§ 14-15. Culture of Kievan Rus in the second half of XI -first half of XIII century.
Upon learning these paragraphs, you'll learn:
· developed a culture of Kievan Rus in the second halfXI - XII century first half.;
· are outstanding monuments of architecture and fineArt of Russia survived so far;
· How has the history of Kievan Rus in the MiddleEurope.
1. What is political fragmentation?
2. What are the most powerful principalities emerged onsouthern lands of Kievan Rus?
3. Name the most outstanding architectural structurestime of Vladimir the Great and Yaroslav.
4. What is a chronicle, icons, mosaic?
1. Education.The development of scientific knowledge. In the second half of XI - the first half of XIII century. in Russiacontinued to exist and develop public and church schools, privatetraining. "Science bookish" - was not the usual script acquisition and developmentof those scientific knowledge. Chronicler claimed that "one who often readsbooks that you talk with God or the holy men.
In stateChildren attended schools in the nearest neighborhood of Prince to literacy educationstatesmen. Church schools prepared sexton and priests.
Accessories for writing. Wrote, wax tablets,Berestiany ratification.
Leadeducational center of Russia was St. Sophia Cathedral, where the school continued to operate,founded by Yaroslav the Wise. In 1068 the daughter of Prince Vsevolod Yaroslavych JankoAndrews opened at the monastery school for girls, while in WesternEuropean women do not receive education. According to chronicles, developedhas been and private study. Yes, Theodosius Caves was educated in a smalltown of Kursk, a student at "one teacher."
Existing historicalSources confirm the spread of education among the population of Russia. Evidence of this isBerestiany letters, found mainly in the northern cities of Russia (in Novgorod -more than a thousand), graffiti on the walls of temples (most valuable - on the wallsSaint Sophia Cathedral), the inscriptions on craft items, items for writing.
Terms and definitions
Berestiany letters - Inscription on a piece of birch bark, birch bark, made bythrough special wrote - sharp metal sticks.
To continue andstrengthening education served the library, which had many in Russia (Kiev,Chernihiv Pereyaslav, Galicia, Vladimir, etc.). The primary and most significantcontained in the St. Sophia's Cathedral. According to scientists, literary capital of Russia wasat least 130-140 thousand volumes. There were libraries of cathedrals, monasteries,princely palaces. Much has been and private libraries.
To promoteBooks were copied from the book centers (skryptoriyi) in Kiev, Novgorod, Galicia,Chernigov, Vladimir Volyn, Pereyaslav, Rostov and other cities.
Everywhere needin the book bore a peculiar branch of Russ craft. In knyhopystsiv andbinder were editors, translators, artists, masters of parchment, jewelers.
In the XI-XIII. AsByzantine sources indicate, the one book you could buy a large cityhouse and 12 acres of land. Probably not less valuable was the book and in Russia.
In ancientschools and libraries were brought up many outstanding writers and chroniclers,theologians and philosophers, publicists. The names of some miraculously survived todays. These include the writers of the Great Nikon, Nestor, Sylvester, metropolitansHilarion and Klim Smolyatych, Bishop Kirill Turovsky, Danilo Zatochnyk et al.
While in KievRussia, as in all of Europe, there was no field of human activity such as science,basic needs of life demand of reliable and accurate scientific knowledge.They are generally transmitted orally from generation to generation as a professionalSecrets of craft specialists in certain fields. Metallurgy,forging and jewelry cases requiring knowledge of metallurgy. Formanufacture of glass, enamels and other synthetic materials should have known theirchemical properties. To make a pilgrimage to holy places neededknowledge of geography. Without knowledge of mathematics can not build a building or carrytrading operations. Yes, brick and decorative ceramic tile producedcertain standards. Masters know and use number . Knowledge of astronomy made it possible to navigate inspace, provide a natural phenomenon, keep calendar.
But knowledgetaken and books. Typically, these books were translated ancient, Byzantine,Arab, Western authors from different disciplines: history,geography, philosophy, biology and mathematics. The most popular in Russia were:"Chronicle" George Amartola, which included the description of historical events from the creationworld to the 842, the "Source of Knowledge" John of Damascus, "Shestodnev" John, BulgarianExarch which provide interpretation of the biblical story of the six-day creationworld by God, "physiologist" unknown author, containing stories about real andfabulous, mythic (sirens, phoenix) animals and more. The work Kozma Indikoplova"Christian topography" was told that the land - quadrangle, surrounded byocean, land was considered the center of Jerusalem. Combining real and fictional eventsfeature was contemporary scientific knowledge.
Important andmore or less reliable information on geography of the Middle East includes "The Way"Dmitry Abbot, who visited Palestine about 1107 he gave a detaileddescription of Jerusalem and its holy sites. "The Way" for generations of pilgrimsit was a real guide in the Holy Land.
In writtensources of information preserved on the activities of doctors, including monkKiev-Pechersk monastery Agapito. In 1076 Svyatoslav Yaroslavichem evenwas underwent surgery to remove tumors in his neck. A grandsonVladimir Monomakh Eupraxia wrote a medical treatise "Ointments".
2. Folklore. In folk art period of the second half of XI - the first half of XIIIArt. traces a similar pattern as in previous years. Continuedevolve following oral folklore, and legends like transfers, epicvariety of songs, carols and songs, tales, proverbs and bywords. Of thecombination of folk art that survived to the present time, littledistinguish those samples that fall into this period, since the samplesprior period stratify later scenes. For example, the paganin fact, Christmas carols, fairy imposed Christian motifs.
Among the folk art that are specific to this period must be determineddrujinna epic in which ospivuvalysya-winning captain Prince and his wife.Bylina providing new plots against polovtsians. When VladimirRed Sun is understood Vladimir Monomakh. Many tales devoted toheroes struggle with evil forces - Kotyhoroshka, Vernygory, Vyrvyduba, CyrilKozhemyaka more.
In this era are tales that mention serpent-Gorynych. Chroniclerrepeatedly calls the Polovtsian Khan Tuhorkana "zmiyevychem", and tellingthe victory in 1103 over Polovtsy, said Vladimir Monomakh "shatteredsnakes head. Thus, scientists believe snake-Gorynych generalized imagePolovtsian.
3. Portrait of interest. Chronicle. As you already know, literary culture of Kievan Rusformed by Byzantine and Bulgarian samples, but soon boreits own literature, which bloom to the period of the second half of XI - the firsthalf of the XIII century.
In our time, only a small part of the creative worksday: "Ostromyrov Gospel", "Izborniki" in 1073 and 1076, "MstislavGospel "," Tale of Bygone Years "and is referred to" Instructions for Children "Vladimir Monomakh, "Tale of Igor", "Kiev-Pechersk Paterikon so on.
The oldest book of Kievan Rus, which survived to the present day is"Ostromyrov Gospel", written in 1056-1057 he was a deacon in Kiev on Gregoryorder Novgorod governor Ostromyra.
This monument is of artistic value due to its richdesign.
Different kind of encyclopaedia of knowledge of that era were "Izborniki -collections of various works on subjects mainly Byzantine scholars whoclarifies some difficult to understand biblical stories and teaches andlecture. In "Izborniku" 1076 a significant place is given to policies thatman must be guided in life. The first emphasizes the existence of a conflict betweenrich and poor, which is called to resolve on the principles of Christianmorality, preaching love and forgiveness overall. "Izbornik" in 1073 and hasgreat artistic value.
Most original form of the Old Rus literature were records. Traditionschronicle established in Kiev, but soon spread to all regions of Russia.
The pearl of Old Rus fiction is "The Tale of Igor.The main idea of the work - the unity of the princes in the fight against external threats andRuss.
Information-rich historical material contained in a compound in the early thirteenth century.Kyiv-Pechersk Lives of the Fathers "- a collection of stories about the lives of saints. In particular,It has interesting information about the construction of Assumption Church Cavesmonastery Alimpiya painter and general life of Kyiv in that period.
Chronicles of Kievan Rus is one of the most significanthistorical and literary phenomena of the Middle Ages. Unlike European chroniclesthey were written in their native language, which made them popular. They read andrewritten for several centuries, so that kept ourtime. The authors of the chronicles were monks, priests, courtiers hegumens monasteriesclose to the prince and the princes themselves. Almost all records in the basis haveJoint Kyiv annalistic arch, known as the Tale of Bygone Years(End XI - beginning of XII century).. Around the middle of the XII century. observedbranching chronicles a series of chronicles, which were the main contents of local events.
In "Tale ...», probably includes all the previous sets of chronicles, notsurvived to our time - 996, 1039, 1073, 1093-1096 biennium, the story GalicianBasil in 1097, "Izbornik" Svyatoslav, church teachings, oral orders.Dated events in the chronicles brought to 1110 is considered that the author of the arch waschronicler Nestor, although some researchers believe that itinvolved chronicler Sylvester, abbot of the monastery of St. Michael Vydubetskoho.
Nestor the Chronicler. Engraving XVIII Art.
His main objective chronicler identified in the title: Tell the followinggeneration, "has gone from Earth Ruska, who started the first ruling in Kiev and asfounding of Rus.
Honest chronicler described the heroic struggle of our ancestorsenemies, and its difficult history and a difficult life. Chronicle also has an artvalue as a literary work, written in perfect style and patrioticpathos.
Direct continuation of the Story ... "is set Kyiv annalistic endXII century. Concluded Abbot Moses in Vydubetskomu monasteries, it isset of chronicles written by different authors for various princes. InKiev arch reflected the tradition of chronicles of Chernigov, VladimirVolyn 'and Galich.
4. Architecture. During Yaroslavychi and Vladimir Monomakh in Kievan Ruscontinued development of architecture. As before, the architectural look of cities andvillages determined primarily wooden buildings, which were richly decorated.From the tree constructed fortifications of cities and temples were erected. Chronicle saysexistence of 600 wooden churches of Kyiv at the beginning of XII century. However, the main templebuilt of brick and stone.
From the second half of XI century. there is real growthmonumental building. Thus, in the second half of XI - early XII century. inKiev cathedrals were built Tolstoy, Michael's Golden,Vydubetskoho, Caves and Klovsky monasteries. Implemented the new typemonastery church: building and six other dome.
New type of house church started Assumption Cave Monastery (1078City). Later he built a model of Vladimir Monomax church in Rostov. In 1108by the type of the Assumption was built St. Michael's Cathedral in Kiev.
Michael'sCathedral (modern look and reconstruction)
Becauseadoption of Christianity in Kievan state joined the Eastern Christiancivilization. Church has played a leading role in the development of culture andspiritual life of Russia. Monasteries were centers in the walls of which workedthat time scientists, artists, writers, doctors operated, icon-painting workshops and otherinstitutions. Significant among the other occupied Kiev Pechersk Lavra (Lavracalled Eastern Christian monasteries), established in 1051 nearby princelyBerestova residence on the outskirts of Kyiv, which launched a monk Antony. ByVladimir Svyatoslavich reign he made a pilgrimage to GreeceMount Athos, to worship their holy sites. Seen trapped in the monasteriesMount Athos, he became a monk and took the name Anthony in honor of St. AnthonyGreat, who was the founder of monasticism.
After returningAnthony walked to his homeland several monasteries, but their lives are not accounted forsouls of the young man. Therefore, returning to Kyiv, he settled separately in a cave onaround the city. After some time, Anthony started coming to people who wantedwith him to share the difficulties of a religious cave life. When the monks becamefifteen, they dug a large cave, which arranged for the church and cellthemselves. However, Anthony wanted to live hermit, so he set monks Abbot(Superior) Barlaam, and he along with several students went on a neighboringhill, erected where a new cave. Since it emerged in the Near futurecave, on the one that was dug in the beginning - Far.
Number of monksCaves in Kiev has steadily increased. At the request of Anthony Kyiv princeIzyaslav granted possession of all the monks mountain caves where they are comfortable. Itbuilt a wooden church and the new cell. Abbot of the monastery after Barlaam onrequest brothers Anthony appointed Theodosius.
New Pastorfamous for that order the life of the Ruthenian monk under strictCharter Studytskoho Greek monastery. Now Kyiv Pechersk monk notwere to have any property, work and pray constantly. Theyself-made things, sold them and received money to buy breaddivided equally. Abbot always worked and prayed with all the explaining ofThus, the older may be just the people who work more than others. MadeTheodosius arose subsequently taken over all the other monasteries Ruthenian lands.
The money, which donateand bequeathed Lavra believers, Theodosius decided to build a magnificent stone temple -Assumption Cathedral. Abbot first began its construction in 1073, butcompletion of construction did not survive.
Assumption Cathedral (modern look).
ChristianChurch tribute worthy spiritual endeavor of great devotees of Anthony and Feodosiapryluchyvshy them canonized saints. Founded them Kiev Pechersk Lavra was oneof the major shrines of Kievan Rus and the entire Christian world. Her monkwas "the father of Ukrainian history" Nestor the chronicler. In the walls of the monastery servedthe then greatest iconographer Alimpiy known healers Agapov, Damian,Prochorus Lobodnyk. Monks Monastery carefully preserved the memory of the activitytheir spiritual brethren. Later they joined these stories in a big book undercalled "Kiev-Pechersk Paterikon.
LavraMonastery occupies a significant place among the monasteries of this period. Generated within its wallsunderstanding of monastic life, its traditions, combining the service of God and the wholepeople became a model for others. Pupils monastery occupied the episcopal chair inKyiv Metropolis and spread awareness in society of Christianmoral ideals.
Since the 30's of the XII century. Rus architecture acquires new features. It wasto strengthen the political role of autonomous principalities and development of theircapitals. Significantly increasing the number of structures, but reduced their size.And also simplified architectural forms. And six building slowlychotyrystovpnymy superseded. Changing technology of masonry walls. FormedKyiv, Chernihiv, Pereiaslav architectural school, but are unitedsingle stylistic direction. Characteristic sites of this period is the templeFedorivs'ke Monastery (1131), the Church of Our Lady Pirogoscha (1132)Cyril (1146) and Vasylivs'ka (1183) church in Kiev, polished (1144City) in Kano, Boris (1128) and Assumption (40-e gg XII century.) templesin Chernihiv.
Church of God Pirogovo(Modern look)
At the same time and formed its own Galician architectural school, which manyborrows from Western architecture: columns, holes in walls,stained glass and more.
At the end of XII - early XIII century. external forms of monumental buildingsagain constrained, are more common high design. Newarchitectural style is most clearly manifested in the form of a church in the BlocChernihiv (early thirteenth century.).
5. Art. Fromarchitecture of churches is closely linked monumental painting submittedmosaics and frescoes.
Temples were decorated with mosaics of St. Michael's Monastery andAssumption Cathedral Caves Monastery. Mosaic of these temples for compositionalpattern reminiscent of Hagia Sophia, but the destruction of churches in the twentieth century. destroyedthese ancient works of art. But some were saved. From MichaelTemple preserved composition "The Eucharist", the image Dmitri Solonskoho,Stefan and Thaddeus. In comparison with the gold-domed Hagia Sophia Mosaicssaturated colors more vivid, clearer lines, more dynamic andHis characters are endowed with individual traits.
From the beginning of XII century. churches begin decorated mostly frescoes,mosaics are no longer used. However, their style of muralsresemble mosaics. They are usually decorated all the walls of temples. In frescoThe changes also painting: images made by thin lines,figures become more dynamic, brighter colors. Most interesting are the frescoesInterior of the church, the Church of Our Savior on the bark.
The figure in the history of
An outstanding painter of Kievan Rus was Alipio (Alimpiy, Olympus) Caves(C. 1050-1114). He studied painting in the Byzantine masterspainted churches of Kyiv. Alipio participated in the painting of the Assumption CathedralLavra. Later he became a monk and famous for writing iconssome of which are considered miracle. According to legend, he just kept mosaicWork for Michael's Golden-Domed Cathedral in Kiev. Buried in the NearCaves Lavra.
Outstanding achievements of Kievan Rus is the art and iconography. Icons were the firstworks of easel painting. However, the icon - is not just a picture. This subjectreligious worship, to which a believer prays to Jesus Christ,Dame saint. In the icon, usually one image.
Icons of the Kievan Rus remained very small. Each of them ishighly spiritual piece of art global significance.
Ukrainian scientists have proved that all the icons of this period written in Kiev.Style of Kyiv icons like mosaics and frescoes. They havelarge size, combining them with the monumental art (murals,mosaics).
Composition icon "Annunciation" (XII cent.) based on comparison of two figures -Gabriel and the Virgin Mary. Mary, bowing his head in the direction of Gabriel, as ifcarefully listening to his words. The right hand is outstretched angel to Mary, andgaze of his large eyes, chained to her face. This vzayemospryamovanyymovement focuses on both factual and compositional center icon -Archangel hand, graceful fingers as if frozen in a blessinggesture. Impeccable ratio figures are outlined with light sleek lines.The most skillfully on the icon image of the Archangel as their beauty. Hisgolden hair highlights refinement and vrodlyvist face. Skillfullyrendered as if the wings create an ornament around his body, dressed inlight clothing. Archangel colors shown, are indicative of his unearthlyOrigin: we find shades of yellow, brown, red, greencolors. The Virgin Mary is depicted in blue and purple colors that say about herterrestrial origin. They are united by a golden background, which emphasizes the divine contentrepresentation.
A special form of art Kievan Rus was the portrait miniature. Itintegral part of art manuscript. Speaking in modern language,miniature - is an illustration of a book. The small size of this work of artcause and particularly graceful manner of its execution.
The oldest miniatures that have remained since the Rus included"Ostromyrov Gospel." Here, on separate sheets Pomeschen three thumbnails ofdepicting the evangelists John, Mark and Luke. Artist who followedall the time, the canons, was able to create a vivid psychological imagestestifies to his extraordinary talent. All lines are made with gold, and the backgroundfilled with bright colors. This is reminiscent of cloisonn
The high skill of writing and book illustration also shows"Izbornik" in 1073, made for great princes of Kiev and IzyaslavSviatoslav Yaroslavych. The book opens an interesting reversal, on the left sidewhich depicts Prince Svyatoslav of the family - the first group portrait of the realOld people in art, on the right - Save the throne. The thirdsheet shows a quirky or three-roofed temple, then - four portraitsminiatures. The text "Izbornika" beautiful face saver, initials, onbanks of the book posted signs of the zodiac.
Particular attention is drawn to chronicle the early miniatures RadzyvillivskohoXV century. Which is a copy of Vladimir chronicle arch 1206 book contains618 colored miniatures that illustrate the events of Russia. Drawings made in an arbitrarymanner, provide valuable information about the architecture of Kievan Rus, clothing,weapons, household goods. They reflected events that occurred duringthree centuries: Rus raid on Constantinople, the construction of Saint Sophia CathedralKiev uprising in 1068 and 1147, the battle with the nomads and Prince intestine wars and so on.
Radzyvillivskyy record.Thumbnail "Baptism of Vladimir"
In the thirteenth century. see id - special decorative writing, whichused in manuscripts, in frescoes, icons, gravestones, etc..
There have been widespread and stone carvings. Him decorated templesmostly from outside. Few preserved carved slate Savior CathedralChernigov, Michael Golden-and Winter. They vyrizblyuvalyornaments, "holy warriors", ancient and biblical subjects. Outstanding achievementOld stone carvers are small icons. Most of them wereimages, the first Rus' saints Boris and Gleb, and Demetrius of Thessalonica,Mother of God, Christ, St. Nicholas and more.
High level of development in Russia has reached crafts. Hisfeature was that of products co-existing elements of pagan andChristian symbolism. Handmade jewelry is presented,decoration of household items, glassware, weapons, carvings in bone.
In the XI-XIII. have reached the bloom of technology Rus jewelry artistscloisonn
Masterpiece Jewelers is the gold diadem that was found near a treasure inSahnivka village in Cherkasy region in 1900 was part of the ceremonial tiara dressPrincess. It consisted of nine gold plates. The central platewhite, blue, green, red and yellow enamel shows a man with a crown onhead and two griffins. According to legend, Alexander is Macedonian, which risesthe sky chariot drawn by griffins.
Technology grain provided napayuvannya small gold balls onproduct, which constituted an appropriate ornament.
Using technology mob (special slander silver and gold) Jewellersmade bracelets, earrings, rings, crosses and various other decorations.
Jewels of Russia.
The best products made in the technique mob in XII-XIII centuries. Is broadFlat-handily bracelets of silver. In their wing, divided into severalparts depicted fantastic beasts and birds, flowers, vegetable plaiting,subject compositions with the pagan symbols and so on. On each side of a framesee the two bird dogs (Simarhiv), a bird, a minstrel in a headdress and longembroidered shirt, a woman dancing in a lowered sleeves and a man with a sword andshield. Scene image on the bracelet-like scene at hand tower SofiaKiev.
Ancient bone chess.
Common type of craft art in Russia was carving andbone. Thread decorated wooden houses, household goods, boats,Sledge and more. Carving was flat, ornament - geometric, rarely -Plant-geometric.
Bone carvings Old Rus gained a masters international recognition.Their products were known throughout Europe. Special popularity hadcarved boxes, images, handle knives, mirrors, spoons, chess and checkers.
6. Kievan Rus in the history of Europe. Дavnoruska left a bright state in world history, IX-XIII centuries.Her contribution to the medieval, political, economic, social andcultural life was enormous. Kievan Rus gradually moved frommilitary clashes with neighboring countries to equal participation in politicallife of Europe and the Middle East. Kievan Rus played a significant role ininternational relations in Eastern Europe during this era.
Kyiv princesconcluded an agreement with Byzantium and the Holy Roman Empire, Poland and Hungary,Lithuania and Yatviahy, scraper their time which was a norm of international relationsMedieval dynastic marriage. Rus princes supported the dynasticties with France, Sweden, England, Germany, Hungary, Norway,Byzantium.
Greatinternational prestige and military strength of the state combined with a high leveleconomic development. High-efficiency agriculture and animal husbandry was,crafts and trades. The important place occupied international trade linksKievan Rus. Because Russia was an important trade route "from VarangiansGreeks. Energetic and wealthy merchants, the Russians were known almost all overthat time the world. Kyiv remained the center of international trade. Foreign merchantstraded in the cities of Rus.
Accordingresearchers, the level of urban development and trade in the X-XI. Kievan Rus evenoutstripped Western Europe. No wonder Varangians called it the "country towns"(Herderyka), and many contemporaries Kyiv compared with the "capital of the world" -Constantinople. It is appropriate to draw attention to the tolerance that prevailed atRuss. In particular, many Russians cities were colonies of Jews, Germans, Poles,Armenian Varangians and other nations.
Ruski peopledeveloped a rich spiritual and material culture. Peculiar and unique, itabsorbed the best of East and West and at the same time significantlyinfluenced the cultural development of countries. Far beyond their homelandKiev were known jewelers, icon painters, gunmakers. Made Rusmasters of his articles impressed contemporaries grace and beauty. Onlythat time Kiev craftsmen worked 60 specialties.
Stone casting molds.
PotentateMedieval Europe Kievan Rus accelerate economic, political andcultural development of the Eastern Slavs, became the stage of Eastpeoples defended their land from enemies. With unity governmentRus lands vzayemozbahachuvalysya lifestyle, language, material and spiritualculture of their people.
Kievan Ruspromote economic and cultural development of many non-Slavic peopleshave long resided in its territory or in neighboring lands.
Overall,Dnipro region, Galicia and Volhynia in the Black Sea and Azov laidtradition of independent statehood in Ukraine. At that time Ukrainiannation has received a powerful stimulus for their economic, political andcultural development. According to the famous Ukrainian historian and politicianHrushevsky, Kievan Rus is one of the earliest forms of Ukrainianstatehood. His multi-volume work and is called - "History of Ukraine-Rus'.
Mongol-Tatarinvasion has caused irreparable damage to Russia: the state ceased to exist, and hundredsthousands of lives, cities and villages, palaces and temples, books and icons were destroyedin fire extinguishing. However, the Ruthenian people could survive and restore life. TraditionsKievan Rus were so strong that survived to our time,received new life in material and spiritual culture of Ukrainian, Russian,Belarus and other nations.
Conclusions. Although the Kievan Rus came to us only a smallshare cultural heritage, but even those rare works of art showthe high level of culture. Under the influence of Christianity in Russiathere are new kinds of art: the construction of masonry Christian churchesmonumental painting - murals and mosaics, easel painting in the form of icons,portrait miniature. Spread literacy and "literary science". Local artisansshort historical time could not only learn these kinds of creativity, but alsodevelop them by creating original art face of Kievan Rus, whichimpact on other neighboring nations and subsequent ages. Increased the originalliterature, which gave us the works of world importance ("The TaleIgor ", etc...) Original and remains unsurpassed jewelry.
Russia Culturesustained from different sources. It is closely intertwined pagan and Christiantradition.
Remember the date
1056-1057 biennium - a "Ostromyrov Gospel."
1068 - daughterPrince Vsevolod Yaroslavych Janka established a monastery at St. Andrew Schoolgirls.
1078 - Construction of the Assumption Cathedral of Kiev-Pechersk Lavra.
1108 - Construction of Michael's Golden Domed Cathedral in Kiev.
1113 - likely completion date of writing "The Tale of Bygone Years".
Questions and Tasks
1. Where in Russia you canwas to get an education?
2. Who and whenestablished in Russia for the first school for girls?
3. What roleplayed in the development of library education?
4. Spread the worddissemination of scientific knowledge in Russia.
5. What kinds offolk art had spread to Russia?
6. What are the mainbook attractions Kievan Rus second half XI - beginning of XIII century.
7. What workstranslated and original literature were popular in Russia?
8. What is the nameannalistic main vault Russia, which became the basis for all subsequent?
9. What was remarkablearchitectural monuments of Russia the second half of XI - beginning of XIII century. which have been preservedto our time.
10. Who were Nestor,Alimpiy, Agapit?
11. What kinds of churcheshad spread to Russia in the second half of XI - beginning of XIII century.?
12. Identifyconcepts: chronicle, icons, fresco, miniature book, cloisonn
13. In Techniquejewelry craftsmen worked Rus?
14. What kind ofcraft art glorified Rus craftsmen across Europe?
Think and answer
1. What wascaused by the spread of scientific knowledge in Russia?
2. Evidencedfindings Berestiany letters, household items labeled?
3. What is the differencechronicles of Kievan Rus chronicles from Western?
4. What changestook place in the chronicle in the middle of the XII century.?
5. Development whichtypes of culture promoted Christianity?
6. Howpolitical fragmentation influenced the culture and art?
7. What kind of memorialarchitecture can be regarded as a symbol of this period in the history of Kievan Rus?
8. What is the historicalimportance of Russia in the history of the Ukrainian people and of Europe?
Perform the task
1. Describe one of thecultural monuments of the second half of Kievan Rus XI - Early XIII Art.
2. Make a plananswers on "The Art of Kievan Rus second half XI - beginning of XIIIArt..
3. Identify the basic features of the culture of Russia second half of XI - beginning of XIII century.
4. Define What's new inculture in Russia compared to the previous period.
For the curious
1. What caused that duringKievan Rus to the canonization was enrolled many princes?
2. Why mosaic ofbeginning of the XII century. vanishes as an element of decoration of churches?
FAQtask to generalize on "Kievan Rus in the second half XI - First halfXIII century. "
1. Make a chronological tablemajor events in history of Russia the second half of XI - the first half of XIII century.
2. Explain the meaning of concepts andterms: political fragmentation, feudal fragmentation, the separateprincipality, internal wars, dynasty, succession, record,monumental painting.
3. Make a historical portraitPrince Vladimir Monomakh.
4. Is it caused the emergence of independentprincipalities to stop Kievan Rus? Justify their thoughts.
5. Perform taskshistorical maps:
· Demonstrate to the Statesbordering Russia in second half of XI - beginning of XIII century.
· Show on map principality,that arose in Russia at the beginning of the XIII century.
· Identify the main political andcultural centers of Russia during the disintegration.
· Find out if there wereterritorial changes in Russia second half of XI - beginning of XIII century.
· Show principality thatsuffered devastating attacks Polovtsian.
· Show where there wereprincely congresses.
6. Why in the period of disintegrationconducted such an acute struggle of princes Throne of Kyiv?
7. Fill in the table "Objectiveand subjective reasons for disintegration of Kievan Rus. Make appropriateconclusions.
Subjective reasons are called the circumstances that depend on the actions andaspirations of people. Objective - those composed by external factorsregardless of the will of the people.
8. What is the role of history in the PolovtsianRus? Can only speak about their negative role?
9. Compare Russia duringYaroslav the Wise and Vladimir Monomakh. Questions to determine the comparison yourself.
10. Compare the events that occurred after the death of Yaroslav the Wise in KievRussia, with those that occurred in the Frankish Empire after the death of Charlemagne.What are the causes of decline of these countries. Identify the common and different in theirdevelopment.