§ 23. Ukrainian lands in Hungary, Moldova,Muscovy and the Crimean Khanate and Ottoman Empire
Upon learning this paragraph, you'll learn:
· circumstancesUkrainian lands were ruled by Hungary, Moldova, Muscovy and the CrimeanKhanate and the Ottoman Empire;
· the policy conductedthese states on the Ukrainian lands;
· effects wereTatar raids on Ukrainian land.
The task to repeat
1. Whenceased to exist Galicia-Volyn principality?
2. Tocomposed of state in the fourteenth century. So the majority of Ukrainian lands?
3. Whatpolicies held by Poland on the captured Ukrainian lands?
4. WhenMuscovite-Lithuanian began the struggle for Ukrainian lands?
1. Transcarpathia inof Hungary. Hungarian tribes that migrated at the end of the conference - toearly tenth century. to Pannonia (modern Hungary) - Danube lowland,faced here with the local Slavic population that lived primarily inCarpathian foothills.
How tellingHungarian chronicler early XII century. Anonymous in his work on offense Magyars "when Hungarian tribes led by the leader (the khan) Almoshem (Arpad) passed throughVeretsky pass and moved further west, the city under Hunhom (Uzhgorod)met with resistance from the Slavic prince Laborets that depended on the Bulgarian king.After a four-day siege of the prince was forced to retreat to fortressZemplin, but during the retreat of his army caught Hungarians. After the bloodyBattle of wounded prince was captured and was hanged by the river thatsubsequently became known as Laborec. The image acquired a prince in folkpopulation of Transcarpathia works. He became a national symbol, proofSlavic origin population of the region.
Hungarians Fightfor the conquest of the Slavic population of Transcarpathia stretched for centuries.During the heyday of Kievan Rus and Galicia-Volyn regionrepeatedly went to their warehouse. With the weakening of Galicia-Volyn principalityTranscarpathia finally became part of Hungary, which was divided into separateterritorial-administrative units - comitates. They were led by designatedKing from among the deputies of the Hungarian lords - ishpany (skins), to developadministrative, military and judicial authorities. Earth, especially in lowland areasTranscarpathia, generously distributed Hungarian landowners and migrated to the citiesHungarians, Germans, Jews. The Slavic population forced out into the mountains or exposedMagyarization.
Remarkable inhistory of the land left Podolsky Koriyatovych Prince Theodore, who was forcedflee from the wrath of the great Duke of Lithuania Vytautas. Theodore received fromHungarian king of Mukachevo and became governor Bereg comitates. ComingKoriyatovycha Podolsk of 40 thousand villagers claim as written sources,strengthened the position of the Slavic peoples in the population of the province. Theodore Koriyatovychopposed the introduction of serfdom and Magyarization. From his name is connectedrapid development of the land: much of Mukachevo and increased Coast, theremany new settlements. Mukachevo castle was finished, the city wassurrounded by a protective rampart, and near to Chernechey Hill, was founded by OrthodoxMonastery of St. Nicholas, which has till now. Later there was a MukachevoOrthodox bishopric. Due to the Orthodox faith, most of the TranscarpathianUkrainian retained their native language, culture, aware of their nationalaffiliation.
2. The fate of Bukovina. Bukovina ashistorical and geographical region formed in the fourteenth century. Now the northern partBukovina is part of our state (Chernivtsi region) and south - toRomania. The name of the land gave beech forests densely covered it in the past.According to the Kievan Rus' and Galicia-Volyn principality was Bukovinaan integral part of it.
AfterMongol invasion Bukovina fell under the direct controlGolden Horde. The northern part of the land was named Shypyntsi land thatadministered horde. From the mid-fourteenth century. Bukovina falls into the powerHungary and the southern part of the region actively populated Volokh (Romanians).
In the mid-fourteenthArt. fight broke out and walnut Moldovan population creationown country, which culminated in the proclamation of 1359 independentMoldavian Principality. Shypyntsi land was part of the principality asindependent entity that retained their status by mid-fifteenth century. Afterelimination of the autonomy of the name ceased to be used Shypyntsi land, which wasrenamed in Bukovina. First time the name occurs in literacy BukovinaMoldavian master (prince) of Roman and March 30, 1392
Ukrainian languageculture and kept a significant impact on the spiritual life of Moldovan society.By the mid-seventeenth century. official language of business here was ancient whichwritten records and literary works. Large landowners, as inUkrainian lands, called boyars.
In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.Shypyntsi land begins to develop rapidly in economic terms, increasingpopulation. Town Chernivtsi and Chernivtsi became important centers of handicraftsand trade. In Hotine were greatest in the Moldavian principality fairs.
Evidencewitness about Khotyn Fair
"... Taken outmany bulls, meat which largely feeds on not only the population of Hungary andRussia, but Poles, Germans, even Italy, mainly city of Venice. "
Inquiries to document
1. What industryBukovina economy was the most developed?
2. Of whichStates maintained trade relations?
From the secondhalf of the fifteenth century. Moldova had to conduct a brutal struggle for independence fromOttoman Empire, which possess close to the borders of the principality. FirstMoldova (and in its structure and Bukovina) had to admit vassalagethe Turks, and later in 1514 directly integrated into the OttomanEmpire, depending on which remained until 1775
3. Ukrainianlands in the Moscow State. Final disposition of the Ukrainian lands autonomousprincipalities in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and attack the Catholic Churchoccurred simultaneously with the rise of Muscovy, who resigned fromMongol-Tatar rule and was the only independent Orthodox stateAfter falling under the blows of the Turks of Constantinople (1453). These circumstances gaveMoscow Grand Prince opportunity to join the fight against the Grand DuchyLithuanian heritage in the Old. They state that it is Moscowheir of Kievan Rus. Grand Prince of Moscow Ivan III startedtytuluvatysya "Tsar and Grand Prince of all Russia", and in 1489 for the first timesaid Grand Dukes of Lithuania and the Polish king: "Our city, andmunicipalities, and land and water for a king holds.
Such claimsMoscow ruler extremely exacerbated relations between Moscow and Lithuania andresulted in almost continuous series of wars beginning of the sixteenth century. (1500-1503, 1507-1509,1512-1522 biennium), which were the continuation of confrontation the previous century. As a result,with the support of autonomous Chernihiv-Sivers'kyi princes, who were mainlydescendants of the Rurik dynasty, Muscovy increased its ownership byChernihiv-Starodub and Novgorod-Seversky principalities. Anyone who wasannoyed by this accession, Moscow Palatine killed or captured.Novopryyednani lands were divided into districts headed by rulers. Autonomous princesthat went to Muscovy, the service received and possession of a large MoscowPrince. In 1523 Novgorod Sivers'k principality was abolished.
4. CrimeanKhanate. Mongol invasion and seizure of the Black Sea steppe spaces and CrimeaMongols dramatically changed the composition of the population of these lands. Dominant ethnic groupMongolians have that mixed up with other local Polovtsy and ethnic groups,which were mainly used the name of Tartars.
NorthBlack Sea and Crimea as part of the Golden Horde, formed a separate ulus (region).From the late thirteenth century. Mongol khans of Crimea are more likely to choose to continuallyresidence. One such place was the city Solhatom (Crimea, now Stary Krym).Translated from the Tatar "Kyrym" means ditch fortifications. Later this namespread to the entire peninsula.
EstablishmentMongols in this region and eventually led to the spread of Islam there, whichlaunched a brother Batu Khan Golden Berke (1209-1266), who personallyIslam and strongly diffused among his subjects. The spread of Islam hadoften double impact. On the one hand, South land for a long timecontributed to the spread of Islamic civilization territory, and Ukraine, dividedhalf, was the boundary between Christian and Muslim civilizations. Fromanother, contributed to the formation of the peoples that inhabited the Crimea and Black SeaCrimean Tatars, whose formation was completed in the sixteenth century.
In the second quarterXV century. The Golden Horde was split, and her territories there were several independentStates: Great Horde, Astrakhan, Kazan, Siberian Khanate, foot andCrimean Khanate.
OccurrenceCrimean Khanate associated with the name of Haji Giray Khan (1428-1466 biennium).
Fig. 24 g. Tamha -generic character Gil.
OriginHajji Giray not fully understood. According to some historians, the real nameHajji Giray - Daulet-Birdy. He was the son of the Crimean Khan Tash Timur (lateXIV century).. Others claim that he was the representative of two mighty CrimeanThe width of the families and Goody. In boyhood he lived at the court of the Lithuanian PrinceVytautas, who helped him compete on the throne.
Hajji Giray could,based on Lithuania, to defend its independence from the encroachments of Khanate KhanGreat Horde. This happened, according to various sources in 1449 or 1455 after the deathHajji Giray after internecine strife power passed to his son Mengli Giray(1468-1514 biennium).
Crimean khansretain formal supremacy over Ukrainian lands in the GreatDuchy of Lithuania and the Grand Duke gave out a shortcut to reign in theselands. The latter was issued in 1472
However, its powerwas shaky. In Khan's throne claimed by the representatives of other noble families.Mengli-Gil was deposed and imprisoned. Bundivnyy Bay Emineh addressedassistance to the Turkish sultan. Last, using this, seized in 1475all, the South Coast of Crimea and Azov fortress at the mouth of the Don River.
Mengli-Gil, thatwas at liberty, was forced to acknowledge the supremacy of the Sultan and the Crimean Khanate1478 was the vassal of the Ottoman Empire.
Mengli-Gil a reception at the Sultan
WhileMongol-Tatar acquire typical of Crimea, in the mountainous areas andsouth coast of violent events took place.
By Nimfeyskymtreaty between Byzantium and Genoa (1261) Genoese received the exclusive right totrade in the Black Sea. Genoese in place of ancient Theodosia establishCafu its trade factory, which is an important point for trade between Eastand West. They also were able to supplant their rivals from the Crimea - Venetians.
Of XIV Art. Kapha becomescenter of trade slaves, which took the nomads, in exercising itsforay. By the middle XV Art. the city became one of the largest in the world,lived 70 thousand people. In the Genoese consisted uneasy relationship with the Mongols, andlater, with the Crimean Tatars: it flashed the war, concluded alliances.Gradually the beginning XV Art. Genoesemastered all the South Coast of Crimea from Kafa to Chersonese. In Sudak andCembalo (Balaklava) they built a first-class fortress. Strengthening Sudakpreserved until today.
Along withfactory from the late rising of the Genoa XII Art.in the mountains of Crimea developed Theodoro principality.
CapitalTheodoro principality was the city, also known under the name Mangup. This citylocated on a mountain plateau. Since the Mongols could find common feodoritylanguage and live in peace. The heyday of the principality is on XV Art. for the periodAlex reign and his son Alex Jr. (1420-1456). The Principality haddeveloped agriculture, trade, population was 200 thousand.
In the 30's XV Art. occurredGenoese fighting for access to the seaside principality. The war lastedwith varying degrees of success until the conquest and Kafi, and Turks in Mangupa 1475, the DefenseMangupa lasted nearly six months. Last Prince Alexander was captured andexecuted by the Turks in Constantinople.
In CrimeaKhanate formed a kind of control system, which was partly borrowed fromIslamic countries. At its head stood Khan - "Great Khan of the Great Horde andSteppes of the Crimea of the throne and Kipchaku. Khan Muhammad enjoyed as heirsupreme law of land ownership. Part of the land was in direct propertyKhan, he could pass on an inheritance. Moreover, Khan belonged to all saltlakes, as well as raw land. The bulk of the profits made Khanrevenues from trade trophies and people who were captured duringhikes.
The second and thirdby value after Khan was officially declared heir - qalgha-Sultan andnurredin-Sultan. They both had great possession, and their power to be distinctof the khan's only because they had no right to mint its own coins.
Ruins of ancient capital of the principality of Theodoro
Special placemanagement of large bay occupied Khanate - "eyes and ears of Khan." He commanded thepersonal guard, followed the procedure in the capital - Bakhchysarai asserted alllawsuits.
For foreignKhanate and security relations with the hordes that roamed outside of Crimea, was responsibleop-back.
All importantquestions in life Khanate (War and Peace, costs for court khanetc.) were resolved on state radio - the couch, which included the highestofficials Khanate.
Important role inKhanate administration played religious leader - Mufti, who headedcourts, temporality and education.
Great bulkKhanate of the population were just a free people, who were mainlycattle (particularly horse breeding). In the southern part of Crimea was developed andagriculture. There were grown cereals, garden culture flourishedviticulture and horticulture.
Bakhchisarai Palace (modern look)
An important sourceincome of an ordinary person was selling captives into slaves. Talk to Khanatealmost become the main income trading slaves who admired during theforay.
5. Tatar-Turkishattacks on the Ukrainian lands. Wild field. After the collapse of the Golden Horde, which Lithuanian princes believedone of the main enemies, they lost interest in alliance with the Crimea. This immediatelytook advantage of Moscow. Ivan III after persistent harassment could induceMengli Giray the union, which was directed against the Great Horde, and againstGrand Duchy of Lithuania. This alliance caused Meng-Gil finalDefeat the Great Horde, capturing and destroying the city in 1502 shed and almostimpunity was the attack on the Ukrainian lands. This Muscovite-Tatar alliancetragic mark on the fate of the Ukrainian people. For Ukrainian Crimean landsKhanate was a very dangerous neighbor. During the following decades, itbecome a major source of supply of slaves to slave marketsBlack Sea coast.
The first majorCrimean Tatars attack on the Ukrainian lands held in 1474 during the attackwere significantly spoiled skirts and Galicia. A few years later a new attackEastern suffered skirts.
EspeciallyTatar was a devastating march to Kyiv in 1482. Kyiv governor John Khodkevychtoo late to learn to approximate the Tatars did not have time to organize defensecity. Kyiv was robbed and burned. In addition, Mengli-Gil took manyprisoners, including the governor and the abbot of Lavra. Alsoduring this campaign was robbed Kyiv land, destroyed 11 border cities.As a sign of respect for their alliance obligations Crimean Khan sent to JohnIII golden cup and a plate of robbed Sophia Cathedral.
Tatars are yasyr.
In the same periodon the border of the Ukrainian lands were also the Turks, who in 1476 devastatedBukovina, and in 1498 - Galicia, which captured about 100 thousand people.
These firstraids took place and others. One of the biggest occurred in 1500, resulting inwhich was assembled 50000th yasyr.
Terms and definitions
Yasyr (From Turkishesir - prisoner) - prisoners, prisoners who were captured by Turks and Tartars duringattacks on the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Poland, Muscovy.
Since the formationCrimean Khanate in the late fifteenth century. Ukrainian lands was not committedless than 41 attacks, including 31 - in the valleys, 9 - in Ruthenian Voivodeship, 7 - toVolin, 4 - to Kyiv region, 2 - Belz Voivodship. As a result of these attacks,some of which had the character of large military campaigns were partly orcompletely devastated some cities and regions, captured 220 thousand people (attotal population of the Ukrainian lands about 3,7 million). InSixteenth century. There were 69 attacks in 1963: 32 - in the valleys, 18 - toVolin, 17 - by Ruske and Belz voivodeship, 2 - the Left Bank of Ukraine.Demographic losses amounted to 353 thousand people. In general, during the second halfXV-XVI centuries. was made about 110 large Tatar-Turkish raids, inresult of which the Ukrainian lands south of Kyiv were almost depopulated anddevastated. This land was called Wild Field, or just a field.
After crushingTatar-Turkish raids issue arose protect the southern border holdingsLithuania and Poland. However, freely and Krakow were not ready to take decisiveaction to stop attacks. The people of Ukrainian lands had almostalone to solve this difficult task. Resistance of the Ukrainian population wasOne of the important factors of the Ukrainian Cossacks - a new layersociety, first mentioned in written sources which dates back to 1492(Some historians call 1489)
Conclusions. In the second half of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. Not all Ukrainian landswere a part of Lithuania and Poland. Yes, finally spread to the Transcarpathiapower Hungarian king. Bukovina, called Shypyntsi land becameof the Moldavian principality, which was formed in 1359 in Chernihiv-Siverschynalate fifteenth century. was part of Muscovy. In the Black Sea steppes and Crimeaformed state of Crimean Tatars - Crimean Khanate, which together withMoldavian principality got in vassal dependence on the Ottoman Empire.
At the end of XV -in the early sixteenth century. tragedy for the Ukrainian lands were Tatar Turkishraids that devastated large territory of Ukraine to the south of Kyiv, whichwas called Wild Field.
Remember the date
1359 - enteringShypyntsi a part of the Moldavian Principality.
1393-1414 biennium -Theodore Koriyatovycha activity in Transcarpathia.
30-ies fifteenth century .-establishment of the Crimean Khanate.
1474 - FirstCrimean Tatars big attack on Ukrainian land.
1478 -establishing vassal dependence on the Ottoman Empire Crimean Khanate.
1492 - firstprobable record of Ukrainian Cossacks.
1492 - firstmention the name "Bukovina" in written sources.
1500-1503,1507-1509, 1512-1522 gg - Lithuanian-Muscovite War early sixteenth century.
1503 -Chernihiv-capture Sivershchyna Moscow Grand Prince Ivan III.
Questions and Tasks
1. To whichStates entered the Ukrainian lands in the fourteenth and sixteenth centuries.?
2. Who is PrinceLaborec?
3. What is the current titleShypyntsi earth?
4. During that yearThe first mention name Bukovina?
5. When MoscowState captured the Chernihiv-Siverian region?
6. HowMuscovite-Lithuanian Wars happened in the early sixteenth century.?
7. How and whenThe Crimean Khanate was formed?
8. What is the main goalCrimean Tatars' raids on the Ukrainian lands?
9. What yearthe first big hike of the Crimean Tatars to Ukrainian lands?
10. What is Wildfield?
Think and answer
1. What is the role of TheodoreKoriyatovycha in the history of our region
2. Describefate of Bukovina as part of Moldavia and the Ottoman Empire.
3. What helpedChernihiv-takeover Sivershchyna Muscovy?
4. What are the implications forUkrainian lands had Tatars acceptance of Islam?
5. What the consequencesTatar-led raids on Turkish Ukrainian lands?
Perform the task
1. Prepare historical references "The Crimean Khanate.
2. Identify the major activities undertaken by Prince Fyodor Koriyatovychem afterresettlement in Transcarpathia.
3. Make a chart of the state system of the Crimean Khanate.
For the curious
What wereMoscow claims caused by the inheritance of Kievan Rus?