Theme III. Kievan Rus in the second half of XI - the firsthalf of the XIII century.
§ 10. Kievan Rus by the Board Yaroslavychi
Upon learning this paragraph, you'll learn:
· what was the situation during the state Yaroslavychi;
· why there was fighting Yaroslavychi for the Kyiv throne;
· that such conventions princes and decisions taken on them.
The task to repeat
1. What territories were annexed to the KievRussia during the reign of Yaroslav the Wise?
2. Why was nicknamed Jaroslav SvyatoslavovitchWise?
3. What is "Russkaya Pravda"?
1. WillYaroslav. Yaroslav the Wise died February 20, 1054 Anticipatingapproaching death, he realized the inevitability of the next power struggle betweenher sons and tried to prevent this. Yaroslav the Wise was the covenant inurging children to live in peace and harmony and instituted a new systemsuccession of princely throne. The basis of the proposed Yaroslav the Wisenew management and succession principalities were founded on the principlesenyoratu, is the oldest in power generation. The territory of the Kiev Statedivided into separate ownership - Shares. Yaroslav had sons in the rulingone of the generic principle of seniority, transferring power from an older brother tonext in age, which caused movement of all the princes of one possessionto another. Consequently, by Yaroslav's plan, each prince was able totime become the Grand Duke Kiev peacefully. Even in his life JaroslavKyiv land bequeathed to eldest son Izyaslav, Chernigov - SviatoslavPereiaslav - Vsevolod, Vladimir-Volyn - Igor, Smolensk -Vyacheslav.
New Formof government was to preserve the unity of Kievan Rus and peaceful waytransfer of power.
2. KievState of sons of Yaroslav the Wise. By the will of Yaroslav the Wise great Kiev princewas to be his eldest son Iziaslav. However, after the death of his father and brothers SvyatoslavVsevolod not recognized Izyaslav supreme ruler of Kiev State. Cities andof land that his father commanded them, thought their personal Yaroslavychi hereditaryholdings - fiefdoms. Maybe that is why Izyaslav had to agree to a jointState Board of brothers. Period 1054-1073 biennium in the history of Kievan Rusera called triumvirate - spivpravlinnya Izyaslav, Svyatoslav and Vsevolod.
All importantpublic affairs triumviry solved together. Younger brothers Igor and Vyacheslavthey are removed from public affairs and appropriated after the death of their pastpossession. This caused resentment among younger and laid the foundation Yaroslavychiintestine wars of the future. Deposed princes in Russia was called outcasts. Exactlythey became a significant factor further internecine warfare.
BetweenSenior Board Yaroslavychi new stage of struggle with the nomadssouthern borders of Russia. In 1060 triumviry made a joint campaign againstbands of nomads, Torquay, which appeared on the southern borders of Russia, and defeatedit. However, this success was overshadowed by subsequent events.
The first clash betweenYaroslavichem older relatives and deprived them was in 1064 Capturedtriumviry this struggle could not respond timely to organize a new hordesPolovtsian nomads-(Kipchak). The first appearance of the Polovtsian border in Russiamentioned in chronicles in 1055 Polovtsov, making their raids had excellentfrom its predecessors tactics. They tried to avoid direct clashes. Theirmain aim was to capture slaves, who then sold in the countryMiddle East. Polovtsov attacked by surprise and capturingprisoners, quickly disappeared in the desert.
Polovtsian Baba - stone statues that were placed overFuneral - barrows Polovtsian nobility.
Battle of r.Alta
EarlySeptember 1068 Kuman attacked Pereiaslav ground. Battle of the military wivestriumviriv of Polovtsy held on the River Alta and ended in victorypast. Princes of the remaining troops fled under the protection of their fortresses. Enraged people ofdemanded Izyaslav give arms to avenge polovtsians. Failure PrinceKiev led insurgency that did not loved the prince for his extortion. Izyaslavwas forced to flee. After six months by the Polish armyHe regained the throne. Kiev uprising proved the weakness of powertriumviriv.
Exemption from Vseslav slash during the uprising in Kiev1068 Picture of the record.
During the uprising1068 in Kiev, Kiev was released from prison Vseslav Polotsk prince, who was treacherouslycaptive Iziaslav. At the assembly Vseslav was proclaimed Prince of Kyiv.Collected militia from Kiev, Vseslav reflected polovtsi attack, but soonwas expelled from Kyiv Yaroslavichem brothers.
Shortlytriumviramy flared between the many conflicts, which result from SvyatoslavVsevolod Izyaslav expelled from Kyiv. During 1073-1076 he was the Prince of Kyivwas Svyatoslav, who managed to consolidate the great power. Out of orderconsolidation of power over the autonomous princes reallocate it between them possession.In Kyiv Svyatoslav left for a Chernihiv and other cities putgovernors of their sons and nephews. In their actions, he enjoyed the supportbrother Vsevolod. Although the great Kiev prince Svyatoslav was, historiansthink that actually existed duumvirat - spivpravlinnya two princes - Sviatoslavand Vsevolod.
After deathSviatoslav regained the throne of Great-Iziaslav. He denied the governmentsons, Svyatoslav and delivered in accordance with existing rules of succession,Chernihiv Vsevolod. But Vsevolod made against Oleg of Chernigov, who considersChernihiv its heritage, which also brought with them Polovtsian horde. YesKuman for years to become a significant factor in the internecine struggle of the princes. OnVsevolod Izyaslav help came. A decisive battle took place on October 3, 1078on Nezhatyniy field. Although this battle won Yaroslavychi older, in itIzyaslav died.
Prince OlegSvyatoslavovitch for inciting intestine wars and bring them received from the Polovtsianauthor of "The Tale of Igor's" name "Horyslavych.
From The TaleIgor "
Here then by OlegHoryslavovycha
Siyalysya-grown intestine wars,
Grandchildren Dazhbohovi death trap,
In princely quarrels deprived age,
Here then in the land of Rus
Not so-called peasant they shouted,
As the crow kryakaly-shouting
By having slain perekir ...
First amongRus princes attracts to deal with other princes, Prince Oleg Polovtsian.He thus, as the chronicler, "showed them the path to the Ruthenian land". Olegalso shunned from participating in a joint campaign against Rus princes Polovtsihordes. Curbed Oleg could only son Mstislav Monomakh, which defeated him at theSuzdal. Lubech Congress assigned to Oleg of Novgorod-Siver ground, where heended his life.
On deathIzyaslav government moved to Vsevolod as knyazyuvav in Kiev during 1078-1093During this time he was in Russia renewed monarchy-man, but it is muchinferior power in times of Kiev princes of Vladimir and Yaroslav SvyatoslavichWise.
Vsevolod ledbitter struggle with disadvantaged family that sought its shares owned, butfinally yielded and gave them the principality. As a result, centralpower and unity of the state has declined. Under constant attack PolovtsiRussians on the ground flashes intestine wars were very dangerous. Probably why sonVsevolod of Vladimir Monomax posthumous son lost the throneIzyaslav Svyatopolk (1093-1113).
Fight with the wife of the Rus polovtsians. Drawing from the chronicle
Needovercome differences and join forces to fight pushed to convergenceprinces. Major role in organizing forces to fight Polovtsy playedprincely congresses. The result was the defeat of the combined hordes PolovtsiRus princes forces led by Vladimir Monomakh in March 1111 nearSuhrova city on the Don. This victory caused the growing credibility of VladimirMonomakh, the future of the Grand Prince.
3. Princeconventions (snemy). Weakening of central power in Russia triggeredperiodic congresses of princes - snemiv. They tried to resolve issues affectingfor all Ruthenian lands. The first of the famous chronicle is in Prince CongressVyshgorode in 1072. Triumviry Izyaslav, Svyatoslav and Vsevolod gathered there withoccasion of the transfer of the relics of saints Boris and Gleb the recently built churchin their honor. In Vyzhgorodskiy Congress also adopted a new collectionlaws "Yaroslavychi Truth", which added "Ruska Pravda".
Ivanov. The Congress of Princes.
The most famousamong "snemiv" Rus princes is the Congress in 1097 Liubech. It princesagreed to introduce the principles of hereditary principalities possession ("Everylet him hold his patrimony ") and decided to consider another's estates as capturecrime together and spoke out against those who try to do it.
Now authorities inEach portion was passed from father to son. The procedure, introducedYaroslav the Wise, skasovuvavsya. The princes also agreed on joint actionagainst Polovtsian: "Now z'yednaymosya in one heart and protect Ruthenian land".However, the decision was not implemented. Immediately after the congress brokebloody war, which lasted three years. Prince halted its congress in 1100Village Vytychevi (Uvetychah).
The necessityjoint action against Polovtsi attacks dealt by Congress in Zolotchi princes in 1001was crucial in organizing anti-Polovtsy a congress in spring 1103Dolobskoho near Lake near Kyiv. According to the chronicler, armsSviatopolk Kiev refused to go in the spring campaign against Polovtsian becauseit causes damage smerds (peasants) and their crops and horses. A key rolein deciding on a common response campaign played Vladimir Monomakh:"I marvel wife, horses regret, in which plow. Why not thoughts aboutthat starts here and plow smerds, arrived, polovchyn zastrelyt it with a bow andtake his horse, and it arrived in the village, take his wife and his children, allhis property? So sorry for your horse, and very smerds is not it pity? "Hike 1103launched a series of victorious campaigns against Russia in the 1103-1116 biennium Polovtsi
A. Kyvshenko. Dolobskyy Congress. Monomials and Svyatopolk
Princely congressesplayed a major role in rebuffing attacks on Russians Polovtsian land.
Conclusions. During the reign Yaroslavychi began a gradualthe disintegration of Kievan Rus and the decline of power of Grand Duke. He already hadof the power and strength, as had previous great Kiev prince. The sons of Yaroslav, notwanting to give their own ambitions, his father rejected the covenant, butforcing others stick with it.
DuringYaroslavychi rule over Rus was facing a new threat from the steppe. Attacks hordesPolovtsian were devastating for South Russia. Polovtsov successfully usedmizhknyazivskymy quarrels, making new inroads.
Mizhknyazivskistrife and attacks steppe adversely affect the development of Kievan Rus. Itand understand contemporary events. To align the interests of princes and organizerespond polovtsi raids, the most influential princes assembled at the Congress. ThroughCongress managed to stop internecine strife, princes to organize joint toursPolovtsian against. Important for the future fate of Russia was the adoption of newprinciple of succession.
Remember the date
1054-1073 biennium -Board Yaroslavychi triumvirate consisting Izyaslav princes of Kiev,Svyatoslav and Vsevolod Pereyaslav Chernihiv.
1068 - FirstPolovtsian big attack on Russia and defeat them Ruthenian troops on the River Alta.
1072 - appearancenew collection laws "True Yaroslavychi.
1097 -Lubech Congress of Princes. Introduction of ancestral possession principalities.
1103 - defeatJoint Rus wives Polovtsian River Sutin.
Questions and Tasks
1. What is the proceduresuccession was introduced Yaroslav the Wise?
2. What new nomadichordes threatened the southern border of Russia in the middle of XI.?
3. When wasrevolt against the Prince of Kiev Izyaslav? What was his reason?
4. What is TruthYaroslavychi?
5. What happenedcongresses of princes? What is the most famous of them?
6. What are the mainissues were resolved at the congresses of princes?
7. What is the proceduresuccession has been introduced in Congress Lyubetskii?
8. Identifyterms and concepts "triumvirate", "duumvirat", "Prince-alien", "snem", "portion".
Think and answer
1. Why is formedtriumvirate, and then duumvirat princes?
2. Determine how andwhen sons of Yaroslav the Wise was a violation of the covenant of his father.
3. Explain thatforced to change the princes introduced the principle of Yaroslav the Wisesuccession.
4. What causesfrequent success Polovtsian raids in the land of Russia?
5. How princestried to overcome internecine strife?
Perform the task
1. Foldchronology of key events struggle with the princes polovtsians.
2. Usingadditional literature, make a story on the topics: "Kiev uprising of 1068was, "Polovtsian raids on Russia", "Lyubetskoy congress of princes."
3. Fill in the table"Board Yaroslavychi.
For the curious
1. Imagine yourself and chroniclermake a chronicle of events of the day Yaroslavych. Who of you would be Yaroslavychicommitted?
2. Why end XI - beginningXII century. in the history of Kievan Rus became the important role played by PrinceCongress?