Subject IV. Galicia-Volyn state
§ 16. Formation of Galicia-Volhynia State
Upon learning this paragraph, you'll learn:
· how and why and GalicianVolyn principality united into one state;
· what is the role of RomanMstyslavych in the history of Ukraine;
· why the children of RomanMstyslavych had to lead a long and bitter struggle for paternal inheritance.
The task to repeat
1. Thatthis political fragmentation?
2. Whenfaced Galician and Volyn principality?
3. Whatwere differences between the two principalities?
1. Association of Volyn and Galicianprincipalities. У mid-XII century. the Galician Principality againbroke the fight between Prince and the boyars. Boyars, which enriched and strengthenedin previous years, seemed burdensome strong power prince, so they tried toin any way weaken it. Boyars did not refuse help from strangers. Thisstruggle resulted in the weakening Galician Rostyslavychiv dynasty. Shelast representative of Vladimir (1187-1198 biennium), son Yaroslav Osmomysl,conflict with the boyars became more and more widespread, as Vladimir took the throneby the boyars, who broke his oath to recognize Prince Oleg. Vladimirwas not that their ulashtovuvav, he writes record, "did not like the thoughts oftheir men ", ie not consulted with them on their cases. Moreover, the prince wasprone to drunkenness and debauchery. Boyars organized a rebellion against him andPrince was forced to seek rescue in Hungary. But the Hungarian king imprisonedVladimir and Galich capturing, planted there knyazhyty her son. However, powerForeigners did not work Galician, and they raised a rebellion against them, invitingon the Galician throne is Prince Roman Mstyslavych Volyn, the son of JohnBerladnyka Rostislav. Meanwhile, Vladimir was able to escape from captivity to the emperorHoly Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa and that helped restore hispower in Galich in exchange for silver 2000 USD annually. Further BoardVladimir little different from previous, but he already hadmend relations with the boyars.
DiesVladimir dynasty ended Galician princes, because the children were in Princehostage in the Hungarian king, besides their mother did not belong to the princelykind.
UsingVladimir's death in 1199 came immediately to Galic army VolynPrince Roman Mstyslavych (1173-1205), who was one of the candidates forGalician throne.
Roman I of Kiev receives ambassadors.
Seizing Galich,Roman has attached to its new ownership Volyn. Thus wasGalician Association and Volyn principalities into a single Galicia-Volynstate. This merger was a great event of historic importance, as there was aPrincipality, which became a claim to land center for SouthwestRussia, ie the Ukrainian lands.
The emergence and raisingGalicia-Volyn principality favored geographical position. Itsituated at the crossroads of important trade routes and it was difficult to servefor nomads' raids. Remoteness from Kyiv weakened dependencecentral government. Moreover, becoming the only principality, Galicia and Volhyniacould join forces to fight the aggression of neighboring Poland and Hungary,and later the Mongol invasion and attack the Crusaders.
On the rise of Galicia-VolynPrincipality energetic influence policy Mstyslavych Prince Roman and DanielRomanovich (Galician), and the existence of rich deposits of salt, fertile land,advanced crafts promoted trade and economic growth of theselands.
2. Galicia-Volyn principality by RomanMstyslavych. Нfig principalitythrough the activities of Roman Mstyslavych almost immediately gained prestige amongRus princes, and among neighbors.
Roman I of Kievwas brave, steadfast and resolute man. He always reached the goal.Since my youth plunged into the vortex of political struggle. In 1168, becomingPrince of Novgorod, Roman, along with his father, Prince of Volyn Mstislavcould deter encroachment on their land of Vladimir-Suzdal Prince AndrewBogolyubsky. After his father died in 1173 Roman I of Kiev took Volhyniathrone and defended their right to it.
Seizing Galich,Roman moved his residence there. For the consolidation of his power, he refusedthe promise given to the boyars, and those who were annoyed his actions severelydealt. As a result, many boyars were executed and some were forcedflee. Justifying its actions, Roman said: "Not pochavyvshy beeshoney nayishsya not. After this massacre the rest of the boyars did not dareoppose it. Evidence of strengthening his power was that the chroniclerRoman calls the "autocrat of All Russia." This title has been translated from Greektitle of the Byzantine emperors as avtokrator.
RomanMstyslavych credited with developing the project "good order" in Russia. Heproposed to end the interpersonal, which weaken the state and make iteasy prey for Polovtsian. The main condition of "good order" was that inthe death of Grand Duke his successor had to choose six most powerfulPrinces: Galician, Suzdal, Chernigov, Smolensk, Polotsk andRyazan. The princes also had to commit themselves not to attack oneother, and in violation of this condition all have to side with the weak.To prevent fragmentation of land-portions of principalities, Prince Roman proposed transferthrone eldest son, not divide among all.
For discussionthese proposals to convene Congress princes. But all the princes under differentpretexts refused, and Vladimir-Suzdal prince Vsevolod said he did notwants to break old habits.
For furtherstrengthening of the state I of Kiev Roman expanded its boundaries by organizingcampaigns against the Lithuanians, Polovtsian, Poles. As noted in the Chronicle, Roman"Odoliv all pagan nations, the wisdom mind Holding Commandments. AfterHe rushed for bad, like a lion, the same angry was like Lynx, passed ...their land, as the eagle, and was brave as a tour, because he zealously followed hisMonomakh ancestor ... "comes against the Lithuanians were accompanied by a forcibletaming them to farming.
His messengers andmerchants were in Constantinople, Germany, Poland and Hungary. Itpossessions sought asylum Byzantine emperor Alex Angel III, which in 1204he was banished from Constantinople by crusaders.
Important inPrince annexation policy was to seize him in 1202 in Kyiv. Kiyaniwillingly fell under his power, opening the gate the prince of the city.
The reason formarch to Kyiv was the preparation of the Grand Prince Rurik, who was fierce enemyRomance, with the Chernigov Prince of Galich. However, Roman wassprytnishym. He suddenly found himself under the walls of enemy cities. At assemblyKiev recognized him as their prince. Roman is survived by his subordinate prince of KievIngvar Yaroslavych. When Rurik of Olhovychs drove him out, Romanwinter of 1203-1204 he was again seized Kyiv.
Since joiningKyiv under Roman rule were Mstyslavych Galician, Volyn, Kyiv andPereyaslavskoe principality, that all land that is modern Ukrainian, theChernihiv exception. Over vast areas of his possession exceededdimensions of the Holy Roman Empire. Having Kyiv, Roman added to his titlealso a great prince.
Active externalpolicy has led Duke to its intervention in the struggle between supporters of the RomanDads (hvelfiv) and emperors (hibeliniv), in which he took toward the latter.Moving to Germany, he suddenly faced with a detachment of CracowPrince. The battle took place in July 1205 under Zavyhvostom. About this event FrenchChronicle reports: "The King of Russia named Roman, went beyond its bordersand wishing to pass through Poland Saxony ... according to the will of God killed twobrothers, princes, Polish, Leshko and Conrad, on the River Vistula.
Sudden deathPrince prevented the implementation of its plans. No ruler of great power combinedUkrainian lands it could turn into a formation with a single resilienteconomic and political ties, and after the death of Roman Mstyslavychestablished association lands him in divorce. Some researchers call itthe first really Ukrainian state.
3. The fight for the children of Roman MstyslavychCommunities of Galicia and Volyn. Пat the death of RomanMstyslavych as the chronicler writes, "great strife (discord) appeared in the landRus. By The Great Prince began competition from other Rus princeslands, Hungary and Poland. But the destructive power of a single principalityGalician was Boyars, which sought to prevent the strengthening of princely power.Only after 40 years of brutal fighting sons Roman Danylo and basil couldrestore the unity of his father's possessions.
When killedRoman I of Kiev, his eldest son Danylo was four years old and youngerCornflower - two. Using malolitstvom princes Galician boyars forced themhis mother, Anna leave Galich, and the prince's throne invited Sivershchynaprinces, Jaroslav Osmomysl grandchildren, sons Igor Svyatoslavich - RomanaSviatoslav and Rostislav. Galician Boyars run by a single purpose: to get rid ofdescendants of Roman power and weaken the Sovereign.
Meanwhile, DaniloPowered and their mother were forced to seek refuge in the Hungarian King AndrewII and the Duke of Cracow Leshko, who admitted the right of minors to the PrincesGalician-Volyn throne. The winners of Hungary and Poland wanted to usepresence of young princes as a pretext for interference in internal affairsGalicia-Volyn principality. Supporting the legitimate heirs apparent, theysought to seize their hereditary possession.
I. However,who were invited to power the boyars began to demand real power. In responsethis boyars are doing lawlessness and insurgency. While the Hungarian Kingwith the army went to Galich and captured by his boyars.I. was taken prisoner, and Hungarian troops began to do violencepopulation. Foreign arbitrariness caused resentment among residents who raisedrebellion, which returned to the throne I., who managedescape from captivity. Once in power, savagely cruelly with I.Galician boyars. As a chronicle narrates: "I. gathered in council in theGalician boyars and decided to kill them - and on occasion still killed ... wastheir number killed 500, and others scattered. Here, however, a chronicler somewhatexaggerated the number executed. But this does not gain a foothold in I.power. Surviving the boyars, among them the most powerful Volodyslav Kormylchych, turnedto the Hungarian king with a request to release them legitimate and Daniel Princehelp against I.. With the support of the King, the great armymoved to Galich, who without a fight took descendant Roman. Thus, in September1211 Daniel returned to his father's throne, and a few years earlierVasil his brother and mother, Annie managed to gain a foothold in Volhynia (in citiesBrest and Belz).
However,Galician earth peace is not reached. Galician boyars did not want to obey the youngenergetic and Prince to prove his power, for big money bought fromI. Hungarian captivity and publicly executed them. It was the only fact inmedieval history of Ukraine when the vassals of their publicly executedsuzerain.
But it is notDaniel and forced to obey his mother Boyarsky tyranny. Due to a conflict withAnna boyars with children again were forced to flee. Explore boyarsVolodyslav Kormylchych in 1213 dared to proclaim himself prince. It wasonly case tytuluvannya Prince rights not dynasty Rurik dynasty.
Reignboyar caused indignation among the Rus princes. In addition, this fact decideduse the Hungarians and Poles. Their rulers have agreed to divideGalicia-Volyn principality. There Spis they entered into an agreement under whichexpected five-year marriage to the son of a Hungarian King Kolomana of three yearsdaughter of the Polish prince Solomia and proclaim Kolomana "King of the KingdomGalician. Also expected to sign union (union) Galician Orthodox Metropolisthe Catholic Church.
Making an agreementHungarian and Polish lords began to seize land Galician and Volyn.However, realizing the illegality of their actions, they decided to buy from Daniel,Volyn Vladimir gave him.
The agreement was in Spi
1238Daniel Romanovich scored for another important event. It not onlydefeated the Teutonic knights in Dorohochynom that invaded his territories, andalso took captive their master Bruno. According to chronicle, before DanielBattle pronounced: "not right to keep our homeland kryzhevnykam(Crusaders).
At the end of 1239Daniel was captured Kyiv, the completed restoration of his father's possessions.
RestorationUnity of Galicia-Volyn principality, not only contributed to the political wisdom andmilitary talent and his brother Daniel, but also support its initiatives on the part ofVolyn boyars, residents of Galicia and Volhynia and farmers.
CapitalDaniel restored the principality newly elected city Holm not to be dependentfrom the Galician boyars. To strengthen his possessions he opened widetown-planning activities, strengthened border fortresses. It was at this time from the Eastimminent danger - Mongol-Tatars.
"Galicia-Volynrecord "on the establishment of Holm Daniel Romanovich
"... But Hill Citywas built by God's command. When lo Danilo reigned in Vladimir,Uhrovsk built a city and put it in Bishop (Joasaph). But (somehow)when he (Daniel), went on the field and acted hunt, that he looked good on the mountain andlisyste place, surrounded by a field around him, people were there and asked: "Howreferred to this place? "They said:" His name is Hill. And upodobavshy placethis, he decided that it will supply a small city. He had a vowSaint John Chrysostom and that erected in honor of his church.
And hesmall Town, and seeing that God is his assistant, he built anothercity that it could not take Tatars when Batu conquered all the land of Rus.Then Svyatoy Trinity church was lit and was built again.
When he saw itPrince Daniel that God helps place because he began to call on strangers - Germansand ruses, inoplemennykiv and Poles. They passed the day. And boys and mastersSeveral escaped (here) Did Tatars - Sidelnyk and bows, and sahaydachnyky and blacksmithsiron and copper, and silver. And there was recovery, and they filled the courtyardsfields around the town and village.
Also enticed(Daniel) Church of St. John (Zlotoustoho), beautiful and hozhu ... And the tower washigh among the city to beat with her around the city. Bottom built of stoneFifteen cubits in height, and itself is made of hewn wood and bleached ascheese, shining it on all sides ... "
Inquiries to document
1. As was establishedTown Hill?
2. What helpedelevation and prosperity of the city?
3. What are these structuresthe city said in a document?
Conclusions. In 1199 there was an event of great historical importance:Galician united and Volyn principality. It brought a new formation, whichdestined to become the tradition of Kievan Rus. It also became the center ofassociation of land in south-west Russia. Creator of the new principality became RomanI of Kiev - one of the most famous rulers of Russia, whose goal was to create a largepowerful state. But after the death of Prince his plans fail to materializelife. Roman sons had to start from scratch, and the intensitystruggle they succeeded. However, the restored Roman state faces anothernew challenge - the Mongol-Tatar invasion.
Remember the date
1199 - marchRoman Mstyslavych of Galich. Association and Volyn principalities in Galiciansingle state.
1205 - deathRoman Mstyslavych.
1206-1238 biennium -Roman descendants struggle to regain Mstyslavych Galicia-Volhyniastate.
1213 -proclamation Volodyslav Kormylchycha Galician boyar Prince.
1214 - Agreement inSpi
1238 -Daniel consolidation in Galich.
1239 -Daniel establishing superiority over Kyiv. Complete restoration of heritage father.
Questions and Tasks
1. As if there werecombined principality of Galicia-Vlynske?
2. Specify majorGalician union causes and Volyn.
3. What land couldattached to their possessions Roman Mstyslavych?
4. Why 1205 Galicia-Volynprincipality was divided?
5. Under what circumstancesto the throne of Galicia-Volyn principality back and Danilo PoweredRomanovich?
6. When wasrestored Galicia-Volyn principality?
Think and answer
1. WhyVolyn principality was the initiator of the association?
2. What policyRoman I of Kiev held after the single Galicia-VolynDuchy?
3. What wascaused by the bitter and long struggle for the restoration of Roman heritageMstyslavych?
4. What factorsfacilitate the return of the children of Roman?
5. Can you believeGalicia-Volyn principality first really Ukrainian state?
6. Why the children of RomanMstyslavych force had to prove their right to ancestral heritage?
Perform the task
1. Foldchronology of events in the lands of Galicia and Volhynia in 1199 -1239 he was
2. Preparestory as planned.
1) AssociationGalician and Volyn.
2) Roman BoardMstyslavych in the 1199-1205 biennium
3) Fighting kidsRomance for the restoration of parental heritage.
3. Identify factorswho helped transform the Galicia-Volyn principality into a powerful state andthose that weakened it. Reply submit as a table.
For the curious
1. Why inGalician principality was possible only in Russia voknyazhinnya boyar?
2. Could stopprincely strife proposed Roman Mstyslavych "good order"? WhatEuropean state had a similar system?