For the first time its provisions were introduced in the XIV century. in citiesGalicia-Volyn principality.
Systemgovernment in Ukrainian cities that had Magdeburg law
Municipal Authoritygovernment, which carried out the administrative and judicial functions and consisted of twoboard, whose members were elected for life
Courtcriminal cases, members of which were assessors - lavnyky
Administrativeauthority and the court in civil cases, members of which were raytsi
He headed the bench.He was elected only to nobles. His position was hereditary or personally provided
He was selected in turna quarter of districts for management of the Board
Cities thatmahdeburske got right rid of management and court log, magistrates orchiefs or royalty (the great) governors enactedelected governments. All cases decided by the elected city life magistrate,which was formed from the wealthy burghers. Elections were held once a year. Magistratedivided on the bench (the court in criminal cases), led by log and board(Administrative authority and the court in civil cases), led by the mayor.The office would occupy only log nobleman.
Hall of Coloma (modern look).
Firstmahdeburske right spread mainly by Catholics, as a resultUkrainian Orthodox usuvalysya control of the city. Nevertheless,mahdeburskoho distribution rights had a positive impact on the development of Ukrainiancities.
In contemporary Ukrainian citieslands inhabited by many communities of Armenians, Jews, Greeks, Tatars, Karaites and others.They generally settled compactly, taking up a given quarter or city street. InThey had their governments that cared mostly religious,cultural affairs, to decide the issue of relations with the local authorities.Self-governing communities of Jews - Khan - existed in large cities. TopArmenian communities living in Kamenetz-Podolsk and Lviv. Lvivhoused the residence of the Armenian archbishop. In Lutsk, and lived Galichsignificant community of Karaites, who were natives of the Crimea.
4. Crafts andtrade. Between the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. revived andcontinued to develop handicrafts and trade, which suffered significant destruction ofMongol-Tatar invasion. Increasing number of craft specialties,produced new products. At the end of the fifteenth century. there are over 200craft specialties (the times of Kievan Rus - 70).
To regulate the production andprotect their interests urban artisans certain specialties unitedin particular organizations - guilds, whose activities are determined by guild statutes.A shop owned by a judicial authority over its members, obkladav their taxes and, ifneeds created its own militia for "defense of the city. Workshops are led byelected officials - Tsehmistro. Craftsmen were requiredproduce quality products and sell it at the same price. Competition betweenmembers do not shop was enabled. Those artisans who were not included into the workshop,called a cobbler. Workshops are trying to push the limits bridge cobbler.
The first workshops onUkrainian lands there late fourteenth century. in Galicia and Transcarpathia, and withlate fifteenth century. guild system has spread to the artisan towns of Volyn, Kyiv andWestern skirts. Initial introduction to the craft guild organizationsUkrainian lands had an ambiguous character. A shop could not only combineartisans one specialty, but also of one language, faith. Since the shoporganization was borrowed from Germany and Poland, the members formally shopscould only become Catholics. As a result, Ukrainian Orthodox deprivedright to become members of shops.
In the fourteenth century. inLviv lived 10 thousand people, among which 500 were artisans. They are unitedin 14 workshops. Subsequently, a number of shops has increased to 35. Register workshops preserved cities in the firsthalf of the fourteenth century. Each shop had its serial number in accordance with the order of theirfoundation. The roster submitted a list of workshops: merchants, butchers, bakers,blacksmiths, cobblers, tailors, and Crow Sidelnyk, maltster (brewers), Grabar,Kushnir. Craftsmen rare specialties in the shops are not united.
In trade, toothere are new phenomena. Thus, merchants joined in the guild. In the fifteenth century. acquiredfair distribution (they always existed in Lviv, Kiev, Galicia, Lutsk andother cities), which was the first sign of becoming market. At that time, Ukrainianland began active commercial relations. After capture by the TurksConstantinople (1453) states that were traditional consumersByzantine grain (Italy, France and others.) pereoriyentuvaly their trade.The main grain export dump is a city of GdanskBaltic Sea, causing a substantial recovery in cereal production inPolish and Ukrainian lands. Increase in cattle prices in Westerncountries also intensified its breeding for sale. At the fair in LvivLutsk, Galich and other cities sold thousands of oxen, and then theyperehanyalysya further west. At this time the oxen became even perform the functionmoney.
However, tradeoccurred under various restrictions. For her, there were special tradingdays, she also performed at major fairs, which were arranged onlyseveral times a year. Merchant caravans could move only in certainroyal and princely decrees ways. Of the 1343 known "Tatarroad "that led from Germany to the Horde through Krakow, Lviv, Kamyanets, Kyiv. OnWhile this was in fact the only trade route in Europe, which combined it with the East.Another important way of international trade took Kafa (Feodosia now)via Kyiv to Moscow and Novgorod.
Message Lithuanian diplomat Mikhail Litvin ondevelopment of trade in Kiev (mid XVI century).
Kyiv is very richfor foreign goods, because there is way more comfortable, as long, long time and laidwell-known path leading from the Black Sea port city Kafi, through the gateTavrika (Perekop) Tavansku at the crossing on the Dnieper, and from there across the steppe in Kyiv;this way are sent from Asia, Persia, India, Arabia and Syria to the north inMuscovy, Pskov, Novgorod, Sweden and Denmark all of eastern goods, namely: expensivestones, silk and silk fabrics, incense, spices, saffron, pepper and other spices.This road often go foreign merchants: they create groups, sometimes a thousandpersons who are called caravans, camp and escort, consisting ofmany loaded carts and camels laden ...
When passingcaravan significant profit gain Kiev residents: magistrates, customs officers, merchants,money changers, boaters, driver, host and innkeeper ...
In plainKiev found homes not only wealth, but even hugenumber of fruits, vegetables, honey, meat, fish, nay, nay, as a resultabove-mentioned reasons they are so full of expensive silk clothing, expensivestones, and other sable furs, and spices that I veryhad to see silk, which was costing cheaper than flax in free and peppercheaper than salt.
Inquiries to document
1. Ofstates that the Ukrainian lands were connected trade routes?
2. Whatproducts were trade routes of Ukraine?
3. Whyunited merchants in caravans?
4. Astrade influenced the development of Kyiv?
Conclusions. In economic development of Ukrainian lands XIV -first half of the sixteenth century. were some noticeable changes. Perfectlytechnique of cultivation land, Acquisitions and new earth. Along with this gain ofand new forms of management. As a result, demand for productsagriculture in Europe started in the Ukrainian lands extendfilvarkove economy, by which large landowners are trying toget as much profit by boosting the exploitation of peasants. Startsformed serfdom.
Violationthe age-old traditions and a general deterioration of life caused the resistance of the peasantry.Most caps peasants fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. 1490-1492 he was the uprising that tookliberation and social character.
Since the endXIV Art. major Ukrainian cities is the Magdeburg Law, whichregulate life. There were also changes in the situation of citizens. Underthe influence of excitement to the rapidly developing trade and crafts, which inturn, causes the growth of cities. In the growing craft specialization,extend Western forms of handicraft production -workshops. Trade is also changing: the merchants are beginning to join in the guild.
Remember the date
1324 - providingMagdeburg Law Vladimir-Volyn.
1356 - providingMagdeburg Law lions.
1374 - providingMagdeburg rights Kamenetz-Podolsk.
1490-1492 biennium -peasant uprising in the Carpathian Mountains led Mucha and Andrew Borulya.
1499 - providingMagdeburg Law in Kyiv.
1520, 1557 -Legislation establishing one-day serfdom in Poland and Lithuania.
1529 1566, 1588gg - Lithuanian statutes: "Old" (1529), "Volyn" (1566), "New" (1588).
Questions and Tasks
1. What new phenomena inagricultural development took place in the XIV - early sixteenth century.?
2. Which sectorsagriculture were developed in the fourteenth - the first half of the sixteenth century.?
3. What craftswere Ukrainian peasants and commoners?
4. What isgrange?
5. As occurredthe process of enslavement of the Ukrainian peasants?
6. What wasposition of a serf?
7. What are the mainsocial performance of Ukrainian peasants fifteenth century.
8. What is the purposea shop?
9. What city inUkrainian lands first got the Magdeburg right?
10. What are the tradeUkrainian lands were ways?
Think and answer
1. WhyUkrainian lands there is a diversity of legal status of the peasants?
2. What wasdue to the emergence of manors?
3. What the consequencesresulted in the emergence of manors?
4. Find out the reasonsdefeats speeches peasants.
5. The special featureorganization of craft guilds in the Ukrainian lands?
6. DescribeUkrainian bourgeois position in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Poland in the fourteenth -first half of the sixteenth century. Why so commoners sought Magdeburg lawfor their city?
7. What's newappeared in the trade of Ukrainian lands in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.?
Perform the task
1. Give definitions and the terms "Magdeburg Law", "shop""Guild", "magistrate", "fair".
2. Make a detailed plan on the story"Economic development of Ukrainian lands in the second half of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.."
3. Identify the main stages of the enslavement of the peasants in the Ukrainianlands.
For the curious
Why development in Western Europemarket economy and led to the elimination of serfdom, and UkrainianWhen all the lands around?