§ 18. Galicia-Volyn principality by Prince DanyloGalician and his successors
Upon learning this paragraph, you'll learn:
· when and under what circumstanceswas restored Galicia-Volyn principality, which was destroyedMongol invasion;
· composed as relationsbetween the Galicia-Volyn principality and the Golden Horde;
· that internal and externalpolicy conducted by Daniel Galician;
· that led to a gradualdecline of Galicia-Volyn principality and termination dynasty Romanovich.
The task to repeat
1. Whenand by whom it was formed Galicia-Volyn principality?
2. Inwhat year Daniel R. resumed parental heritage?
3. WhatBatu had implications for invasion Galicia-Volyn principality?
1. Restoration of Galicia-Volyn principality. Мonholo-Tatar invasion although substantial damage to Galicia and Volhynianevertheless had such catastrophic consequences, both for Pereyaslav, Kyiv andChernigov. This land does not even get into the direct dependence of the Horde.Cities and farm lands quickly recovered, but the unityGalicia-Volyn principality, which barely revived before the invasion, againbeen affected. Danilo Romanovich after returning again had to overcome resistance to arbitraryboyars and defend their right to the principality in the fight with the son of ChernihivPrince Michael Vsevolodovich Rostislavom.
In thisquandary Daniel showed his best as a statesman andpolicy. He first subdued the boyars who supported Rostislav. Then he wentand against the same applicant on his throne, which relied on military forceHungary and Poland. A decisive battle between opponents held August 17, 1245Yaroslav, during which Daniel along with his brother won a brilliant basilvictory.
It was one ofthe greatest battles in Russia in XIII century. In this battle Daniel showed great talentcommander. He placed the army so that deliberately weakened his centerposition. This enabled the battle to lure the Hungarian army and wifeRostislav flank attack under his excellency cavalry. During the battle fought Danielin the very thick and personally captured cavalry commander Hungarian troopsFilniya and broke it. The victory was complete. Were taken and profile enterprise commanderPolish troops Florian and Danilo many hostile boyars. OnlyRostislavom managed to escape. At first he hid in Poland, thenpermanently settled in Hungary.
Galician heavily armed rider
The victory atJaroslaw ended the long struggle for the restoration of unityGalicia-Volyn principality. Daniel decided once and for all eliminate boyaropposition. Many were executed boyars leaders.
2. The fight against Daniel GalicianMongol domination. Зmitsnyvshy itspower, Daniel begins to join forces Rus principalities by the CombatMongol rule.
The impetus fororganization fighting was required after the battle of Batu Yaroslav give himGalich. As the Galician chronicler, Danilo "sorroweth not had time to strengthentheir land fortresses and thought of his brother and went to Batu, saying:"I will not give pivotchyny his, but he'll go to Batu!" Before you go to the HordeDaniel left Vasylko governor of Volhynia, in a way to saveindependence at least Volyn lands. Arriving in Hanoi, Danilo despite theirexpectation was met very favorably. Batu courageous and full of respecthuman dignity. Although Daniel had to accept the supremacy of the Mongol Khanshe was quite restrained. Prince only had to provide auxiliary khantroops in his expeditions. But even this dependence obtyazhuvala Daniel. As thechronicler: "Ah, Tatar lyhishe disaster honor!"
At the cost of personalDaniel humiliation preserved the integrity of their nation, not dropped Tatarbaskakiv (governors tribute collectors) for their land, took a break forpreparation for armed struggle against the Horde.
Return of DanielKhan urged the rulers of Hungary, Poland and Lithuania to seek union with him andadjustment of all controversial issues. Hungarian king Bela the sign bindingUnion even gave his daughter's son Daniel Leo. And in his intentions Danielmajor allies saw no neighbors to the west and Rus princes, whoobtyazhuvala power Mongols. This was a great ally, Daniel PrinceVladimir-Suzdal Yaroslavych Andrew, younger brother of Alexander Nevsky.Andrew, who led the independent policy of the Horde, sealed an alliance with Daniel,marrying his daughter. However, this alliance could not save Russia fromMongol-Tatar domination. In Horde watched events in Rusprincipality and get ahead of ourselves for adverse developments causedan unexpected blow to Vladimir-Suzdal Principality. Andrew was forced toflee to Sweden.
Notwithstandingloss of an ally, Daniel is left of the intentions of the government to free the Horde.He continued to strengthen its authority and power of their own country. To this end,Daniel established a separate Galician metropolis, which had become the center of the churchlives of all Rus principalities. Metropolitan was appointed one of the closestofficers to Prince Cyril. Cyril was subsequently approved by thePatriarch of Constantinople. However, Metropolitan did not support the prince in hispolicy and later moved to Vladimir-Suzdal principality.
AttentionDaniel gave to build fortified cities, which according to the chronicle, have been bearing againstwicked Tatars. For the construction of new cities and settlements Daniel invited manymasters (especially gunsmiths) from Europe and Rus principalities: "they walked in the dayday. And young men, and masters of all the escaped (here) Did Tatars - Sidelnyk and bows,and sahaydachnyky, blacksmiths and iron and copper, and silver.
Preparing forcollision with the Mongols, Danilo reorganized the army. Prince heavily armed Mountedpereozbroyena wife was like a Western European knights. There wascreated light cavalry armed with bows and swords like the Mongols. Thisway, Prince borrowed all the best in military art of East and West.
On the eveopen clash Daniel're gonna lean on even though someallies. After lengthy negotiations, agreement was reached with the PopeInnocent IV. Pope in 1253 urged the Christians of Poland, the Czech Republic, Moravia, SerbiaPomerania and to crusade against the Mongols and sent to Danielroyal crown, hoping to subjugate the Orthodox metropolitanGalicia-Volyn principality. Daniel Galician without special celebrationscrowned in Dorohochyni.
Daniel Crown Galician.
Coronation Daniel Galician. Dorohochyn (modern type)
Coronation Danielwas an important event in the history of Ukraine. From that time Galicia-VolynDuchy was declared a separate state, successor of Kievan Rus.
Although Danielespecially not to rely on the assistance of the Pope, these developments accelerated itsperformance against the Horde.
The reason forspeech was the desire to conquer the prince his power Bolohivski land (areathe headwaters of the South Buh Teteriv Slutch), which formed part of the Horde afterinvasion. In 1254-1255 he was the prince's troops invaded the earth and Bolohivskoyiconquered it. There was an attempt to conquer his power Kyiv.
Meanwhile in the Hordea change of government. After the death of Batu Khan became the new Burke, who in responseDaniel sent the actions against him governor Kuremsu. However, his troopscould overcome the resistance bridge and Vladimir Luck. Kuremsa was forced to retreat inplain. It was the first success Rus princes against the Mongols.
Rock fortress Tustan Carpathians. Reconstruction MFAddress. The present view of its location.
Summer 1258Berke Khan directed to the Galicia-Volyn principality huge army led byBurundai experienced military leader, who decided to act by intimidation. Heasked Daniel, and basil to sign a confirmation of their obligations to the Hordetake part in a joint campaign against Lithuania. Brothers with no realopportunity to resist, agreed. Trip to Lithuania was held with the Mongolstortured and made a dismal impression on the population "of Russia, Lithuania andPoland. After the show of force Burundai said: "If you my myrnyky(Allies), throwing all its gardens. Confronting a new invasion force was notand declared a crusade never took place. In a sign of humility were dismantledstrengthening Danilova, Stizhka, Lviv, Kamenetz, Lutsk and Volodymyr - burnt.Only garrison Hill refused to obey the requirements of Tatars and repelled all their attemptstake the city. Enraged Burundai directed their anger in Poland, where didterrible devastation.
Daniel Galicianreceives envoys
Burundai actioncaused irreparable blow Galicia-Volyn state and destroyed all plansDaniel, who had to start all over. However, years and wounds received inbattles, given its effect: prince often ill and could not so effectively as in previousyears, to embody in their life plans.
AutumnalDaniel takes steps to rapprochement with Lithuania, the only real force that couldhelp Galicia-Volyn state in the fight against Mongol-Tatars. Forbinding Union oldest son Daniel was married to the daughter of Varna Lithuanian PrinceMindovg.
However, to realizeall plans and Daniel R. could not. In 1264 he died. In historyDaniel went under the nickname Galician, because all its activitiesmainly been associated with Galicia.
Monument Danilo Galician (Lviv).
The figure in the history of
Daniel Galicianwas one of the most famous princes, who scored his abilities in politics,Military affairs, administration of the state. In a hostile environment withoutsufficient support, he managed to tame the boyar opposition to restore unity anddefend the independence of the state that he inherited dostalasya and resistsuch a powerful enemy, as the Mongol-Tatars. Chronicler has aptlydescription of his activities: "(He was) a good prince, brave and wise, whoMany built gardens, and churches have set ... and brotherly love, he shined was withbrother basil.
3. Leo D. and Vladimir Vasylkovych. Оhow Daniel managed the country together with his brother, after his deathgovernor of Galicia-Volyn principality was Vasylko (1264-1270 biennium). Butpossession that were under the direct rule of Daniel, were dividedbetween his three sons - Leo, and Mstislav Shvarnom. Leo D. receivedGalich and Przemysl, Mstislav - Terebovlyanschynu, Shvarno - Belz, Holm, Dorohochyn,Black and Russ Chervensk city. After the death Vasylko Volyn succeeded by his sonVladimir Vasylkovych. However, both branches were common foreign Romanovichpolicies, especially concerning Lithuania, Poland and the Golden Horde.
Prince Leo and D..
Among allRomanovich most vigorous and determined governor, Prince Leo (1264-1308).He was one of the most remarkable politicians of the time in Eastern Europe, but notalways acted deliberately, consistently and in the national interest because of what gotnickname "rabid". The most absurd doings Lion, which had far-reachingconsequences, was poisoning him with envy in 1267 the former Lithuanian PrinceVoyshelka, who became a monk and gave the Lithuanian grand throneShvarnovi. These works, he harmed himself, lost the opportunity to takeLithuanian throne and made an uncertain situation Shvarna.
After deathShvarna Lithuanian nobility returned to power in Lithuania Lithuanian dynasty. Leo alsopossession of a subordinate's brother, becoming the most powerful among the brethren.
Most of thehis long rule Leo D. spent in almost continuous warfare withneighbors: Poland, Hungary, Lithuania, Yatviahy. He did not concede to the union abhorwith former enemies. Do not stop before the Mongol-Tatar invitation forjoint campaigns. The first such march in 1275 made a Lion In the followingyears following repeated raids on several occasions. They were accompanied by terriblerobbery and devastation caused condemnation and population.
In 1279 Leoutrutyvsya the struggle to land Krakow (Malopolska), where afterdeath of the prince is left successor. However, having no support among the localnobility, Lion was defeated. Angry failure, he decided to attach anythingto seize it. Prince became the object of attacks Lublin land that oncebelonged to his father. But here he was not lucky. Lublin was under hispower only a few years. In addition, Leo has lost the Lowlands, which fell underdirect power temnyky leg, which by the end of the century played a significant rolein the history of the Golden Horde. The only more or less immediate success was PrinceHungary to reconquer parts of the center in Transcarpathia Mukachevo.
Over the yearsdisorderly reign of Leo declined his possession. In the annals nomention of his activities with the economic development of their lands.
In fullLeo was the antithesis of Prince Vladimir Volhynia Vasylkovych (1269-1289 biennium).His small principality he made prosperous. Developed, cities, tradeand handicrafts. With the assistance of the prince was conducted widespread construction of churches, monasteries,developed chronicle. And not by chance that since the fourteenth century. centerGalicia-Volyn Rus moved to Vladimir-Volyn.
During 1279 inChronicle contained a story about how "sent ambassadors to YatviahyVladimir is a saying: 'Lord our Prince Vladimir! We arrived to you fromYatvyags all, hoping for God and for your health. Sir, we do not Pomors[Famine], help us prohoduvatysya. Vladimir listened to the supplications andsent them grain, though in his possession was sutuzhno with bread. The value of thisstories can not be overstated, since nearly three centuries, Russia and fought Yatviahyeach other. Now yatvyazki princes of the hard moment to seek helpPrince of the land, which suffered most from their raids.
Coat of arms of Vladimir-Volyn. XIV Art.
At that timeVladimir world revered as a wise and just ruler. In foreignpolicies he favored diplomacy, not war and avoided when otherwiseestablish the case was impossible.
His activeVladimir activity had to combine the fight against serious illness thatsteadily depriving him of important forces (the prince in his youth had prevailed in the fightbear or boar). But in spite of illness, the Prince was engaged to the lastpublic affairs.
Vladimir wasone of some princes, of which the record has left us a sketch:"This noble prince Vladimir. He was tall. Wide in the shoulders,beautiful face curly hair had. Beard he Stryga, hands and feet in itwere good, his voice low. He interpreted the literary writing, because he was bigphilosopher, gentle, humble, nezlobnyy, true.
After the death ofVladimir his land by will inherit Mstislav Danilovich. He pryluchyvVolyn Lutsk to his principality and thus concentrated in the handsgreat economic and military potential. It turned him on restraininginflammatory effect for Leo, who was forced to reckon with the interests of his brother.
Mstislav showeditself as a peaceful and prudent policies. He was respected neighboring rulers, andMazowiecki prince even pleaded Mstislav vassal.
4. Board of Yuri I. Death Andrew and Leo II. Оlast one decade of Romanovich difficult to reproduce due to lack ofsources, and those that exist provide different information. Even the date of the rule of Dukedo not match.
After the death ofMstislav Leo and most of Galicia and Volhynia inherited and George L. (1301-1308(1314-1315) years).
Boyhood Georgewere in constant wars and campaigns in which he participated with hisfather. However, years of self rule he spent mostly in peace.George moved his capital from Hill to Vladimir, thereby re-connectingVolyn 'and Galich, but it has been quite different Galicia-Volyn principality thanduring Daniel Galician. George was forced to yield and Lithuania DorohochynomBrest, Poland - Lublin and Western Galicia. However, using weakerGolden Horde, the result of internecine fighting resumed power over the Lowlands,expanding its borders up to the mouth of the Dniester and Southern Bug, and retiredsuperiority of the Mongol-Tatars. He established friendly relations with Poland andTeutonic Order.
Prince George L. And.
George has madeformation of a separate Galician Orthodox Metropolis (1303), therebystrengthening its authority and independence of the principality. Galician Metropolitanate includeda Galician, Volyn, Lutsk, Przemysl, Turovskaya, Kholmskbishops that is held most populated of Ukrainian territory. Suchmove was dictated by an event that occurred in 1299, when the Metropolitan of KyivAll Russia and Moscow moved to the ground. First Metropolitan Chee waslikely Nifont Greek, and the second - Ukrainian Peter, who later under pressurethe Patriarch of Constantinople moved to Vladimir-on-Klyaz'ma.
Seal and George L..
As thePolish chronicler Jan Dlugosh, George, was "the man deftly and noble, generousfor clergymen. In his reign Russia enjoyed peace andenormous wealth.
After the death of George andpossession of Galicia-Volyn land joined by his sons Andrew and Leo II(1308-1323 biennium), which tytuluvalysya "God's mercy all the princes of Rus Land, Galiciaand Lodomeria. His policies have sought to fight for the finaldismissal from power and aggressive attacks Horde Lithuanian Prince Gedimin.To implement its plans backed rulers allied relations with Polandand the Teutonic Order. Between the years 1316-1320 and in 1323 were able to repelTatar attacks and kept the offensive Lithuanians. However, during one of the battlesunknown circumstances they died, thus ending the family Romanovich.
Princes Andrew and Leo II
According to oneversions, in 1323 Duke of Lithuania Gedimin paid trip to Kyiv, where rulesPrince Stanislaw - henchman Galician prince. Nearby Kyiv, on the river Irpinarmy Gedimin converges with wife of Prince Leo, Andrew and Stanislaus, as well asPereyaslav Prince Oleg, Bryansk Prince Svyatoslav and Basil. DuringBattle of the Galician-Volyn and Pereyaslavs'kyi princes were killed, others fled toCoat. After this siege took Gedimin Kyiv, which was kept for two months.Realizing that care enough to wait, have recognized the supremacy of Kiev Gedimin. Butsoon Mongol Tatars regained power over Kyiv.
According to another withversions, to have died during the reflection of another attack the Mongol-Tatars.
Candidates forheritage people lacked. Between 1324-1325 he was as Galician andVolyn rulers occasionally mentioned two brothers, princes of Silesiaallegedly invited the boyars, and in early 1325 the prince took the throne electedVolyn Boyars BoleslavTroydenovych, Son of Prince Mazowiecki and sisters slept RomanovichMaria Yu.
Conclusions. Second half XIII - XIV century .- Top extremelyimportant period in the history of Galicia-Volyn principality. During this timePrincipality evolved from a high elevation during the reign of DanielGalician to decline when it became the object of attacks neighboring countries. Suchhistorical path of the principality was due to various reasons, both externaland internal. Constant external danger, and sometimes unwise policyrulers led to that outcome.
Remember the date
August 17, 1245R. - Battle of Yaroslav.
1253 -Daniel Galician coronation.
1254-1259 biennium -Mongol-Tatar raids led Kuremsy and Burundai.
1301-1308 biennium -George L. Board.
1303 -creating a separate Galician Orthodox metropolitan.
1323 - deathPrinces Andrew and the Lion II, The last of the dynasty Romanovich.
Questions and Tasks
1. What statesought to seize the land of Galicia-Volyn principality?
2. Who won theBattle of Yaroslav?
3. When heldDaniel Galician journey to the Horde?
4. NameDaniel Galician major victory.
5. What resultedMongol-Tatar raids led Kuremsy and Burundai on earthGalicia-Volyn principality?
6. Which city is perpetuatedLev Danilovich name?
7. What internalpolicy conducted by George and L.?
8. As interruptedRomanovich dynasty in the Galicia-Volyn principality?
Think and answer
1. What wasstate of Galicia-Volyn state after Batyyevoyi invasion?
2. How consistedDaniel Galician relationship with the Golden Horde?
3. DescribeDaniel Galician foreign policy. Why he took the royal crown ofPope?
4. Who was the descendantDaniel Galician Galician-Volyn on the throne?
5. What wasdue to the formation of a separate Galician Orthodox Metropolis in 1303?
6. Why declinedGalicia-Volyn principality?
Perform the task
1. Explain the wordsDaniel Galician: "Ah, Tatar lyhishe disaster honor!"
2. Foldchronology of Grand Prince of Galicia-Volyn principality from a dynastyRomanovich.
3. Completecomparative table "Yaroslav Osmomysl, Roman Danylo and MstyslavychGalician.
4. Completecomparative table of "Board of Galician and Daniel George and L..
And George L.
5. Followchange the foreign policy of the Galician-Volyn prince from DanielGalician.
For the curious
1. Would you describeDaniel Galician successful prince? His response arguments.
2. EstimateLion of Kuchma. Whether it was a reasonable policy?