§ 19. Death of Galicia-Volyn principality
Upon learning this paragraph, you'll learn:
· who were boardlast Galicia-Volyn prince;
· what were the causes of deathGalicia-Volyn principality;
· marked thanthe rule of Duke of Westminster in Volhynia;
· that historichas the Galicia-Volyn principality in the history of Ukraine and Europe.
The task to repeat
1. Whenformed Galicia-Volyn principality?
2. Byprince whose reign, it reached bloom?
3. Whatdomestic and foreign policy conducted by Daniel Galician?
4. NameDaniel Galician descendants.
5. WhyTop of the XIV century. Galicia-Volyn principality declined?
1. Board of George II Boleslav. Бoleslav Troydenovych sat on the Galician-Volyn throne inage fourteen. He accepted orthodoxy and became the last independentowner of the principality under the name Yuri Boleslav II (1325-1340 biennium).
Yuri II Boleslav.
Notwithstandinghis Polish origin, the prince led an active anti-Polish policy. To combatwith her he formed an alliance with Lithuania, married the daughter of Lithuanian PrinceGedimin Yevfimiyeyu. The second direction of its policy to counter it ubachav Tatarswhat formed an alliance with the Teutonic Order. For it was permanently lostBrest land, and Podlasie Lowlands.
Although externalpolitics prince had some success, strong support among the local nobility of hisBoard not found. Prince reproached for excessive support for foreign citizens -Czechs and Germans, conniving Catholic clergy that followed themprostuvalo to Russ and harassment of rights Volyn top.
To remove fromarbitrary power of boyars, George II attempted to reform the management systemDuchy. Thus, the Boyar Council included only those boyars whodirectly served the prince. Power on the ground, he handed his faithfulvicars (Palatine), who concentrated in the hands of administrative, judicial andmilitary power.
George II againresumed Galician Orthodox metropolitan. Metropolitan was Theodore.
However, fightingGeorge II boyars cost lives. In 1340 he was poisoned.
April 6, 1340Prince George came to Vladimir. The next day, on Friday, Vladimircaptain George Bald had a banquet in honor of Prince. During the banquet anyonepidsypav to knyazhynoyi cup of wine poison. She was so strong thatPrince died immediately. The perpetrators of the crime was never found.
Polish knight-XIIIXIV Art.
2. Fighting Poland, Hungary and Lithuania for landGalicia-Volyn principality. Sudden death of George IIdid not produce a new dynasty opportunity to establish itself in the Galicia-VolynPrincipality and Duchy land became prey to neighboring states. Back in 1339Poland and Hungary have agreed on joint action against the Galicia-Volyn principality.The death of the prince became a signal for invasion.
Someevidence, Yuri II BoleslavBefore his death acknowledged his successor King of Poland Casimir III(1333-1370 biennium). We do not know whether this was really, but in a few daysafter the death of the ruler of Galicia-Volyn Casimir III mastered lions, butkeep it failed, with strong resistance zustrinuvshy residents. In addition, the boyarsled DmitrymUncle (Dedkov) turned for help to Tatars. The result achievedcompromise Casimir III was forced to acknowledge the power of the local boyar DmitryDedka. Under the title of manager or old, that he led Rus Land, byEssentially, exercises, independent of Volyn prince LubartRecognizing awhile three neighboring vassal lords - Lubart, Casimir IIIand the then Hungarian King Louis (Lajos) Great. However, diplomaticGalician impostor talent is not long delivered the independence of Galicia. Onhis death in 1344-1345 he was able to Casimir III Rejected from territoriescontrolled uncle, Sanok earth, and in 1349 made a major campaign,capturing the Lions, Belz, Holm, Brest and Vladimir. His aggressive campaignKing called the Polish crusade against the schismatics-Orthodox andLithuanian-pagans. The following year, Vladimir, Brest and Belz andKholmian land succeeded Volyn prince Lubart, which had morereason to rule in Galicia-Volyn state. However, the Poles moved intonew offensive and were able to win back some ground. Finally in 1352 between Poland andLithuania, signed the truce: Galicia went to Poland and Volhynia withcities of Vladimir, Lutsk, Belz, Holm and Brest - to Lithuania. This divisionwas sealed "perpetual peace" in 1366 As a result, he increased the territoryPolish state at half time. But the struggle for Galicia not stopped.
From a letter of PopeBenedict XII to Krakow Roman Catholic Bishop (1341)
As shown inWe request that King (Casimir III, 1341), we recently learned thatwhen shyzmatskyy (Orthodox) Rusyn people killed with poisonBoleslaw, Prince of Russia, son of faithful parents and cousin relative mentionedKing and some other Christians who were obedient to this prince byhis life, then king, struck by this crime and seeking revenge for iniquityChristian faith, attacked with his army of Rus earth to win thispeople, who himself has inflicted too much damage ...
In carrying out itsorder, the king signed a contract with this monitor (Dmitry uncle), whooath testified that save for old age and people of all their ordinances, rights andcustoms. However, King expressed doubt whether he will act the same according to the willGod. So he asked us to welcome him released from this oath. Caringthe salvation of the soul and the king said to you having a special trust in God, weDiploma apostolic task to you our king sacked the government offalse oath to uphold the contract, the appropriate appointing him salvationpenance.
Inquiries to document
1. What Catholicchurch causes interference in the affairs of the Polish king of Galicia?
2. What yousee as the true goal of the Polish intervention?
3. What purposeCasimir III pursued to settle a deal with Dimitri's uncle?
4. Why Casimir IIIrefused to deal with Uncle?
5. As thisPope treated the situation?
On theselands of the Polish government immediately took a course to transform the Ukrainian lands onordinary province of the Polish law and administrative system. At the same timePolish government this power nasadzhuvav Catholicism and prevented developmentOrthodox religion. Already in 1361, it was established with Catholic archbishopriccenter in Lviv. In 1374 the Patriarch of Constantinople eliminated GalicianOrthodox metropolitan. At the end of the XIV century. She recovered, but in the early XVArt. again was eliminated.
Lithuanian soldiers. XIV Art.
After the death ofCasimir III of Poland by dynastic agreement was forced to hand over GaliciaHungary. Of Hungary "Galician Kingdom" was his own possessionKing Louis (Lajos) Hungarian, which he handed to his nephew -Prince Vladislav Opole Silesia. "Galician Kingdom" became a vassal statedependent on Hungary. However, Vladislav, who ruled in Galicia in 1372-1378,1385-1387 biennium, sought to get rid of dependence on Hungary. He created his ownmachine control, own coins minted with the emblem and even titled"Autocrat of Russia." To implement its plans Vladislav relied not onthe local Ukrainian population, and migrants: Poles, Germans, Hungarians;actively nasadzhuvav Catholicism. This policy made it uncertain authority, thatallowed to Poland after the death of Louis in 1387 again seize Galicia.Contributed to the seizure that the Queen of Poland was elected the youngest daughter of LouisJadwiga. Male Jadwiga and King of Poland became, provided Krevsk Union (1385City), Grand Duke of Lithuania Yahajlo. By signing the union, pledged Yahajlo "everconnect all their lands, Lithuanian and Russians, to the Kingdom of Poland. Thisway, Galicia nearly 400 years, came under Polish rule.
Queen Jadwiga andKing Jagiello.
J. Matejko.Baptism Lymtvy 1387
3. Volyn byBoard of Westminster. Liubard Hedyminovich (? - 1385) - son of Grand DukeLithuanian Gedimin. Took the Orthodox faith and married a daughter of Chee andVladimir-Volyn Prince Andrew Y. Chen-Buchoyu. Thisdynastic marriage after the death of brothers Andrew and Leo Yu received the EasternVolyn Lutsk as a son in law of deceased, and moved to these lands.
After the death of GeorgeBoleslaw II Liubard became the first candidate to Galician principality. (He wasuncle Boleslaw by women.) But, as already mentioned, the Polish kingCasimir III Peremyshlskuyu immediately took the earth and then mastered andLions. From this point of Westminster in Hedyminovycha plumages almost sorokorichnaCasimir controversy in possession of the Galician-Volyn princes. The fight was fought withvarying degrees of success. Thus, in 1349 Casimir took Volhynia, but when hedissolved the army, with his brother Lubart Keystutom that had a portionBrest land, displaced all military garrisons Poles Volyn,Holmskih Belzskyh land, then broke ground in Lviv and devastatedPolish border region. I am sure the actions of the Lithuanian princes contributed to thatThey enlisted the support of the Moscow Grand Prince Semen Ivanovich proud. With the consent of the latter, Liubard Hedyminovich (1349) took second marriage.This time his wife was the niece of Moscow prince's daughterRostov Duke Konstantin V. Ahafiya. But the war ondid not end. In 1352 after trekking Casimir Volga VolinParish received Yuri Narymuntovych, Holm - Yuri Danilovich, Brest -Keystut, Kobrin - Algirdas. Liubard tried to maintain independence Volhyniabut it was hard. In "Eternal peace" in 1366 remained only Lubart Luck.The remaining lands of Volhynia received as governor Alexander Koriyatovych Polish king.
But not Liubardput up. Using the death of Kazimierz and the presence at his funeralAlexander Koriyatovycha, he easily captured and destroyed Vladimir Polishlock. In 1382, after fierce fighting Liubard regained and Galicia. Butafter the death of Galicia Lubart regained Poles.
NotwithstandingWar grave and great failure, of Westminster day had special meaning to dawdle.He along with Keystutom was strongest with autonomous Lithuanian princes, and theywere two of RTA Olgerd. "Liubard - wrote Hrushevsky -preserved for Volyn exceptional situation: she was "quite apart world, notlike the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Liubard concerned with the development of trade, wasfounder defense brick castle in Lutsk, deceived the church, builtLubar city. And most importantly - by his ruling Volhynia remained Ruthenian (Ukrainian)land for nature.
4. The historic significance of Galicia-Volhyniastate. Galicia-Volhyniaprincipality played a very important role in the history of Ukrainian statehood.After the fall of Kyiv is Galicia-Volyn principality during the century afterMongol invasion ensured continuity and continuity ofthe state traditions of Ukrainian lands. It turned into a centerpolitical and economic life, which provided high developmentUkrainian lands.
Galicia-VolhyniaUkraine guarded principality of oppression and assimilation on the part of Lithuania,Hungary, Poland, the Golden Horde, which infringe the grace of Ukrainian lands.
Histies with Central and Western Europe helped on the WestCulture of the Ukrainian lands, while maintaining their own cultural tradition thathad a significant Byzantine influence.
Conclusions. Once in the Galicia-Volyn principalityinterrupted Romanovich dynasty, it began to rapidly deteriorate. The mainreasons for this were the nobility and self-aggression of neighboring countries - Poland,Hungary and Lithuania. Poisoning George II Boleslaw not allowed to establish itself a newdynasty. With the death of Prince between Poland, Hungary and Lithuania broke the bitterstruggle for the Galician-Volyn heritage. Finally seized Galicia Poland, andVolyn - Lithuania. In the Volyn Lithuania under the reign of Duke of Westminster kept its Ruthenian(Ukrainian) character, while in Galicia he mercilessly nyschyvsya.
Remember the date
1325-1340 biennium -Board of George II Boleslav.
1325-1385 biennium -Board of Westminster Hedyminovycha in Volhynia.
1340-1344 biennium -Board Dmitry boyar uncle in Galicia.
1349 - CaptureGalicia Polish king Casimir III.
1366 - EternalPeace between Lithuania and Poland. Division of Galicia-Volyn heritage between the twoStates: Galicia - Poland, Volhynia - Lithuania.
1372-1378,1385-1387 biennium - Vladislav Opole rule in Galicia.
1385 - KREVOunion.
1387 -Final installation of Polish authorities in Galicia.
Questions and Tasks
1. Who was the lastPrince of Galicia-Volyn principality?
2. What steps hechooses appropriate to consolidate his power?
3. Which countriesclaimed the land of Galicia-Volyn principality?
4. What wasresult of the struggle for the Galician-Volyn heritage?
5. Who isVladislav Opolsky?
6. What yearPoland finally consolidated its Galicia?
7. What historicalimportance of the Galicia-Volyn state?
Think and answer
1. WhatPolicy inconsistency George II Boleslaw?
2. Due toUncle Dmitri managed to save some time independence of Galicia?
3. What date canassume the existence of the end of Galicia-Volyn state?
4. What wasresult of the rule of Duke of Westminster Hedyminovycha in Volhynia?
5. DescribeVladislav Opole policy in Galicia.
6. What policyPoland held on the captured lands in Galicia?
7. Asunresolved dispute between Poland and Hungary in Galicia?
Perform the task
1. Make a timelinefight for the Galician-Volyn inheritance between Poland, Hungary and Lithuania.
2. Make a planstory entitled "Death of Galicia-Volyn principality.
3. Identify causesloss of Galicia-Volyn principality.
For the curious
Whether thereGalicia-Volyn principality chance in those conditions to maintain its independence? Hisjustify a response.