§ 20. Culture of Galicia-VolhyniaState
Upon learning this paragraph, you'll learn:
· what were the featuresCulture of Galicia-Volyn principality;
· What features of the Galician-Volyn chronicle;
· are outstanding monuments of architecture and fineArt of Galicia-Volyn principality survived to the present.
The task to repeat
1. Whatmain source of culture of Kievan Rus?
2. InWhat are the features of chronicle in Russia?
3. Nameoutstanding architectural monuments of the Kievan Rus.
1. FeaturesDevelopment of Culture of Galicia-Volyn principality. CultureGalicia-Volyn principality is part of the culture of Russia. Whileit differs significantly from the culture of other lands, with their originalfeatures and originality. Even after the Mongol invasion duringcentury Galician-Volyn Rus not kept pace in its cultural developmentfrom neighboring countries, and in some cases became the home of creative achievements thatenriched all of the then Eastern European culture.
CultureGalicia-Volyn principality was open to influences of Western and Easterncultures, but not lost its East-specificity.
Large influence onculture region was the Orthodox Church, which, despite political problems,kept the main cultural traditions.
CultureGalicia-Volyn principality has become one of the components ofUkrainian culture.
Althoughlines of Galician culture and Volyn lands have differences, theirdevelopment took place simultaneously, and the processes were identical. This allows scientistsconsider the culture of Galicia-Volyn principality as a holistic phenomenon.
2. Education. For the purposes ofstate and the expansion and strengthening of Christian faith were required educated andeducated people. Education in Galician and Volyn territories continued the traditionKievan Rus. At churches, especially in monasteries, bishops' chairsexisting schools. These boys took seven years. Passing ratetraining, they worked in Pysarchuk prince or bishop's office,continued to become priests or their parents. Was widespread and learningat home, especially for children boyars, who lived in country houses.
In Galicia and Volynlands also existed in monasteries and libraries princely palaces, where you canwas to deepen their knowledge. There is information about a large library of Prince VladimirVasylkovych.
Graffiti on the walls of St. Panteleimon.
Found itemsfor writing, inscriptions on the walls of churches, bark, vessels, weapons and tools(Label) show that among artisans, merchants and boyars and combatants waswidespread literacy. Bronze and bone wrote to write on waxarchaeologists found in tables Zvenigorodka, Przemysl, Galicia, Brest (Brest)Berestiany credentials - in Zvenigorodka and Brest. Preserved letters and Butterprinces.
A significantspread education among the least affluent community population of Galicia-Volynprincipality, indirectly suggest sights of the Old Rus writing XII-XIIIArt. In no chronicle, except Galicia-Volyn, you can not find suchnumber of references to pystsiv, princely office, archives, letters, wills,subscribed the evidence, etc..
3. Literature andchronicle. In our time are not preserved secular monumentsReferences Galicia-Volyn Rus, although their existence undoubtedly. Theseworks of some researchers attributed Tale of blinding Vasylko.
Chronicle inGalicia-Volyn principality had its own peculiarities. Some researchersbelieve that it was continuing tradition of chroniclers of Kiev and otherargue that here there is another tradition: writing some stories,Lives of the original secular prince, which were subsequently merged into a single product.
Earliestliterary monument of the region is "The Story of blinding Vasylko", written in 1097unknown author. It describes the tragic fate TerebovlyaPrince Vasylko Rostyslavycha, Volyn prince is blinded.
Brightesta memorial chronicle of Galicia-Volyn principality is "Galicia-Volynrecord. He was found in 1809 the outstanding Russian historian M.Karamzin.
Featurechronicle is that it was originally a literary work without discrimination for years.Chronology in it accents later copyist, but with large errors.In artistic identity, he stands out for its deep meaning.Chroniclers, which scientists believe was at least five, skillfully convey featuresthat time, details of troubled times.
Chronicleconsists of two main, different in scope and character parts: ChroniclerDaniel Galician (narrates the events of 1205-1258 biennium) and Volyn chronicle(1258-1290 biennium). Annals created with some stories that were combinedlater compilers. The central part of the work is the life of Prince DanielGalician.
Chronicle givesbroad picture of events and neighboring lands: Hungary, Poland, Lithuania and other Rusprincipalities, Horde. Information chronicle - almost the only source that allows forbasically replicate what Mazowiecki in the Principality and Lithuania this period.
Volyn partChronicle noted especially high literary merits,emotional lyricism and narrative. There are a lot of attention paid to the development of culturethe lands of Galicia and Volhynia.
Ideological ChronicleBoyarsky was directed against arbitrariness and glorifying guns and Rus Rusground.
Chronicle is alsovaluable source for the study of Old language, because it contains manydistinctive words, idioms and proverbs.
4. Architecture. Availabilitymasonry buildings is strong evidence of a particular region.Galician city of Volyn and rich Murovanye buildings: temples, princelypalaces, castles, fortified villages boyars.
Firstwere only a stone churches and princely palaces.
First Murovanyechurches in Galicia and Volhynia there early enough - the end of IX - beginning of XArt. that was due to the influence of Czech architecture. Unfortunately, the vastmost churches the end of the IX-XIII centuries. forever lost.
In XII-XIII centuries.Volyn formed and Galician architectural school. In Volyn buildershad a significant impact Kyiv School and architects used the Galiciana tradition of Kievan Rus, and western European heritage.
Among the survivingTime is a monumental Assumption Cathedral in Vladimir-Volyn. He builtIn 1160, the Kiev masters of the orders of Prince Mstislav Izyaslavovycha. Thisshestystopna dome building has a simple, yet majestic look.
His contemporary -Assumption Cathedral in Galicia, built Yaroslav Osmomysl (1157) - Remainsto our time only in ruins. It was chotyrystopnyy dome housesurrounded by galleries and decorated with white-stone carvings. He is a brightexpression of Galician architectural school, which drew many of the commonEurope in the Romanesque style.
Built in Galicianot with bricks and with local stone, using different species and alabasterlimestone. Within the city, archaeologists found a stone about thirtybuildings. By the features of Galician architecture is also a wayfacing walls ceramic relief tiles depicting griffins,Eagles, Warriors, with floral and geometric design.
In place of the oldGalic (now a village Krylos) survived to the present day church of St.Panteleimon (XII-XIII.), Who also is a bright representative Galicianarchitectural school.
On wealth andarchitectural features of the Galician-Volyn temples description gives an idea of the churchJohn Chrysostom in Hill (XIII century)..
Description of the churchJohn Chrysostom in the Hill (for "Galician-Volyn chronicle)
"He builtChurch of St. John, a beautiful and elegant. The building is arranged so it was: fourvault, in every corner - arch that stood on four human heads,portrayed by some master. Three windows were decorated with Roman glass (stained glass- Auth.) At the entrance to the altar stood two pillars with a stone, and over themvault and dome, decorated with gold stars on the blues. The floor in the middlewas cast in copper and pure tin, and it shone like a mirror ... Patterns,colored gold and made masters Obadiah ... Sculptural decorations werepainted all colors and gold. Outdoor murals were extremelygood ... Icons amazing ... He (Daniel - author.) Decorated with icons, which brought withKyiv, precious stones and gold beads ... The bells he brought from Kyiv, andothers have been cast here ... "
Inquiries to document
1. What are the architectural features of a small church?
2. What elements of the church shows the influenceWestern art?
In Galicia,Zvenigorodka, Lutsk, and some other cities, archaeologists found the ruins of the princelypalaces.
In the thirteenth century. inGalicia-Volyn principality was conducted active construction of cities and fortresses. YesVolyn near the hill were built fortified cities Danyliv, KremenetsUhrovsk in Galicia - Yaroslav Syanyk. They all have defensive structures, which are notwas capable of overcoming even the Mongol-Tatars from their siege equipment.
At the end of the XIIIArt. Volyn under the influence of Western European military architecture beginsconstruction of a new type of defensive structures - Murovanye "tower-pillars. Onpresent day are preserved tower in the vicinity of Hill (village Stovp'ye) andCity White Tower (formerly Kamyanets). These "pillars" were donzhonamy tower. In XIVArt. unfolded building stone castles, the first of which was a castle inLutsk, which began building in late thirteenth century.
5. Music. Painting belongedLeading role in the artistic culture of Galicia-Volyn principality. Itrepresented a monumental painting (murals) and icons.
FrescoKiev continued tradition. They were painted the main temples and VolhyniaGalic. But he has not gained significant distribution - the last quarter of XIIth century.built temples in which there was no frescoes. Such structures, for example, iscathedral in Lutsk.
At the same time Muralsare widely spread in the princely palaces. There is evidence of chronicles,that they were painted Chamber Jaroslav Osmomysl. All they had to laymotives.
In the thirteenth - theearly fourteenth century. Volyn is the intensive construction of the temple, accompanied byrestoration of a fresco traditions, but they cover only the altarof churches.
However, ourlittle time remained significant fragments of frescoes, with the exception of paintingArmenian Cathedral in Lviv, which date from the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries.
Highpainting of the back of Galicia-Volyn principality evidentin the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. masters performed monumental paintings in Poland, which preservedin Sandomir (30-ies of the XIII century.) Krakow - Holy Cross Chapel at Wawel (1470City), Vyslytsi - church (XIV century).. The frescoes in the castle chapel at LublinKing Jagiello order served group of painters, led by masterAndrew of Volhynia.
Placingchurches in Galicia and Volhynia emphasis was on the icons that formed the targetensembles.
At first templesdecorated with two large-size icons, fresco-likepainting. Subsequently, their number increases. Formed iconostasis - a specialpartition, covering parts of the altar and consists of several rows of icons.
Iconsspread in Galicia and Volhynia, Kiev or had Byzantine origins.Later in Volhynia and Galicia facing their own schools of icon painting. His heydayaccounted for the second half of XIII-XIV centuries. Feature iconography of this period isthat it developed without strict control of the church or government. Artists,therefore tried to find a plot of expression, sometimes violating the canons.The image on the icons are light volume, significantly different from whatByzantine designs.
Oldesticon that remains in Galicia, is a bit Byzantine icons "Menolohiya"(End of XII - early XIII century).. It was found in 1930, the Church of St.Nicholas Turyi near Old Sambora, but got only to scholars in 1983It was shown in the figures of saints stressed elongated proportions of youngheads. Clothing saints depicted in dark colors. Among them stands outmartyr George.
Go to the topsamples of the Galician-Volyn painting of this period is miraculous iconVolyn Lady ("Lady Odyhitriya" with Protection Church in LutskTop of the XIV century).. It affects the severity of a special viewer images of the Virgin andSmall Jesus, which was not in the icons of the previous period. Evidencepenetration of elements of folk art is Jesus shirt, decorated with embroideredflowers.
Another masterpieceiconography of the time is respected in Poland Cz
In LvivUkrainian Museum of Art has one of the pearls Galician iconography"George the Serpent Fighter" from a village near Stanyli Drohobych. Its author was a talentedmaster of composition and color that could combine a feeling of generalharmonious equilibrium with rhythmic movement and form - of color.
Known and otherAttractions Galician fourteenth century painting. possessing high skillspainters, expressive personality, a combination of Byzantine traditions,Old Rus heritage and boost the local folk art. Extremelywere popular icons depicting St. Nicholas and Holy Martyrs Dmitri,Frola and Lavra, Boris and Gleb.
Another viewart that has become popular in Galicia-Volyn principality, wassculpture. This art form developed in the form of relief, which were decoratedtemples. A striking example is the sculpture of that era slate relief XIII. Thatdepicts St. Dmitri. Now he is kept in Kamenetz-Podolsk museum.During the excavations of the ruins of the Assumption Cathedral in Galich found reliefsnapdragon, from the mouth of which branch grows lush. Many are decorated withreliefs as the Church of St. Panteleimon in Galich and John Chrysostom in the Hill.Their creator was a "great hytrets Abdi. This is the first name of the master sculpturethat knows the history of Ukrainian art.
ArtsGalicia-Volyn principality also presented and portrait miniaturesprosperity which falls on the thirteenth century. A few miniatures preserved manuscriptsbelong exclusively to the professional models. The oldest illustratedGalicia-Volyn manuscript tradition that has survived to our time, is DobryloveGospel (1164), which contains four miniatures of Evangelists and backgroundknyhopysnoyi equipment shop.
BishopsMissal of Przemysl (early thirteenth century.) Decorated with three thumbnails(Survived two) of St. Basil the Great, John Chrysostom and GregoryDivine. As in previous previews, these images are elongated, with small heads- According to the canons of Byzantine art.
Much ofMiniatures of the XIII century. are copies of frescoes of churches, out of which came hand-written book.
Clearlyhighlighted thumbnail Gospel XIII. (Unknown origin). They have a lotdecorated with fine details rendered. But the vast majority of survivingmanuscripts are much more modest decoration as screensavers, limbs,initials of sheets ornamentation.
ThereGalicia-Volyn principality, archaeologists have found many treasures from the wide varietyjewelry. Most are earrings, earrings, earrings,bracelets-handily, pendants. These findings indicate a high levelGalician-Volyn jewelers who knew different techniques: casting,forging, minting, gilt inlay, etc..
Conclusions. Culture of Galicia-Volyn principality had greatachievements. She left on their own designs which impress with their skill andperfection. As part of the culture of Russia, it had significant differenceswere due to local conditions and cultural influences of neighbors.
Remember the date
1157 -construction of the Assumption Cathedral in Galich.
1160 -construction of the Assumption Cathedral in Vladimir-Volyn.
End XIII .-masonry building "tower-posts" to dawdle.
End XIII -Top of Article XIV .- flowering of art iconography.
Questions and Tasks
1. What featuresDevelopment of Culture of Galicia-Volyn principality?
2. Where inGalicia-Volyn principality could get an education?
3. Events whichperiod of history covering the "Galicia-Volyn chronicle"?
4. What ideologicalorientation "Galicia-Volyn chronicle"?
5. Namefamous architectural monuments of Galicia-Volyn principality. Which onessurvived to this day?
6. What's Newconstruction of defensive structures initiated Galician-Volyn masters?
7. What genresfine arts were developed in the Galicia-Volyn principality?
8. NameWell-known examples of fine art monuments of Galicia-Volynprincipality.
Think and answer
1. What featureschronicle in the Galicia-Volyn principality?
2. Identify featuresArchitecture Galicia-Volyn principality.
3. What kinds ofmonumental art were distributed in this era? Explain why?
4. Why frescopainting at the end of the XIII century. gradually replaced with temples design icon?
Perform the task
1. Describe one of the cultural monumentsGalicia-Volyn principality.
2. Make a plan for the story on "ArtGalicia-Volyn principality.
3. Find out the main features of the cultureGalicia-Volyn principality.
4. Identify cultural differencesKievan Rus and Galicia-Volyn principality. Reply submit as a table.
For the curious
In what proved to becultural identity of Galicia-Volyn principality?
Questions and tasks for generalization on"Galicia-Volyn state"
1. Make a list of princesGalicia-Volyn principality, indicating years of their rule.
2. Define chronologicalsequence of key events in history of Galicia-Volyn principality.
3. Explain the meaning of concepts andthe terms "arbitrary nobility", "Mongol-Tatar", "Golden Horde", "Goldenyoke, "" Dynasty ".
4. Make a historical portraitPrinces: Mstyslavych Roman Danylo Galician, Lev Danilovich, and George L.(Optional).
5. Canargued that the rule was Daniel Galician era of prosperityGalicia-Volyn principality? Justify your answer.
6. WhoGalician-Volyn prince took the title of King? With what purpose did they do that?Are they your goal?
7. Perform taskshistorical maps:
· Demonstrate to the Statesbordered Galicia-Volyn principality.
· Show on map boundariesDuchy: a) the period of its highest elevation, b) after the invasion of Batu Khan.
· Identify the city, which in varioustimes were the main residence (capital) Galician-Volyn princes.
· Show where heldDaniel Galician coronation.
Enter town,which were decisive battles in the history of Galicia-Volyn principality.
· Spend a threshold at which land was dividedGalicia-Volyn principality between Poland and Lithuania.
8. Why between neighborsconducted such an acute struggle for the Galician-Volyn heritage?
9. Fill in the table "Objectiveand subjective causes of death of Galicia-Volyn principality. Makeappropriate conclusions.
10. Give a detailed description of one of the cultural monuments of Galicia-Volynprincipality.
11. Fill in the table "Culture of Galicia-Volyn principality.
12. It is believed thatGalicia-Volyn principality of Kievan Rus became the heir. Tryargue this point.