§ 11. Strengthening of the great power with VladimirMonomakh and Mstislav the Great
Upon learning this paragraph, you'll learn:
· which was the lifeline of Vladimir Monomakh;
· famous for what Vladimir Monomakh;
· that domestic and foreign policy conducted VladimirMonomials, taking the Grand Duke's throne;
· What a big Prince Mstislav Vladimirovich receivedBig Nick.
The task to repeat
1. Which system of succession wasYaroslav the Wise introduced? Why and how it has changed?
2. What is the assembly and snem?
3. What new nomadic tribes appeared on the bordersRussia in the middle of XI.?
1. VladimirMonomials. Great importance for the history of Russia was a grandson of Yaroslav the Wise BoardVladimir Monomakh (1053-1125). He was called so by their generic name of mother.There is also a legend that Constantine sent him monomial symbols of imperial power -barmy and crown, so-called cap Monomakh, which subsequently koronuvalysya Moscowgreat princes and kings. But in fact cap Monomakh was made considerablylater.
His childhoodVladimir conducted at the court of his father in Pereyaslav. When Vsevolod Yaroslavych in 1078became the prince of Kiev, Vladimir received a portion in Chernigov, where rulesSixteen years (1078-1094 biennium). This was the heyday of the Chernigov landurban growth and building temples. After his father's death in 1094 Vladimirvoluntarily surrendered portion of Chernigov in favor of Oleg Svyatoslavich thathad preferential rights to these lands, and he returned to Pereyaslav. Vladimiralso tried to capture the Kyiv throne, but was able to do thisustupyvshy Sviatopluk his son Vsevolod Izyaslav older brother, who bysubstitution laws of that time princely thrones had preferential rights toKyiv. Historians believe that, behind the Chernigov, Kiev and portions ofbenefit of their relatives, Vladimir guided by respect for the laws establishedhis grandfather Yaroslav the Wise, and reluctance to start a new wave mizhknyazivskyhsquabbling.
Vladimir Monomakh after hunting.
Pereyaslavs'kyiVladimir Monomakh life period (1094-1113 years) is associated with a constant strugglePrince attacks against the Russians on Polovtsian land. He managed to organizeseveral joint marches against Polovtsian prince - in 1103, 1109, 1110,1111
A. Zhaskyy. At the Polovtsian steppe
At the end of XI - tobeginning of the XII century. Vladimir Monomakh was one of the most respected figures. Itcaused, first, that it is the only Rus princes who managedorganize an effective resistance Polovtsian raids and always won them. Talentcommander, Vladimir combined with great personal courage, whichformed in childhood.
BoyVladimir, together with his father, Prince Vsevolod, took part in dangeroushunting of wild animals. From an early age he used to perform complex nedytyachiorder. In his first trip led to a far smaller wife RostovVladimir father sent at age 13.
During the turbulent timesmizhknyazivskyh Yaroslavychi intestine wars and almost continuous raids PolovtsiVladimir Khan and courageous young man with inflammatory gradually turned intomaturity. The distinguishing feature of Monomakh character was that he respectedlaw, had a great thirst for power and did not want to ustryavaty mizhknyazivski strifeand intestine wars. All time monomials worried about protecting the native land of Polovtsian.His name is associated with the first serious victory of Russians over a big wivesPolovtsian horde in 1094 on the river Sula.
Contemporarychroniclers do not mention any defeat of Vladimir Monomakh. Sam Princeend of life maintained that the only major campaigns against the Polovtsian, which waspart, remembers 83. "I signed with Polovtsy peace accords in 1919 - wrote in monomials"Instructions for Children" - has captured more than 100 best of their princes and sent them away, and200 executed and drowned in rivers.
WinPolovtsian horde, who always had the numerical advantage, the prince helpedgreat military talent and familiarity with Western tactics battleknighthood. Historians believe that Vladimir Monomakh first among the princes of Rusunderstood the advantages against the nomads lightning attacksman-cavalry. Ruske chivalry, as in Western Europe and playeddecisive role in battles. It zbyvalo on the ground, and overcome zatoptuvalolehkoozbroyenyh Polovtsian. Backed by military wife, Vladimir almost annuallycarried out the raids and forced Finally Polovtsian nearly forty years to leavepivdennoruski steppes.
In 1111Russians held a grand march against wives Polovtsian. Campaign mastermind,Vladimir Monomakh gave him the character of a crusade for Western modelcrusades aimed at the Muslim East.
Proceedings offirst crusade 1096-1099 he was the Western European knights to the HolyEarth and the liberation of Jerusalem spread throughout the Christian world. One ofthose who reported him Rus, became abbot Daniel, who visitedJerusalem at the beginning of XII century. In the future, he became one of the supportersMonomakh. Perhaps, the idea belonged to Daniel marches knightPolovtsian against nature crusade. This means the role of the clergy,which accompanied Ruthenian army, Phillips symbols hike.
Before joining thePolovtsian steppe on the River Vorskla clergy established on a large hillwooden cross, decorated with gold and silver. Princes kissed him on sightall the wives and the Russians knight, having received the blessings moving forward. BeforePolovtsian Sharukan storm of the clergy, at the request of Monomakh, againRussians sanctified wife.
Trip completedRus victory. Nearly ten thousand people died in the Polovtsian decisive battleRiver Solnytsi. The rest Polovtsi hordes migrated eastward, beyond the Volga.
NoticesRus crusade to Polovtsian steppe were sent to ByzantiumPoland, Czech Republic, Hungary, and Rome. Thus, at the beginning of XII century. Russians strugglePrinces of Polovtsy offensive was part of European Christendomthe East.
2. KievUprising 1113 When he died in the spring of 1113 the Grand Duke Svyatopolk IIIzyaslavich, his devout wife, according to ancient tradition, arranged the distribution of goodPrince. Distribution of princely treasures were quite generous: widow soughtsomehow settle rather nasty history of salt, which the prince speculator incollusion with the usurers. However, the generosity was the opposite result. Kiyani viewedthis as a weakness and power, gathered in assembly, decided to invite the Kyivthrone of Vladimir Monomakh. But he refused, citing the decisionLyubetskii Congress. Meanwhile, armed people of pohromyly yard svyatopolkovohoPutyata tribune, and promptly started destroying blocks of foreigners, especiallyJewish merchants and moneylenders. Frightened events boyars and merchants again appealedVolodymyr Monomakh asking.
Uprising in Kiev1113
On appeal boyarsand merchants to Vladimir Monomakh
"Come, Prince, inKyiv, and how not to go, know that many disasters vchynytsya is not just a yard orsotskyh ... rob, but also attack ... and the boyars and monasteries, and thou shaltanswer, Prince, when rob and monasteries.
Inquiries to document
1. What is argued appeals to the princeboyars and merchants?
2. Do you think that is why it appealed to the people ofVladimir Monomakh.
3. VladimirMonomial - large Kyiv prince. Grand Duke was the monomials in 1113, when he already60 years old. At the start of it initiated the adoption of newcompendium of the laws of the Statute of Vladimir Vsevolodovich, which added RuskaTruth. " In the "Charter" was made an attempt to solve the most painful problemssocial development - usury restrictions, cancellation conversion of free peopleserf on the debt and so on. The first was defined rights and obligations of farmers whofall into debt bondage by nevidpratsovanyy (shopping).
For 12 yearshis reign, despite the venerable age, Vladimir save energy,sharp mind and ability to act decisively. He was able to tame mizhknyazivskistrife, sole power to strengthen and restore the unity of the country. Vladimir lastunited under his rule most of Russia - Kyiv, Pereiaslav,Smolensk, Volyn, Turov-Pinsk, Minsk, Novgorod,Rostov-Suzdal land. Supreme authority of the Grand Prince acknowledged evenChernihiv princes and Galician.
In the early yearshis reign ended defeat Vladimir Polovtsian and drove them from theRuss. In 1116 the Russians led the armies of his son Mstislav madesuccessful campaign in places Polovtsian winter parking on Don, drove them away deep intosteppes and took much spoil. The strike was so palpable for Polovtsi,that in 1120 when the Russians moved his wife back in the desert, they are not Polovtsifound. In subsequent years, Kuman bothered Russia.
Policy SuccessesVladimir Monomakh positively influenced the internal development of Russia. Livelierexisting and any new trade and economic ties. Magnificent structureprykrasylysya city. In Kyiv was built wooden bridge across the Dnieper.
Becoming greatPrince Vladimir Monomakh deployed and active foreign policy. Asand internal activity was aimed at strengthening his personal power.
In 1116Vladimir utrutyvsya in fighting various factions in the imperial courtthrone of Byzantium. This led to conflict, and the Russians went to the shelves Danube.Managed to settle the dispute peacefully. In the following years the relationship with Byzantiumimproved, and in 1122 his grandson Vladimir married the Emperor of Byzantium.Maintained dynastic relations with other rulers of Europe: Hungary,Sweden, Poland, of Denmark, Norway. These relationships have to testify that in Russia thereequal this family, so it should belong to-man power.
4. "Instructions"Vladimir Monomakh. Vladimir Monomakh left a memory not only astalented military leader and visionary statesman, but also as an outstandingwriter of his time. Its author of the highlyliterary and journalistic work "Instructions".
During the same namein the "Instructions" combined four separate literary works: "Instructions for Children"Monomakh, his biography, a letter to Prince Oleg Svyatoslavich (Horyslavycha) andprayer. But the latter, as recently discovered by historians, not a penMonomakh.
The most interesting inmeeting is "Instructions for Children". In this work the old prince remembered past years,describing the military campaigns and thus does not hide mistakes, which made a forlong life. Work is written in a somewhat sad tone. This is probablyresulted in what felt monomials unattainability that moral and politicalideal, which sought. Contemporary realities forced the prince to take part inmizhknyazivskyh intestine wars, to give up his principles. However, trying to monomialswarn generations from repeating his mistakes.
Realizing thatchildren have to manage the principalities, he tried to give valuable advice,In his opinion, would help them avoid serious mistakes. First he counseledthey follow the Christian virtues: "Let's not destroy the strong man."He wanted to see the children of the good, compassionate to human grief, friendly,humane. Called upon to show mercy and especially appreciate human life.
Vladimirwarned the children of oath-breaking, lying, drunkenness and debauchery, taughtrespect the elders and the clergy, to love his wife but does not allow itmanage husband.
In his teachingschildren was important to take care of their native land and subjects, not to cause themof trouble. As a wise man tried to convince Vladimir Monomakh sons becauseas important to learn: "When something good umiyesh - did not forget and do notknow how - then learn the order ... Laziness is - all (evil) mother: that (man)can - forget that and what it can not - it did not learn. "
From the "Instructions for Children"Vladimir Monomakh
"... But this -my feeble mind of inadequate instruction. Hear me, if not all pryymite,the least the half. In total ... so - do not forget the poor, but as far as ispossible, by force Feed and serve the fatherless, and widow vstupytes ourselves, notlet's kill a strong man. No right, no wine, not kill (and) notpovelivayte kill him, and if anyone is worthy (even) death, it is notpohublyayte no Christian soul.
... Pace total -have no pride in your heart and mind.
... Old Honor,as a father and young - as brothers. In my house, do not be lazy, but for allSee ... Went to war do not be lazy, do not rely on the magistrates. Nodrinking, or they ate no indulgences, no sleeping.
Beware ...lies, and drunkenness, and fornication, for seventh in pohybaye soul and body.
Sick ...odvidayte by deadman Go, because we are all mortal yesmo. And men do not mynit,not saluted him provide a good word. "
Inquiries to document
1. With the purposewritten this book?
2. Why teach theirVladimir Monomakh children?
3. Why suchwanted to see their children Vladimir?
4. What is the opinion of Princeurgent now?
5. BoardMstislav the Great. Before his death monomial divided the land among his Russiasons, took the leading cities of Russia: Novgorod, Smolensk, Pereyaslav, Turov,Walter and Rostov. When Vladimir died, the throne of Great-crossedto his eldest son Mstislav (1125-1132 biennium). New large Kyiv princequickly achieved its subordinate authorities of Rus princes. AllMonomahovychi under his firm hand operated together and united. Outside the familywere merely Chernivtsi, Polotsk and small parish future Galician land. Butlocal rulers did not dare resist Monomahovycham. Mstislav continuedfather's policy of maintaining the unity of the country. He subdued Polatsk princesare sent as hostage to Constantinople.
DuringMstislav rule in the minds of princes has the right to so ukorinylosyapatrimony that this or that was the reign of rapidlyapplicants. Between the heirs begin to flash repeatedly conflictsbut thanks to the talent and political skills Mstislav skillfully overcame them,giving the system an iron hand. His power really was the all. Descendantsremember him for it, calling "the Great". However, he made one fatal errorwhich gave itself felt after his death. Thus, in a dispute withChernihiv Mstislav throne supported Olhovychs (descendants of OlegSvyatoslavich), which later became the main rivals in the fight Monomahovychivfor power in Russia.
Was also successfulDuke rebuffed attempts to use Polovtsian death and Vladimir Monomakhreturn pivdennoruski steppes. As a chronicler wrote, Mstislav "many humansUther by lands of Rus ". In 1129 he drove them up on the Volga and beyond.
Mstislav alsofought with the Lithuanian tribes put on a tribute chud, supporteddynastic ties with Sweden, Norway, Poland, the Czech Republic and Byzantium.
Grand Prince Mstislav sign
The highThe international authority of the prince proves the case here. In 1129 the Russians merchantreturning from Moravia (Czech Kingdom), were looted by Poles.Once it became known Mstislav, he immediately sent word toPolish King Boleslaw with the requirement to pay damages caused by merchants.Boleslav immediately answered that compensates for all losses, and will continueto Rus merchants in the protection of their possessions.
Mstislav the Great
Power Mstislavwas so strong that he is nobody asking brother commanded KyivDecline. However, his successor could not preserve the unity of the state.
After deathMstislav mizhknyazivski intestine wars broke out with a bang and is quickly Russplit into a dozen lands and principalities, whose rulers continuouslycompeted among themselves for superiority.
Conclusions. Vladimir Monomakh was one of the prominent rulers duringKievan Rus. Already the young years, he showed ability statesman.Becoming organized against Polovtsian danger, Vladimir Monomakhfamed and authority, which later allowed to take the throneGrand Prince of Kiev. At this time he gained experience of political struggleproved himself a strong-willed, prudent and resolute statesman, moreover, hadbrilliant abilities commander. Vladimir aware of the danger of state collapseubachav and a solution to strengthen an exclusive power. Already in the first dayshis reign, he aggressively went to their goal, and eventually, he andfailed. He was able to transfer power to his son Mstislav, who continued the workfather. Mstislav was the last ruler of united Kievan Rus.
Remember the date
1111 -crusade against Polovtsian.
1113-1125 biennium -Board of Vladimir Monomakh.
1113 -adoption of the Statute of Vladimir Vsevolodovich.
1125-1132 biennium -Board Mstislav Vladimirovich the Great.
Questions and Tasks
1. Why VolodymyrVsevolodovich got the nickname monomials?
2. What distinguishedyouth, the prince?
3. Which SharesVladimir had to rule in 1113?
4. Due toVladimir Monomakh allocated among the other princes?
5. What is remarkableRussians march against Polovtsian regiments in 1111?
6. What werecauses of the uprising in Kiev in 1113?
7. What is the main goalVladimir Monomakh rule on the great throne?
8. Identifyterms and concepts: usury, intestine wars, insurrections, crusade.
Think and answer
1. DescribeVladimir Monomakh struggle with Polovtsy.
2. Due toVladimir Monomakh not restore the unity of Kievan Rus?
3. Did the rightVladimir Monomakh occupy Kyiv throne in 1113? His responsejustification.
4. Why MstislavConsider the last great ruler of Kievan Rus single?
Perform the task
1. Preparedetailed story about the life journey of Vladimir Monomakh.
2. Make a plananswers on "Combating Polovtsy Rus princes of the second half of XI -first third of the XII century. ".
3. Completecomparative table "Policy and Vladimir Monomakh Mstislav the Great."
For the curious
Can you believe the main ideas of "Instructions" Vladimir Monomakhprevent internecine strife and princely preserve the unity of Russia? Prove orrefute it, based on the teachings of the text.