§ 24. The social structure of the population of the Ukrainian lands insecond half of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.
Upon learning this paragraph, you'll learn:
· changes in socialsystem were compared with the previous era;
· What has caused the emergencenew social groups;
· Who are the nobles;
· developed as a churchlife of Ukrainian lands in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.
The task to repeat
1. Namebasic social strata (state) and society of Kievan RusGalicia-Volyn principality.
2. Whatof them were dominant?
3. Inwhy is it manifested?
1. Social structure. Зand inherently time society was feudal. It is characterized bywas divided into the states - large socio-legal group that differed betweena hereditary position enshrined in the laws in society, certainrights, privileges and responsibilities. For a class of societyusually contains several conditions characterized by hierarchical structure(Subordination of some other states), expressed in inequalities position (rightand obligations) and privileges. Social structure of Ukrainian society XIV-XVArt. was quite varied. The main conditions were the nobility (princes, lords, zem'yany,boyars), clergy ("church people"), commoners (bourgeasy burghers, plebs) andpeasantry (servant, vassal, Traction).
Bower divisionUkrainian society in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.
The highest statesociety were the nobility. Its rulers were - the richest nobleman know whatdivided into "major princes" and "princes-povitovnykiv. The first did not undergolocal authorities, were in the great council, and went on military campaigns withtheir troops as family coat of arms. Second, in contrast, were subject tolocal authorities, not up to the grand council, and went on military campaigns inpart of the county militia.
Gentry alsowere gentlemen - the wealthy nobles who had princely titles, but distinguishedprescription kind patrimonial (ancestral) land ownership and certain privileges.The richest lords along with princes were a group of magnates - the largestlandowners.
Average servingGentry called zem'yanamy. She was dependent on the princes and lords, andnoble status of land ownership and inheritance received by the military (Boyarsky)service. Zem'yany performed personal service and the horse exhibited during a campaigna number of mounted warriors.
Boyars weresmall-nobles employees performing a variety of orders, and"Armor-servants, who personally served the military service. Boyars camefrom peasant servants possessed autonomous lands, using them ifof his service.
The second conditionsociety - the clergy - were "church people" - a special privilegestate of Ukrainian society. They were not subject to secular court and, ifdemand fell in the court of bishops. Clergy divided on top(Metropolitan, bishops, archbishops, etc.). And ordinary priests.Accounted for most of the parish priests.
Go to the townspeople werebourgeasy - the richest part of town dwellers, which consisted of the richest andinfluential merchants, artisans, craftsmen, burghers - middle partphilistinism, which were guild masters and middle-income traders, andmob - small artisans, merchants and other residents.
Tonaybezpravnishoho of society - peasants - belonged to the servants - in person freepeasants who were on services to accrue and plots of land releaseof duties, Danes - personally and economically independent freepeasants, congregation, who paid tribute to the state (chynsh) in kind or money, andTraction - farmers who had their own land and were farming on landareas that belonged to the state or landowners. By use of the land theyfulfilled duty with his draft animals (ox). Were in personfree and attached to their holdings Traction peasants.
2. Ruling classpopulation and their lives. In the Polish Kingdom and Grand DuchyLithuanian social structure of the population had some differences. Thus, in Polanddominating all segments of society, that feudal lords, called the gentry. First, itwere knights who were in government military service, gettinguse of land ownership. In 1374 King Louis Anjou thatonce was the King of Poland and Hungary, decided to privilege, so theirtenure became hereditary. Gradually, the nobility became the ruling class inPoland. Through their representative bodies (local and general dietines Diet)She identified the policy.
In the GreatDuchy of Lithuania the ruling class was more diverse. This combinedcomponents of the Lithuania, Poland and Kievan Rus. In the second half of XIV - byearly sixteenth century. formation of a unified ruling class with onlyrights, privileges and duties, which became known as the nobility.
Terms and Notions
Nobility - Privilegeddominion status in Poland, Hungary, Lithuania, Ukrainian and Belarusian landsthat in the fourteenth and eighteenth centuries. belonged to the Kingdom of Poland, GreatDuchy of Lithuania, and from 1569 - to the Commonwealth. Affiliationman of noble provided extensive corporate rights and privilegesthat separated it from other walks of life.
Mainduty military service nobility was their own money and paying a smallfees. With the departure of the nobility of military service received differentprivileges.
Shlyakhtich was anoble corporation, which solved the various issues facing the county, could beelected to the county government and the Diet. His life is valued more byanyone. Wine in the image of a nobleman or peasant burgher chopped hand.The nobility had extensive trade privileges and land use. Was producedpeculiar aristocratic code of honor. In court nobleman word not neededevidence. Shlyakhtich who committed a crime, subject to court and nobility pozbavlyavsyaprivileges.
Exceptionalpolitical and individual rights developed in the high nobility and dignityAt the same disdain for members of lower strata of society.
Nobilityprivileges have been approved by local authorities.
Horodelskyyprivilege (1413) predicted that all the nobles in the Grand DuchyLithuania should have arms, be a Catholic and marry daughters onlyCatholics.
Chervinskiyprivilege (1422) guaranteed the inviolability of the Polish gentryland ownership.
Edlinsko-Cracowprivilege (1430-1433 biennium) gave a guarantee of personal security of Polish nobilityProhibition of arrest other than by court and by law.
According to VilenskyPrivilege (1447), Casimir IV Jagiellonian rights and freedom of Polish nobilitydistributed in Ruthenian nobility of all the lands of the Great Duchy of Lithuania.
Tserekvytskyyprivilege (1454) obliged the Polish king to discuss together with the gentrylegal issues and not let the war begin without her knowledge.
Neshavski statutes(1454) confirmed all previous privileges extended to the nobility of individualPolish land, and banned any new laws without the consentgentry.
PyotrkuvskyyCharter (1496) legalized the peasants attached to the land levelingWest boyars - descendants of former nobility of Galicia-Volynprincipality - the rights of the Polish gentry.
At the same timeprivilege and introduced certain restrictions on the growth ofnobility by switching from other states.
To clearnobility of "random people", the great power in Lithuania in 1522adopted a special resolution on "the output of nobility. According to her noble statuswere considered descendants of those who were at the boyars of Grand Prince Vytautas,And Zygmunt Kazimierz. In 1528 nobility was a list approvedDiet. However, the concept of "boyar" and "zem'yanyn" replaced by a single - "nobleman."Next year, the Lithuanian Statute - the collection of the laws of the Grand DuchyLithuania - was recorded that the gentry imunitetni letters do not need to annuallyconfirm they are a document. Charter also guaranteed to the nobility thatit can not be punished without trial.
In 40-50-iesSixteenth century. lists were refined gentry and their servants. According to the "Charterof drawing dies "(1557), recognized only nobles" boyars of old,the rest returned to the states of the peasantry or town dwellers.
In 1563according to the diploma of the Lithuanian Grand Duke canceled all restrictions onOrthodox nobility, in particular, on the Ukrainian lands (some historiansapply to it the name "Ukrainian gentry"). Thus, the middleSixteenth century. ruling has been consolidated in one noble order,who almost lost his national characteristics within a single state of Lithuania, andlater within the Commonwealth.
Lithuanian and Polish nobility
The nobility was not uniformfor his proprietary position. Tentatively it can be divided into three main groups -gentry, nobility and magnates average. Petty nobles had from 1 to 50peasant, magnates - several or tens of thousands.
By rulingpopulation also owned part of the clergy - the higher hierarchy (Metropolitan,bishops hegumens etc.), lifestyles and incomes have not yielded noble.In addition, most of whom were natives of noble status.
3. Prince ConstantineOstrog. A special situationtime society and even among the ruling class sat princes. These weredescendants of princely families of Rurik dynasty, Hedyminovychiv, Olgerdovich. With itsorigin and wealth, they claimed the highest office in the state. In theirPrincely estates operated with its own tax law and the court has been hisarmy. However, the centralization of state formation in Lithuania and the only noblecausing the decline of power and influence of the princes.
Prince Constantine Ostrog.
The most powerful princely were bornOstroz'ki. For generic tradition, they were the descendants of Prince Roman, a sonDaniel Galician. The most famous representative of the family was Ostrozki ConstantineI. (approximately 1463-1530 years) - Lithuanian great hetman(Lithuanian army chief for 26 years), castellanVienna. During his service he earned the city, such as Polonnoe, Luck,Zdolbunov Krasiliv, Chudniv et al. In general, were in possession of Hetmanmore than 30 towns and 500 villages, he had over 40 thousandpeasant men. When once it was decided to put forces inone of eight riders "services" (ie "sluzhebnyh" portions), Ostrogput 426 riders. Before his death he defended the Orthodox Church ofattack Catholicism, organized system of protection of Ukrainian lands and citieslocks, carried out raids against the Tartars. As he wrote about his well-known Russianhistorian Karamzin, he was a brother of Russians in the church, but a terrible enemybattlefield.
Battle of Orsha.
The most notableDuke victory was the Battle of Orsha September 8, 1514 duringLithuanian-Muscovite War 1512-1522 he was during this battle, he defeatedMoscow troops and two times larger than Lithuania. In the prisoner was takenmore than fifteen hundred noble Russians lost about 30 thousand.
His sonConstantine and grandson Vasily also strongly defended the orthodoxy. Constantinouopening is in jail and printing school, which is considered the first educationalinstitution of higher type in Ukrainian lands. Only the last of Ostrozki JanuszK. departed from their ancestral faith and in the early seventeenth century.pokatolychyvsya.
Fire in 1718Assumption Cathedral of the Lavra could see a gravestone withfollowing inscription: "Moscow and Tatars laid, getting 63 victories over them.Put the bloody waters of Russia, the Dnieper, Ol'shanka, remember churches, castles,monasteries built by him in jail and free, remember hospitals and schools, whichhe founded, Mars Academy for people knighthood and worshipKonstantin Ivanovich Ostrozky, the highest Hetman Grand DuchyLithuania.
Inquiries to document
1. What are the merits of Princehas included in the text box?
2. The topopponents of Lithuania at the end of the XV - beginning of the sixteenth century.
4. Church lifein the second half of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. Important role in Ukrainian society fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.played clergy, representing nearly a tenth of the population.Orthodox clergy was divided into two categories: white (the parishpriests) and black (monks and nuns, higher hierarchy).
The situation on the Ukrainianlands in the religious sphere, was extremely difficult. After KyivMetropolitan in 1299 moved to Vladimir-Zaleski, due to harassmentGalician-Volyn Prince George L. and opened metropolitan Galician(1303), which existed until 1347
Join Galicia to Polandled to the forcible planting of Catholicism. Using supportPolish authorities moved here Catholic missionaries - Franciscans and Dominicans,laying at the edge of a dense network of monasteries. Along with the existing OrthodoxCatholic bishop treated for more defunct parish. In 1375 PopeRome granted the request of the Polish government on the establishment in GaliciaCatholic Metropolis (Archdiocese). He was subordinatePeremyshlskaya, Kholmsk, Alabama-Luck, Kamenetz and Moldovanepyskopstva, while Catholics in the province at this time almost was not.
At the end of his life PolishKing Casimir III of the Patriarch of Constantinople has achieved consensus oncreating a separate Galician Orthodox Metropolis (1371). However, itexisted only in 1410 when it was subject to a Metropolitan of Kyiv.
The problem of the Orthodox Churchdisturbed and governors of the Great Duchy of Lithuania. After Krevsk Union inLithuania is spreading Catholicism. This caused the resistance of the Orthodox Church andRus princes. They supported Vytautas in the fight against pro-ConfiguredJagiello. Having strengthened its authority, Vytautas attempted to bring the Orthodoxchurch on his lands from the subordination of the Moscow metropolis. First in 1406he was unsuccessful. The second attempt was made in 1415, whenVytautas insistence in Novogrudok orthodox bishopsUkrainian and Belarusian lands selected individual of Kyiv (Lithuania)Metropolitan Gregory Tsamblak. But after his death in 1420 was VytautasI must admit the supremacy of the Orthodox Metropolitan of Moscow Photius.
In the XV century. an attempt was madeunite the Catholic and Orthodox churches. In 1439 an ecumenical council inFlorence was concluded between the union Ecumenical (Constantinopolitan) patriarchand the Pope. This union is not recognized in Moscow and the Ukrainian-Belarusianlands. Moscow clergy chose his Metropolitan ion, which startedautocephalous metropolis of Moscow. With great relish by the Turks in 1453Constantinople, Metropolitan of Moscow influence increased. Lithuanian rulersnot wishing to keep their numerical Orthodox subjects under the influence andrule metropolitan of Moscow, Kiev restored in 1458 (Lithuania)Metropolis, finally broke away from Moscow and was directlysubject to the Patriarch of Constantinople. Kiev led Metropolitanateactivity ten bishop, located at the Ukrainian and Belarusianlands: Kiev, Chernigov, Smolensk, Polotsk, Luck,Vladimir, Turov-Pinsk, Galician, Chelm and Przemysl.Gregory was elected Metropolitan of Bulgarian.
The Orthodox clergyin the Polish Kingdom and Grand Duchy of Lithuania was as common asand distinctive features. In the dioceses of Poland Ukrainian Orthodox clergy toUnlike the Catholic obkladalosya taxes. Orthodox bishopsconceded to the Senate (upper house of the Polish Sejm). They proceed outright tradeChurch position. Done by religious oppression of the Orthodox population.
In Lithuania, the attitude of the Orthodoxwas tolerable, but Catholics given preference. Metropolitan and episcopalDepartments rozporyadzhavsya Grand Duke of Lithuania. On public lands itdetermine who will Archimandrite, or Abbot in Orthodox monasteries, andprivate lands did the princes and lords. Orthodox Church in Poland and the stockLithuania was in a position of minor and very much dependent on secularpower.
Conclusions. In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. were changes in social structuresociety: some layers disappear or lose their previous state,appear. By the middle of the sixteenth century. completed development of the nobility asdominant state of society in Ukrainian lands. During this period, notablydeteriorating situation of the Ukrainian peasantry: increasing duties and taxesthere is a gradual process of enslavement.
During thisperiod was a complex religious situation in Ukrainian lands. Orthodoxchurch that was losing the support of the state, was declining. Unfoldingexpansion of the Catholic Church, supported by the rulers of Poland and Lithuania. Itresulted in a complex religious situation.
Remember the date
XIV-firsthalf of the sixteenth century .- of noble status.
1303-1347,1371-1410 biennium - Since the Galician Orthodox Metropolis.
1375 -Catholic establishment in Galicia Metropolis (Archdiocese).
1415-1420,1458-1596 biennium - the time of the Kyiv (Lithuania) Orthodox Metropolis.
1439 -Florentine Union.
1529 1566, 1588gg - Lithuanian statutes.
Questions and Tasks
1. What are the mainstate of society in the Ukrainian lands in XIV - early sixteenth century.
2. He belonged to thedominant population?
3. What rights andduties were gentry?
4. As occurredprocess of noble state?
5. What name hadcollections of laws Grand Duchy of Lithuania?
6. When thereGalician and Kiev ("Lithuanian") Orthodox Metropolis?
7. What events contributed tothe spread of Catholicism in the Ukrainian lands?
Think and answer
1. What featuressocial structure of population of the Ukrainian lands in XIV - the first half of the sixteenthArt.?
2. What wasdifficult situation caused by the church in the Ukrainian lands in XIV - firsthalf of the sixteenth century.?
3. What motivatedrulers of Lithuania and Poland to create a separate Orthodox in their metropolespossessions?
4. How conductedoffensive Ukrainian Catholic Church on earth?
Perform the task
1. Make a comprehensive plan of response to the question "Howwas of noble state? "
2. Draw the social pyramid in Ukrainian societyXIV lands - the first half of the sixteenth century.
3. Complete the comparison chart "ruling strata of the populationUkrainian lands.
Ruling strata of society
Ukrainian lands in XIV - first half of the sixteenth century.
For the curious
What are the signs of a nobleof Lithuania and Poland can be identified "the Ukrainian gentry"?