Subject V. Ukrainian lands in the Grand DuchyLithuania and other countries (second half of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries).
§ 21-22. Ukrainian lands in the Grand DuchyLithuania
Upon learning these paragraphs, you'll learn:
· how manyUkrainian lands came to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania;
· the policy conductedLithuanian princes and Poland to Ukrainian lands;
· have been eliminatedseparate principalities in the Ukrainian lands and resistance was suppressed by local princes.
The task to repeat
1. Inwhich ceased to exist, the Galicia-Volyn principality?
2. Whowas the last ruler of Galicia-Volyn principality?
3. Whatcountry divided between the Galician-Volyn heritage?
1. FormationLithuanian state and its policy on Ukrainian territory. Whilemost Rus principalities came under the Mongol-Tatar domination ofnorth-western borders of the former Kievan Rus' faced the Lithuanian state.
Its beginnings wereput in the first quarter of the XIII century. Rinholdom prince who united under hisLithuanian authorities of several tribes. Son Rinholda Mindovg continued policyfather to expand his domain. It is with the board and connectedcreation of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The capital of his domains Mindovgelected city Novogrudok (Novhorodok).
Ukrainian lands in the Grand DuchyLithuania.
The name "Lithuania", inAccording to some scientists, is derived from the Slavic word "pour." First word"Casting" might mark the confluence of three rivers, so much so that in present-dayLithuania in the Neman river fall river Vilya, Hancha, Merechanka and others. ModernLithuanian scientists have linked the name of his country mezhaytskym (mezhayty - one of theLithuanian tribes) word "Lietuva", which means "freedom", "free land".
By the middle of the XIIIArt. Mindovg conquered their land power Rus Black (Grodno, Slonim and others).of White and forced to recognize its authority Polotsk, Vitebsk andMinsk princes. In 1242 and 1249 Mindovg inflicted defeats the Mongols, which raisedand strengthened its authority. An important step was the prince of his baptism in 1246according to the Orthodox rite. This step has pushed the prince that the baseeconomic and military power were former Ruthenian principality principality(Belarusian lands).
Trakai Castle - the residence of the Lithuanian princes.
In 1248-1249 heMindovg united under his rule all the lands of Lithuania. Active policy Mindovgcaused by the resistance of Daniel Galician. Between the two outstanding rulerslong war broke out. Mindovg, feeling that losing the war, sought theassistance to the German crusaders. This assistance was determined by baptismMindovg by the Catholic rite in 1253 Then Mindovg and was crowned.However, the Chronicle writes, "baptism he was lying ... He sacrificedtheir gods, burning corpses and openly make strong their paganordinances.
At the same timeDaniel Galician, preparing for war with Mongol-Tatars, was also crowned.Two rulers move from war to establish allied relationsfastened dynastic marriage of their children. Later, as you already know sonDaniel Shvarno a Lithuanian prince. The two states were supposedly for Europeshield from the Mongol-Tatar invasions.
After the death Shvarnoto power back in Lithuania Lithuanian dynasty.
Particularly rapidLithuania increased during the reign of Prince Gedimin (1316-1341), who concludedstarted Mindovg Byelorussian lands and took partnorthern. Gedimin principality established a new capital Vilnius. Furtherpromotion of Lithuania to the south of Galicia-Volyn restrained state. OnlyLithuania after her death was quickly connect to seize Ukrainianland. The first major achievement was the Volyn Lithuania, where the prince's son GediminLiubard.
Furtherpromotion of Lithuanians to the south took place during the reign of Grand Duke Olgerd(1345-1377), who also was the son Gedimin. It is late 1361 - onbeginning in 1362 seized Kyiv and surrounding land, thenChernihiv-Siversk land and most of Pereyaslav. In campaigns Olgerdactively assisted the local nobility, who would prefer to see themselves a Lithuanianarrogance than Mongol.
SuccessfulLithuanians to promote Black Sea coast inevitably led to resistanceMongol temniki who owned and Podolia Black Sea steppes.A decisive battle took place in 1362 (according to other sources - in 1363)River near Blue Water (now, as most scientists believe, this riverCyanosis, which flows into the Southern Bug River, near the modern city of Novo-Arkhangelsk).Having beaten, Algirdas finally ousted from ordyntsev skirts.
Coat of arms of Lithuania.
Politicalconsequences of the battle at Blue Water was vidsunennya territorial boundaries Golden Hordein the Lower Dniester and Southern Bug into the strand, on the Dnieper - torapids, and as a result - a significant weakening of political influenceGolden Horde, located west of the Dnieper, and exacerbation of the differences inGolden Horde.
The resultOlgerd successful campaign was the inclusion of the Grand DuchyLithuania most Ukrainian lands - Kyiv with Pereyaslav, skirts andChernihiv-Sivershchyna.
Hot Ukrainianlands under the rule of Lithuania because Lithuanian princes followed theOrthodoxy and culture of Russia had a big impact on them.
Also Lithuaniansactually did not change the existing relationships not violated the traditions that have developedon these lands. Kept the faith, the language justice. Lithuanians acted on the principle:"We are not driven and antiques news will not put." In addition, former RussiansPrincipality had no real force that could resist Lithuanianpromotion.
Between Olgerd andMongols there was an agreement about their dominance in pivdennoruskyh landsbut despite this, their accession to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania gaveOlgerd opportunity to qualify and the other Old heritage. Thistowards his main enemy was Moscow. Open conflict between the twoStates that sought to unite under his authority Old legacybroke out in 1368 and continued with varying degrees of success until 1537
2. Revivalautonomous principalities of Ukrainian lands and their elimination. After inclusionUkrainian lands of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania Algirdas resumedautonomous system. But as a rule, led principalities were representativesLithuanian dynasties and Hedyminovychiv Olgerdovich. Yes, Kiev, Chernigov,Sivers'k Novgorod principality, Pereyaslav and four portions of tail Algirdasgiven to the sons and nephew. At the head of the Kyiv principality became VladimirOlgerdovich on the tail - Yuri Koriyatovych at Novgorod-Siversky - DmitryKorbut and others. Separate principalities were in vassal dependence on largePrince and obligated "to serve faithfully, to pay annual tribute and in the caseneed to put his army.
But soon toautonomous power of the princes becomes burdensome Grand Duke, and they startshow signs of independent life. Such commitment is particularly reflected inOlgerd death during the struggle for the Lithuanian grand throne.
At the same timethe issue of preserving the integrity of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. KernelAlgirdas bequeathed his possessions his eldest son from second wife -Jagiello. He also received the rule over all and HedyminovychamyOlgerdovich. However, older brothers - the sons of his first wife Olgerd - notresigned to it. Jagiello made against Polotsk, Chernihiv-Sivers'kyi,Volyn Podolsk princes. Following this, the brother took Olgerd KeystutFree Jagiello and eliminated from power. However Yahajlo escaped to the Teutonic Order andresumed using its power polonyvshy Keystuta and his son Vytautas. Throughfew days Keystuta was strangled, but could be delivered and Vytautas continuestruggle. Realizing the uncertainty of their situation, decided to rely on Yahajloassistance to Poland, which, in turn, needed help in the fight against LithuaniaTeutonic Order. Finally in 1385, between the two countries was signedKrevsk Union, according to which Lithuania had to accept Catholicism and ever attachPoland to its Lithuanian and Ruthenian lands. So, together with Poland, GreatDuchy of Lithuania lost its independence. In 1386 Grand Duke Yahajlobaptized in the Catholic rite, under the name W
Union - Associationunion. In this case, union under certain conditions the two countries under the auspicesa monarch.
Becoming the King,Yahajlo actively undertook the implementation of the terms of the union. Lithuanians began at baptismCatholic rite, and Lithuanians Catholics have the same privileges as the Polishtop. There were also sworn in by the new king autonomous princes. Theirallegiance of Jagiello expressed in the payment of annual tribute and innecessary to provide military assistance to host. In other theyfull freedom. Yes, Kyiv prince Volodymyr Olgerdovicheven minted its own coins.
However Krevskunion were dissatisfied with some Lithuanian princes, which was headed by Vytautas. Theymade for the preservation of the independence of Lithuania. Their armed struggle ledJagiello in 1392 to recognize Lithuania's Vytautas the governor, and he actually became LithuanianPrince. KREVO union was abolished.
But KyivPrince Vladimir, Novgorod-Seversky Dmitry Podolsky Korbut and FedorKoriyatovych refused to recognize the power of Vytautas. Outbreak of armed struggle underduring which Vytautas began liquidation autonomous principalities. By the end of 90's XIVArt. all major separate principalities were eliminated. The princes have been replaced byVytautas the governors. Through these actions contributed Vytautas centralization and consolidationindependence of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
Power Vytautassupported the Ukrainian elite, which was against catholization and saw itof the ruler who can resist an attack in Moscow and attacksMongol-Tatars.
However, plansVytautas on transforming the Great Duchy of Lithuania powerful independentstate was destined to fail. In the summer of 1399 at the Battle of the Vorskla River, hesuffered complete defeat of the Tatars and was forced to seek an understanding withJagiello. This battle was another tragic consequence for the Ukrainian lands: inwhen it fell more than 500 descendants of Rurik dynasty, which significantly weakened the Ukrainianknow.
January 18, 1401freely in the Union was signed, under which the Grand Duchy of Lithuaniaacknowledged vassalage to Poland. All the Ukrainian and Lithuanian lands ondeath were Vytautas pass under the Polish king. This union resulted in the appearancenew enemy approaching Lithuania and Poland - the younger brother JagielloSvydrygailo Olgerdovich that actually lost the right to follow the grandthrone.
Having entered Vilnaunion, with a new zeal Vytautas started to tighten his principality. He reachedSuccess in the war with Moscow, joined to a portion of its holdings. In NovgorodVytautas brought to power their fans, and Ryazan and Tver principalityadmitted their vassalage to him. Sorting the way theireastern borders, Vytautas, along with Poland took an active part in combatingTeutonic Order, which culminated in the Battle of Grunwald (1410).
Battle of Grunwald.
An army of Jagielloand many were Vytautas vyhodtsiv of Ukrainian lands. Yes, the 16 Polishsix regiments were outfitted in Galicia and Podolia. The structure of Lithuanianhost, which counted 15 bands, seven were formed in Ukrainian lands.
After winningover the Teutonic Order, which became the vassal of Poland, renewed hopeindependence of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The new arrangement of forces was securedHorodelskoyu union in 1413 this union recognized the independence of Lithuania and the deathVytautas, but under the auspices of King of Poland. Also reaffirmed the unionCatholics privileged position: they can only occupy senior posts instate. These points of union outrage and led to the Orthodox nobilityinternal conflict in Lithuania, which broke out immediately after the death of Vytautas.
New VictoryVytautas enabled to further expand the boundaries of their state. Agreeing withowner of the Golden Horde Tohtamyshem he began developing the Black Seacoast between the Dnieper and the Dniester. Start to boil down to Hadzhybeyi fortress (nowOdessa), Karavuli, Belgorod (Ackerman, now Odesa)Chornohorodi, Dashevi (now Ochakov). He also contributes to the formation of independentCrimean Khanate.
To resolveany of Moscow's influence in their possession, sought to Vytautasindependence of the Orthodox Church within their state. In 1414 was createdseparate Kyiv metropolitan led by Gregory Tsymblakom. Also in the churchVytautas policy making sought union between Catholics and Orthodox tobasis of the preservation of the last rites and traditions. But to bring this case toVytautas the end could not.
PowerVytautas encouraged European rulers to conclude an alliance with him. In 1429Holy Roman Emperor proposed to crown Vytautas, who wassupported by other European rulers. Coronation was appointed on 8September 1430
In CoronationAct Grand Duchy of Lithuania proclaimed a kingdom in perpetuitythat Lithuanian kings "will be independent, not subject to vassals or notour (the Emperor) nor the Holy Empire, whose other or to serve shieldChristianity in this borderland - helping against pagan attacks.
Inquiries to document
1. What evidencethis document?
2. What about littleget the Grand Duchy of Lithuania after the coronation of Vytautas?
3. What is the roleassigned the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in European politics?
However, inappointed time came to crown not fluently, as was intercepted and destroyedPoles, who did not want to break the union. Coronation was postponed, and October 271430 Vytautas died suddenly. Some historians have assumed the opinion that hewas poisoned.
3. "GreatRus principality. Vilkomyrskabattle and its aftermath. After the death of Vytautas Belarusian, Ukrainian, and partLithuanian nobility without the consent of the Polish king was elected prince of the Grand DuchyLithuania Svydrygailo Olgerdovich (1430-1432 biennium). These actions have called intothreaten the continued existence of the Polish-Lithuanian Union. Poland started immediatelywar. Its army vderlosya in Volhynia and Podolia, but fierce resistance of the population,and the Union concluded Svidrigaylo of the Teutonic Order and the rebels,prevented the Poles acquire these lands. But hold on to power Svydryhajlocould not. Lithuanian Catholic nobles who feared losing their privileges, utterlymutiny and put on the grand throne brother Vytautas ZygmuntKeystutovycha. Svydryhajlo barely escaped fled. Sigismund resumed immediatelyVilna union in 1401, but extend the power of all Grand Duchy of Lithuaniacould not. Beresteyschina, Podlasie, Polotsk, Vitebsk, Smolensk landSiverschyna, Kyiv, Volyn and Podolia Eastern acknowledged its ownerSvydrygailo and united in the "Grand Duchy of Rus'.
Based onmaintaining these lands Svydryhajlo launched a successful offensive against Sigismund.Concerned by these developments, and Sigismund Yahajlo made some adjustments toagreement on the union. In 1432 and 1434 were issued by the acts that the rights zrivnyuvalyCatholic and Orthodox nobility. But the Orthodox still forbidden to holdhighest office in the state. These concessions slightly reduced the number of supportersSvydrygailo, which is already its inconsistency, a penchant for intrigue,opportunism, excessive brutality and suspicious vidshtovhuvav awaysignificant number of opponents Zygmunt.
Among the facts thatSvydrygailo confirm negative features, there are eloquent. YesSvydryhajlo arrested Prince Fed'ka Nesvitskoho who happily led the fight againstPoles on the tail, knowing it to infringe on the power of a prince.
Mostundermined the authority within the Orthodox nobility Svydrygailo burning itOrthodox Metropolitan Gerasim, who was suspected of having links with Moscow.
Crucial instruggle for the throne was the grand battle that took place September 1, 1435 toShvyanti River near the town Vilkomyr (now Ukmerge city in Lithuania). In thisSvydryhajlo battle and his supporters have been fully defeated, and the ideaan independent "Grand Duchy of Rus'" was never implementedlife. By the end of 1438 Sigismund seized the entire territory of the Grand DuchyLithuania.
Sigismundwas wise policy. He did not persecute his opponents keptSvydryhajlo life. Having beaten by Poland, Zygmunt soonwas the burden of arrogance, and he began a policy aimed atstrengthening the independence of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. In its policyZygmunt relied on small landowners, knights, and not autonomous princespower which he limited. This was a conspiracy among the Ukrainian and Belarusianprinces who killed Zygmunt. The leading role played in this conspiracy VolynPrince Ivan and Alexander Chortoryyski, but their attempt to return toSvydrygailo grand throne was not successful because he already hadno authority among the population. New Lithuanian Grand Duke nobility electedyounger son Jagiello - Casimir, but the real power concentrated in the handsLithuanian nobility led by Jan Hashtoldom. In response to the Ukrainian landsrebellion broke out, which managed to control through concessions Orthodoxnobility.
ProclamationGrand Duke Casimir, not ruling Polish King Wladyslaw IIImeant the actual rupture of the Polish-Lithuanian Union. Although in 1447 became the CasimirPolish King Wladyslaw III after the death in battle with the Turks at Varna,Grand Duchy of Lithuania retained its independence. In addition, adopted inThe same year "Vilensky privilege granted additional rights and the CatholicOrthodox nobility. In particular, the English Carta in 1215, heguaranteed personal immunity from arrest and detention without a court sentence.
4. Kiev andVolyn separate principalities. Despite the defeat, Ukrainian autonomous princesremained significant and influential force. To prevent its new performing, afterproclamation by the Grand Duke Casimir were restored Kyiv, Volynseparate principalities. Volyn principality was given Svydryhajlo thatruled the Duchy until the end of life (died 1452), after which the principality waseliminated.
In Kievlocal prince was restored dynasty Olgerdovich. Prince's sonVladimir Olgerdovich Alexander (Olelko) Vladimirovich (1441-1454 biennium).
ReignOlelka and his son Simeon (1455-1470 biennium) is integral period, whichcharacterized by an attempt to restore the power of the Kievan state.
In addition to strengtheningOlelkovychi government sought to expand their knowledge. Yes, their powerwere Kyivshchyna, Pereyaslav, Bratslavshchina (Eastern Podolia), partChernigov. Olelkovychi helped develop the steppe spaces (Wild Field) insouth of his domain, leading a bitter struggle with the Tatars.
Kyiv princescared problems not only of their possessions, but also claimed togrand throne.
In 1458 SimeonOlelkovych achieved to create a separate Orthodox Metropolis of Kiev. Thisevent and finally divided the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of Moscow.
GrowthKiev principality and power of its independent existence almost alarmedGrand Duke of Lithuania. After the death of Semen Olelkovycha end of 1470Grand Duke canceled the principality. Brother Simeon was not Michael Olelkovychadmitted to Kyiv, and was appointed its governor Martin Hashtold.
Polishmedieval chronicler Jan Dlugosh the reasons for liquidation of the Kiev Principality
"Lithuanian lordsreally want this principality (Kiev) was again returned to normalprovince of the Grand Duchy, as well as other Ruthenian principality, and demanded it fromKing, that he is appointed governor Martin Hashtolda.
EliminationLithuanian Principality of Kiev (excerpt from "Supplement Ipatskohochronicle)
"Year 1471.Semen Olelkovych died, the Prince of Kyiv. After his death, Casimir, KingPoland, anxious to Kiev principality ceased to exist, not planted immediatelythere Semeonovoho son Martin, and planted a commander of Lithuania Hashtoldta Martin,Lyakhov, who would not accept people of not only because he was not the prince, andmore because he was Liakh, but being forced, agreed. And thisTime ceased to be in Kiev princes, dukes and instead become magistrates.
Inquiries to document
1. What causesliquidation of Kyiv local prince named Jan Dlugosh?
2. ExplainsChronicle rejection Kyivans Lithuanian rulers?
3. Waselimination of autonomous principalities natural phenomenon?
Hashtolduhad the power to assert its power in Kiev, who did not want to see him as theirgovernor.
Thus,Top 70's fifteenth century. the Ukrainian lands was finally eliminatedautonomous divisions and widespread Voivodeship Office.
5. Speeches RusOrthodox nobility at the end of the XV - beginning of the sixteenth century.
EliminationVolyn and Kyiv autonomous principalities showed that the Lithuanian nobilitystrengthened so that could not reckon with the interests of the RusOrthodox, which did not suit this situation. Its leaders triedto restore the influence of the nobility and the Ruthenian Orthodox position. One ofinstances of this was a conspiracy in 1481, when the younger generations Olelkovychiv that weredeprived of their shares as trying to separate the ownership of their formerGrand Duchy of Lithuania and attach them to the Moscow principality.They also put forward their claims on the grand throne rightsprecedence among Olgerdovich. However, the conspiracy was exposed and the conspirators executed.
Conspiracy of the princesclearly demonstrated that the Ruthenian Orthodox nobility was removed from power, and the mountainin the Grand Duchy of Lithuania took the Lithuanian Catholic nobility.
After the death ofGrand Duke of Lithuania and the Polish king Casimir IV Jagiellonian in1492 successor was his son Alexander (1492-1506 biennium). New largePrince continued policies aimed at strengthening the power of Catholics.Lithuanian Catholic nobility advocated the independence of Lithuania and against the union withPoland, the Polish nobility ubachayuchy its competitors. Strained relationsbetween Lithuania and Poland immediately took advantage of Moscow, which, entering into alliance withCrimean Khanate, began the attack on Lithuania. Finally conquered Moscow and TverNovgorod, which tended to Lithuania, occupied almost all of Chernihiv-Sivershchyna.Verhivski princes, descendants of Rurik dynasty, came to minister to MoscowPrince. At the same time Ukrainian lands began to suffer from attacks of the CrimeanTatars. As a result, for a short time destroyed all built byVytautas fortress on the Black Sea coast, destroyed all the gains of developmentWild Field, making large areas of the Ukrainian lands south of Kyivhiatus.
Therefore, thedecline of Ruthenian Orthodox notables added and destruction of Ukrainian lands.
Latest speechesRuthenian Orthodox nobility was rebellion in 1508 led by Prince MichaelGlinsky, who belonged to that part of the Ruthenian nobility who activelyaccept Western ideas.
In the early yearsGlinsky, adopting Catholicism, went abroad, where he studied at courtsEuropean monarchs (Holy Roman Emperor, ElectorSaxon et al.). He received a good education, well-considered military art andsince his return became the most influential person in the big yardLithuanian Prince Alexander. His brothers John and Basil rulers were, respectively,Kiev and Brest. With the growing influence of the prince increased hislandholdings. But after the death of Alexander, the new Grand DukeSigismund, he fell out of favor and lost all his positions. Its landsbeen the object of assault other princes. Realizing the fallacy of their position,Glinsky dared to revolt, which included Turovskaya and Kyiv land. Notsupported by the other princes, he fled to Moscow. A key role in suppressingGlinsky speech played another famous Duke Konstantin I. Ostrog.
OutstandingHrushevsky Ukrainian historian, describing the rebellion Glinsky, wrote:"Remnants of Russians princely families and gentlemen resigned with his secondary role inGrand Duchy and have not the courage or energy to deal with the Lithuanianaristocracy. Also Glinsky speech he called "the last convulsionsRuthenian nobility in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
6. Polishdomination of the Ukrainian lands late fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. Since joiningGalicia Polish expansion to Ukrainian lands not stopped. Nextbecame the object of attacks skirts.
After reconquerLithuanians, Tatars land in Podolsk Podolsk formed principality,owners who were princes Koriyatovychi. By Theodore Board KoriyatovychaPrincipality domohlosya almost complete autonomy. As mentioned above, inIn 1392 he refused to recognize the authority of the Lithuanian Grand Duke Vytautas, however,zmihshy not keep possession in the fight against Vytautas, was forced to fleeHungary. Podolsk principality was abolished, but had Vytautasimmediately to protect the skirts of the Poles.
Poles are notVytautas wanted to strengthen government, invaded the valleys, but soon acquireit could not. Only after fierce fighting Vytautas was forced to concedewestern part of the land (west of the river Murafa) from town,Canyon, Bockotey, Scala and Chervonograd. But 1395 was the West PodoliaLithuanians returned. This struggle for the land is not the end. Usingintestine wars in Lithuania in 1430, the Polish troops invaded again in skirts. ThisPoles narazylysya time of strong resistance of local people, led by the princesFedkov Nesvizkym, Alexander nose and Ivashko Rohatyskym. The Poles weredefeat, but this time between the big and the Lithuanian prince SvidrigayloFedkov conflict broke out, resulting in the latter moved to the side of PolandPoles and helps to capture the Western skirts.
To consolidatelinked to Ukrainian lands, in 1434 in Galicia was founded RuskeProvince, in western Podolia - Podolsk province.
In the capturedUkrainian lands policy of Poland differed radically from the Lithuanian.The Poles did not even tried to find common language with the local elite, and immediatelyPoland introduced the management system, passing it exclusively in the handsPoles. In addition, the Polish landowners received estates and in towninvited German, Jewish and Armenian immigrants who receivedvarious benefits and privileges. This policy led to the loss of citiesUkrainian origin, were ousted from Ukrainian crafts and trade. Citieswas given Magdeburg right - the right to self-government, but it couldUse only the citizens and Catholics.
LvivUkrainian Orthodox commoners turned into the most of poor grouppopulation. They were forbidden to sell fabrics, vodka and other goodslive in a town outside the specified quarter - Ruska street. All businessDocuments in the city were driven exclusively in Latin or Polish.
Also in Ukrainianlands introduced and Polish judicial system, which was bowercharacter. That is, each state has its own judicial organ. Nobility subjectZemsky court commoners - magistrate, and the rest - Starostynski.
EstablishmentPolish rule was accompanied by attack on the Catholic ChurchOrthodox. To combat the Orthodox Catholics have used many measures.Created their own church organization: in Vladimir, Galicia, Przemysl,Kamenetz, Hill founded the Bishopric, and in 1412 in Lviv -archbishopric. It was forbidden to build new Orthodox churches, whileold closed. In Orthodox priests tax was imposed, whileas a Catholic he did not pay. Orthodox also forbidden to keeprituals, holidays, hold public office. They nakydavsya complexinsignificance and inferiority.
Thus,establishment of Polish rule was accompanied by the Polish influence and stick a catholic faithUkrainian population.
Conclusions. In the fourteenth century. most Ukrainian lands were inGrand Duchy of Lithuania. At first policy of Lithuanian princeswas burdensome for local people, because they did not destroy their traditions andnot introduced something new. Newborn autonomous system of Ukrainian lands.Lithuanian elite adopted the Orthodox faith, culture and laws of the country. AlsoLithuanian princes promoted release of the Ukrainian lands from Mongol-Tatars. Battleby Blue Waters (1362) effectively ended the Mongol-Tatar domination.This allows scientists to suggest that Lithuanian-Rus.
Significant expansionBorders Grand Duchy of Lithuania has caused conflicts with neighbors whoalso wanted to own lands of the former Russia. In addition, the Catholic Churchpersistently tried to expand its influence in the East. Late fourteenth century.a convergence of Lithuania and Poland, which led to the conclusion between them in 1385Krevsk Union. Through combining efforts managed to defeat the TeutonicOrder (Battle of Grunwald in 1410), which threatened the two countries.
Closer ties withPoland led to internal conflict in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, whichturned into open armed confrontation between Orthodox andautonomous old tradition on the one hand, and supporters of rapprochement with Poland,Catholicism and strengthening the centralization of Lithuania, on the other. Vilkomyrska battle1435 further defined the path of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the directionrapprochement with Poland. In 1452 and 1470 were eliminated Volyn and Kyivseparate principalities, Ruthenian Orthodox nobility had finally lost its influence. Allits attempts to restore the old order has not been successful.
GraduallyUkrainian lands ustanovlyuvalosya Polish-Lithuanian dominion, thataccompanied by ousting the Catholic Orthodox Church, the introductionnew orders.
Remember the date
1362 - Battle ofBlue Waters.
1368-1537 biennium -confrontation between the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Muscovy(Muscovite-Lithuanian War).
1385 - KREVOunion.
90's XIVc. .- liquidation autonomous principalities in Ukrainian lands.
1401 -Vilna union.
1410 -Battle of Grunwald.
1413 -Horodelska union.
1414 -creation of a separate Orthodox Metropolis of Kiev.
1434 -a Polish Ruthenian province in Galicia in the province and PodolskiWestern Podolia.
September 1, 1435R. - Battle Vilkomyrom.
1452 and 1470 -liquidation of Kyiv and Volyn autonomous principalities.
1481 - ConspiracyPrinces Olelkovychiv.
1508 -M. Glinsky rebellion.
Questions and Tasks
1. The result isBattle of Ukrainian lands were exempted from the Mongol-Tatar domination?
2. During the reignLithuanian prince whose most Ukrainian lands were a part of the GreatDuchy of Lithuania?
3. What causedrelatively peaceful transition of Rus principalities under the rule of Lithuania?
4. Why endFourteenth century. in Ukrainian lands were eliminated separate principalities?
5. Between whichstates and was reached when KREVO union?
6. What historicalBattle of Grunwald value?
7. What landunited in the "Grand Duchy of Rus'?
8. Who won theVilkomyrskyy battle?
9. WhenUkrainian lands were finally eliminated the separate principalities?
10. What wereperformances caused by the Orthodox nobility late XV - early XVI century. againstLithuania?
Think and answer
1. What impact hadLithuania to join a large part of former Kievan Rus?
2. Why historiansoften called the Grand Duchy of Lithuania "Lithuanian-Ruthenian state"?
3. Givecharacteristics of internal and external policies of the Lithuanian prince Vytautas.
4. What impact hasBattle of the Vorskla River in 1399 on the fate of the Ukrainian lands?
5. What wascaused by the restoration of Volyn and Kyiv autonomous principalities in 40-e ggXV century.? How has the fate of these duchies?
6. Why all performancesOrthodox nobles in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania ended in defeat?
Perform the task
1. Foldchronology of key events being the Ukrainian lands in the GrandDuchy of Lithuania.
2. Explain the principle ofLithuanian elite, which she stuck in the XIV century.: "We are not driven by ancientnews and not put. "
3. Identifyconcepts: union, coronation, the separate principalities.
4. Foldcomprehensive plan related to: "Ukrainian lands in the Grand DuchyLithuania.
5. Comparepolitical structure of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. and RusXI-XIII. Identify the common and different.
6. Prove orrefute the claim that the essence of politics in the Polish authorities in GaliciaFourteenth and fifteenth centuries. was the destruction of its previous state and lastasserting it as an integral part of Poland.
For the curious
What is the roleLithuanian era in the history of Ukraine?