§ 17. Mongol-Tatar invasion. Formation of the Golden Horde (textbook)

§ 17. Mongol-Tatar invasion.Formation of the Golden Horde

Upon learning this paragraph, you'll learn:

·        during the firstmarch Tatars to Russia and what is the essence of the tragedy on the river Kalka;

·        whatMongol invasion and the consequences thereof;

·        formed as GoldHorde.

 

The task to repeat

1.   Whatprincipalities existed in the Ukrainian lands before the Mongol-Tatarinvasion?

2.   Whatof the principality was the most powerful?

3.   Whatland owned in 1239 Daniel R.?

 

1.   FirstMongol campaign in Russia. Tragedy on the river Kalka. In the early thirteenth century. in the Mongolian steppe under the rule of Genghis Khan emergedpowerful state which, as you already know the course of world history, for1207-1222 he conquered southern Siberia, northern China, central Asia andTranscaucasia.

At the end of the decade XIIIArt. Mongol khans began preparing for the invasion of the Caspian andBlack Sea steppes, which dominated the main enemies of the Mongols - Kuman. Forfinding the way to the invasion through the Caucasus was sent 30000tharmy led by experienced commanders of Genghis Khan and SubedeyaJebe.

 

Subedey

 

In 1222 Mongol armyPolovtsian suddenly overcome Caucasus Mountains and appeared in them in the rear.Polovtsian khans, gathering strength, gave the Mongols to fight the river SeverskyDonets, but failed. Then the Mongols went to the Crimea, where capturedVenetian fortress of Sudak.

Meanwhile, father of Prince GalicianMstislav prosperous polovtsi Kotyak Khan appealed for help to the RussiansPrinces: "If you do not help us, we will now cut down, and you tomorrowthrust. Mstislav devoted much effort to unite Rus princes foragainst the Mongols. At the congress of princes in Kiev was decided to give the Mongols in the battlePolovtsi plains.

 

Interesting Facts

Ukrainian sources give a different versionevents. Thus, when the Mongols were able Caucasus Mountains, they met with the Alans, whichlived in the North Caucasus. Alans turned for help to Polovtsian. Whencombined army and Alan Polovtsian "converges together with an army of Mongols,none of them remained the winner. On the eve of a new battle Mongols bribedPolovtsi khans, and they betrayed Alanya. But the payoff for treason was cruel.The Mongols, defeated Alan, suddenly attacked the Polovtsian, killing all whooccurred in their way, taking all kinds of good two times more thangave Polovtsy for treason. When Kotyak Khan appealed to Mstislav prosperous, heof course, silent about his treachery.

 

In the campaign against the Mongols wereKyiv, Galician, Volyn, Chernihiv, Smolensk, Kursk,trubchevskyy Putyvl's'kyi and princes. Only the Prince of Vladimir-Suzdalrefused to march. In mid-April 1223 consolidated army of RussiansPrinces and Polovtsian, which was 50-60 thousand soldiers gathered on the island of Khortytsyathat on the Dnieper. The Mongols learned of it, sent to the ambassadors of the princes of Rusproposal to abandon the campaign because they were required only Kuman. Butrulers rejected their offer, besides killing the Mongol ambassadors.

May 23, 1223 United armymoving towards the Mongols. Already the first skirmishes that took place with littleMongol units, which perehanyav cattle, experience has shown the enemy andnelehkist further combat. But blinded success Rus princeslost vigilance.

Battle of the Kalka River.

 

May 31 (according to other sources -16 June) 1223 main forces of the Rus-Polovtsian army and the Mongolsmet at the Kalka River (now Kal'chyk, confluent Kalmius that catches theAzov Sea).

First Ruthenian army Polovets'keMongols forced to leave the left bank of river. In the decisive moment of the battle betweenprinces, sparked disagreement. Mstislav prosperous would not share with anyoneglory and entered into battle without the approval of the other princes. So, it racks inDanylo Romanovich (Galician) and Kuman crossed and Kalkaattacked the Mongols, who under attack heavily armed combatants wereretreat. But Kuman not stand the Mongolian retaliation ranhelter-skelter, unosyachy disarray in the ranks of Russians wives. During the battle was hurt Danyloin the chest, but still continued to manage their shelves. Prince was able toorganized to withdraw from the battle, survived the Mongols, who pursued theirthree days, with minor losses and go home.

 

Mongolia in the campaign

 

When it became clear that the shelvesMstislav prosperous and Kuman failed, other princes never went into battle,to break it to their advantage. It gave the Mongols to break the Russians shelvesalone. Strongest resisted large Kyiv prince Mstislav, who ustyhbuild a fortified camp. Mongols three days trying to capture him, but theirattempts were unsuccessful. Then they broke cunning resistance. Mstislav succumbedpromise that the Mongols besieged released and shed their blood in exchange forredemption. But soon the Russians were the princes of weapons, the Mongols' people posikly andpodavyly princes, putting on the board. But most sat on top pyruvaty.

 

Attack of the Mongolian cavalry (modern reconstruction)

 

During the battle of Russians Kaltsiwife suffered significant losses: death of six princes, only every tenth soldierreturned unharmed. As the Chronicle, "Rus princes suffered such a defeat,that had never been never.

Besides loss King-wives, the firstmeeting with the Mongols did not impact on the internal development of Russia.The Mongol army, destroying several small towns Podniprov'ya,back to their steppes. Russia still remained fragmented andrulers - do internecine struggle.

 

2.   Mongol-Tatarinvasion of the north-eastern principality. After a decadebreak in 1235 the Mongols began to prepare for aggressive campaigns in the West.According to Iranian sources, the descendants of Genghis Khan, "reaching general agreementRussians went to war. " A large march headed west Batu Khan (Batu).Mongolian army was well trained and disciplined. Its foundation washeavy cavalry. The army also included groups of conquered tribes (one of themTatars were - that's why Russians chroniclers called it the Mongol army).The Mongol army also had a large number of different throwing and batteringmachines, which took care of Chinese engineers.

Batu

 

After the defeat of Volga Bulgariathe first blow at the beginning of winter the Mongols in 1237 took place in Ryazan principality.Batu sent it to the Ryazan Prince George and Oleg ambassadors demanded that hegave a tithe - a tenth of people, assets and weapons. The princes refusedfulfill their conditions. Without support, Ryazan princes began to actindependently. Prince's wife in a desperate battle on the border met the enemyprincipality, but was zdolana. Then the Mongols were besieged Ryazan, whichresisted for six days. The Mongol army, Crashing the city didbrutal carnage nyschachy everything in its path. As a result, the princes and theirfamily died, the city was destroyed completely. However ryazantsi not stop the resistance.A detachment of magistrates Yevpatiya Kolovrat long strikes inflicted significant Mongolsmaking rapid inroads.

 

Vladimir Assault

 

Next was the turn of Vladimir-Suzdalprincipality, which at that time had the strongest army of Russians among the principalities. Butand it could not stand before the Mongol invasion. Fifteen citiesprincipalities were captured and burned as much of their population wasdestroyed or captured. Prince George Vsevolodovich was never able to becomeMongolian way of promotion. The army, which gathered the Prince was suddenlyMongols captured the camp on the river Sita and destroyed along with the Grand Duke.

Then the Mongols returned tosteppes in the south. On the road in late March 1238 the main force of Mongolscame to a small city of Chernihiv Kozelsk. For seven weeks, Batutry to break the resistance of its inhabitants. It was only after the Mongolspidvezly siege machines, they managed to get Kozelsk. Last Defendersthe city made a bold move desperately. At night they come out of the burning cityand vynyschyvshy four thousand Mongols and siege machines, all are dead. Bydesperate resistance to the Mongols Kozelsk called "wicked city", and the entire populationdestroyed.

In 1238 Batu defeated andPolovtsian khan Kotyaku, after which he and his troop went to Hungary.

 

3.   FallPereyaslavsky and principalities of Chernigov. Winter 1239Mongols continued their march Rus principalities. This time it wasPereyaslavsky against principalities and Chernihiv. Having won the defensiveline against nomads on the border Pereyaslavl principality, the Mongols cameto a capital city. Pereyaslav had strong fortifications. In addition, the defense of the cityenhance water barriers surrounding the city - the river Trubizh and Alta and ditchbetween them. Led the defense of the Bishop Simeon. Despite the desperate resistance,March 3, 1239 the city fell. According to the Chronicle, the enemy took the city "spearknocked it all, and the Church of Archangel Michael shattered ... And BishopReverend Simeon, they killed him. "

In autumn 1239 the Mongols to pidstupylyChernihiv. Chernigov Prince Mstislav Hlibovychi gave battle under the walls of the Mongolscity. In the fierce battle "was defeated by Mstislav, and many of his soldierswas beaten. Prince with the rest of his wife was forced to flee. October 18enemies invaded the city, looted and burned it. Then the Mongols destroyedDeaf, Putivl, Whirlpool, Rylsk and other cities.

At the end, the Mongol army approachedand to Kyiv, but decided to avoid his attack and departed the plain.

That same year, the Mongols made goodhike in the Crimea, conquered the eastern part and filled tribute to the great cityPike.

 

4.   DefenseKyiv. Mongol-Tatar invasion of Galicia-Volyn state. In 1240 Batyyeva invasion has come to Galicia-Volyn principality,just been united under the rule of Daniel Romanovich (Galician). Just beforeMongol offensive possessions to Daniel was joined Kyiv, which is controlledDmitry was commissioned captain, brave and talented military leader.

Sturm Kyiv.

 

Kiyani, feeling that they willresist the Mongols already hazyaynuvaly other principalities, city preparedto the siege. They restored the city walls and ramparts that were the largest among citiesEastern Europe.

In early summer on the left bankDnieper is a great reconnaissance squadron, which sent messengers to the citywith the offer to surrender, but Kiev rejected this proposal. Then afterthorough preparation in late summer 1240 with a huge Mongol armysouth of the border in vderlosya Kiev principality. The first made a hitgarrison fortress city along the Ross River, which Kyiv shielded from attacksnomads. All 23 fortress after fierce resistance were completely destroyed by the Mongols.Then the same fate befell the city, directly covering Kyiv: Vitychiv,Basil, Belgorod and others.

September 5, 1240 went to the Batuwalls of the city and began his siege.

The fight for the city was extremelyviolent and bloody. Only after Batu learned that the weakestplace in the defense of Kyiv is around Lyadsky gate, the Mongols couldreverse the course of events in their favor. Near the door was concentratedthe bulk of battering machines, which "continually beaten day and night. After 19November in the city walls were gaps. The Mongols went on to assault. In the firstday, they were able to master the walls and axis of Yaroslav, but further progresscould not. Taking advantage of a break, Kiev created a new line of defense alongfortifications of the city of Vladimir. December 6 Mongols broke through the fortifications in the areaSophia Gate (so called Batu) and come to the lastboundary defense of the city that was erected near the church tithes defenders.Latest defenders do desperate resistance, but again applied Batu Siegemachine. At their punches stone walls could not stand the church tithes andzavalylysya, buried under the debris of the last defenders. In the hands of the MongolsDmitri got injured captain, whom they gave a sign of respect for life.

Tatars are captured from Galicia

 

Documents tell

The Italian traveler Plano Carpini, where about visitingKyiv in 1246

"When we were driving through their land, wefound the head and bones of countless dead people lying on the field, becausethis city was quite large and very crowded, but now it is reduced almostnothing, there is barely 200 houses, and people there kept them in the most difficultslavery. (The invasion of the city had 9 thousand yards, and lived in it 50 thousand people).

Inquiries to document

1.    In how many years after the Mongol invasion messengerPope's visit to Kyiv?

2.    What he saw a picture of desolation?

3.    What were the consequences of invasion to Kyiv?

 

Ruins of church tithes.

 

Getting Kyiv Khan opened the waythe West. Overcome resistance in the line of fortifications along the upper river TeterivHoryn, happened, at the beginning of 1241 the Mongols invaded in Volyn, towardsVladimir-Volyn. Suddenly, the Mongols themselves faced with strongresistance cities and castles Danyliv Kremenets. Realizing that the siege will lastlong time, and access will bring great losses, Batu changed tactics. Departing fromimpregnable castles, he divided his army into several strong forces whichspread across the lands of Galicia and Volyn, nyschachy everything in its path. The mainBatu forces took siege Mykolaiv. The fight for the city wasbloody - it boronylosya to the last. The last centers of resistance werestone church, which remained after the withdrawal of enemy filled with corpses ofwhich is evident from archaeological research. Similarly, persistently defended themselves and othersDuchy of city - Zvenigorod, Galich, Rajko, Izyaslav more. Only newly-builtand strongly fortified Hill and mountain fortress repelled the attacks of enemies.

While the Mongols destroyed the earthGalicia-Volyn principality, Prince Danilo Galician unsuccessfully triedbow to the joint struggle against the Mongol rulers of Hungary and Poland.Last hoped that the invasion of their pass, but the Mongols, having won the Carpathianpasses, gave up the border of Hungary and Poland, which continued their march toAdriatic Sea, causing the Hungarians and Poles worst.

In1242 Mongols returned to the Black Sea region and Pre-Caspian steppes, wherefounded their own state Golden Horde. The reason for the return of the deathmain Mongol Khan Uhedeya, but the reasons were far more serious:Batu did not have sufficient strength to hold under all the conquered nations of Easternand Central Europe.

RusCentral European nations and their heroic resistance rescued Western Europe fromMongol invasion.

 

5.   Consequences of the Mongol-Tatar invasion. НHordes of collateral was not the usual foray nomads who previouslyhad to endure the Kievan Rus. The ruling Mongolian elite sought notonly to enrich themselves by plunder and devastation, and put under hisdependence of the principality, include them in their empire, which ruled the descendantsGenghis Khan, and receive regular income from them.

Implicationsinvasions were disastrous for Ruthenian principalities. Of the 74 towns of the formerKievan Rus was ravaged 49. 14 of them have not revived, and 15 eventuallyturned into a village. In the first 50 years of Mongol domination was notbuilt any new city, and the level of pre-Mongolian Stone Constructionwas achieved only after a hundred years. Collapsed a number of craft specialties,was lost secrets of the jewelry (enamel, grain, patina).Some areas znelyudnily, reduced cultivation area, trade declined.Mongol-Tatar invasion also led to significant demographic losses weredestroyed many of the Ruthenian elite.

Despitethe following consequences of invasion is not stopped broke states. Graduallypopulation of the city and revived the economy. After the defeat of Mongoltroops on the blue waters in 1363 Ukrainian lands were freed from theirdomination.

 

6.   FormationGolden Horde. Mongol rule in Ukrainian lands. AfterBatyyevoyi invasion Ukrainian lands of Kyiv, Chernihiv-Sivershchyna, Pereyaslavcame under the rule of the Golden Horde. The beginnings of this country date back 1242-1243 years,when, returning from a raid, Batu settled in the Caspian andBlack Sea steppes, near the delta where the Volga founded the capital -Town Barn (translated - Palace). First Golden Horde was partMongol Empire, which arose as a result of Mongol conquest. CapitalEmpire was the city of Karakorum (in present-day Mongolia), where he wasgreat khan. In 60-ies of the XIII century. Golden Horde freed from the powerkarakorumskyh khans.

In subduedlands of the Mongols demanded that people "give them a tenth of the total - asfrom people and from the property. In addition, the Mongols gathered strips (a gift fromplow), duty Podvirna (a gift from the court), food (transportation and maintenanceMongol ambassadors). To determine the size of revenues from taxes and extortion ofMongols conquered lands and carried out censuses of the property. The first suchcensus took place in Southern Russia at the turn of 1245-1246 he was also from50's of the XIII century. Within the territories of the Ukrainian lands Mongols implementbaskaksku system. It included the appointment baskakiv (governors) to certainterritory. Baskaky with military detachment, going round the possession, collectedtribute and supervised over their territories. To strengthen governmentbaskakiv created special fortified settlements. In the land where the Mongolspreserved princely power, the prince himself had to collect tribute and send it toOrdu. Prince also had to get a shortcut - the permission to reign in their possessions.

ToGolden rule features can be named what the Russians landwere not directly included in the Golden Horde (with some exceptions).Also in Russia there was no permanent administrative apparatusconquerors. In addition, the Mongols tolerant attitude toward Christianity andOrthodox clergy.

DominationMongols in the Ukrainian lands also considerable human and material losses hadconsequence and "zneknyazhennya" certain lands. Thus, the principality was Pereyaslavskoeeliminated, and his land fell under the direct authority of Mongol-Tatars.Kyiv Principality almost all the second half of the XIII - XIV century beginning. tooremained without a prince. Only in the early 30's of the fourteenth century. record ofthere mention of Kiev princes. In Chernihiv-Sivers'kyi land in the firstyears after the invasion Olhovychs still held power. After the death of Michael in the HordeVsevolodovych, which refused to honor the Mongolian heathen idols, they alsonull power. Constant attacks, abuse and other problems baskakivled to significant land znelyudnennya Pereyaslav and Chernigov. GraduallyChernihiv center moved to Bryansk city, which at the end of the XIII century.fell under the rule of princes of Smolensk. Descendants Olhovychs could onlyfoothold in the small autonomous principality, which were located in the upperOka River. It faces numerous princely "Verkhovsky" classes: Novosylski,Odoyivski, Vorotynski, Masalski, Mezetski, Obolensky, etc..

Ivanov. Baskaky.

 

Thus,actually Mongols destroyed Kiev, and Chernigov Pereyaslavskoe-Sivers'kprincipality. Within these lands faced the Mongol-Tatar province - "Darkness". Earthsouth of Kyiv were called Tatar land, and then Podolia. Onlived in these lands as the Mongol-Tatar people, and conquered.

 

Conclusions. In 1237-1241 he was the Ruthenian principality suffered devastatingMongol-Tatar invasion. Ruthenian principality, acting separately, were doomed todeath. However, the heroic resistance of Russia blew aggressive fervor Mongols.After settling in the plains, the Mongols established the Golden Horde state that was partthe mighty Mongol Empire. Ruthenian principality came under longMongol-Tatar domination.

Mongol-Tatarinvasion was a turning point in the history of Rus principalities. Mongolrule delayed and changed their further development.

 

Remember the date

May 31, 1223by - Battle of Kalka River.

1237-1241 biennium -Mongol invasion of Rus.

1239 -Mongols devastation Pereiaslav and Chernigov lands.

End of November- Beginning in December 1240 - Defence of Kyiv.

1240-1241 biennium -Mongol-Tatar devastation of Kiev and Galicia-Volyn principality.

 

Questions and Tasks

Check yourself

1.    When firstMongols were in Russia?

2.    What wereresults of the Battle of Kalka River?

3.    What Principalityfirst to face Batyyevoyi invasion?

4.    When the MongolsPereyaslav destroyed and Chernigov?

5.    Spread the worddefense and the fall of Kyiv.

6.    What changedMongols in tactics, moving on lands of Galicia and Volhynia?

7.    What yearfaced the Golden Horde?

Think and answer

1.    Why Russiansprincipalities were defeated by the Mongols?

2.    What wereconsequences of the Mongol-Tatar invasion?

3.    As manifestedMongol-Tatar domination of the lands of the South-West of Russia?

Perform the task

1.    Identifyterms "invasion", "label", "baskak", "Golden Horde".

2.    Prove thatstruggle residents of Kiev and Galicia-Volyn principality was heroiccharacter.

3.    Foldchronology of events Mongol invasion of Rus lands.

For the curious

1.    Is committed people and people of other cities of Russia to the lastdefend their city? His response arguments.

2.    What differed from Polovtsian raids Mongol-Tatar invasion? What was notleast three reasons that made the Mongols more dangerous opponents.