§ 8. Social, political system and economic lifeKievan Rus at the end of X - in the first half of XI century.
Upon learningthis paragraph, you will learn:
about the political system of Kievan Rusend of X - in the first half of XI century.;
what were the particular situationrepresentatives of different groups of people;
the essence of feudal relations inKievan Rus;
State of Economy and Trade;
that such "centralized monarchy," SovereignCouncil "," domain "," portion "," social stratum "," overlord "," hryvna.
1. What is Mundane state "?
2. What was the population of Kievan Rus inIX-X century.?
3. What do you know about the system of KievIn Rus IX-X century.?
4. What was life in towns and cities of KyivRussia during this period?
5. What is feudalism?
6. What were the features of the structure of feudalsociety and governance in medieval Europe?
1. PoliticalSystem. At the end of X - in the first half of XI century. form of governmentKievan Rus became centralized monarchy.
Terms and definitions
Centralizedmonarchy - Formgovernment in which the highest state power is concentrated in the hands of one person -monarch, who controls the country in one place.
Monarchy in Russiaexisted at that time almost exclusively in the form of an exclusive power of large KievPrince. Only some time after the internecine struggle between the sons of Prince VladimirJaroslav jointly ruled the state with his brother Mstislav. Grand DukeKyiv at that time had already become a full ruler of the country, not a first amongother princes, as before. The descendants of former tribal princes Eastwere vassals of Kyiv.
The Prince wasmain carrier of the government, representative of Russia in the international arena.External relations with foreign states were his exclusive right. Princeconcentrated in the hands of legislative and judicial, executive and military power. Himhave installed legal rules governing the various issues of public life.You already know about the "Charter earth" Prince Vladimir and the so-called "oldestYaroslav the truth. "
By volumepowers of the grand duke also belonged to military matters. He wascommander, directly tackled the issue of Defence, took personalparticipation in military campaigns.
Prince was theHome state structure, provided the normal functioning of all organsmanagement and was considered a symbol of public stability. Duke Power wasunlimited, dependent on his authority and real power, on which he relied.Military support for the Prince provided the wife, who was invassal dependence on him. It was divided into older men, thatreceived from the prince for his service land, and junior - who got paidor part of the booty.
When the princesthere was a princely council, composed of boyars, senior warriors,representatives of the urban nobility and higher clergy.
Princely Council - Advisory body to the Grand Prince of Kyiv, whichcomes from the East tribal councils of elders.
Princely Councilwith advice and recommendations had the opportunity to influence the decision of the Prince. OfCouncil prince discussed important issues of public life: the announcementwar, peace agreement, dynastic marriages, establishing new legalnorms, some of the important court cases and more. In particular, according toNestor the Chronicler, before embracing Christianity Prince Vladimir summoned councilto discuss the election of a new faith.
«Storypast years "on the election of a new faith by Prince Vladimir
In the year 987.Vladimir assembled boyars and the elders of their urban and extra said: "Ose cameBulgarians to me, saying: "Accept our law." Later, the Germans came, and bravepraised his law. After these Jews came. After these came and GreeksMurmuring all laws, and their blessing, and many said they telling unitsbeginning of the world ... So you Vradim? What answer? "
Then the boyars andelders: "You know, Prince, that his nobody blasphemes and praises. If you likeroziznaty okay, you have in a men. Sending them take knowledge of each oftheir service and who serves as God.
Inquiries to document
1. Who was responsible for convening council?
2. With the purpose prince called council?
3. How board members can influence thePrince's decision?
The specific location insystem of government occupied the Prime Minister.
A. Vasnetsov. Veche.
Veche - People meeting the adult free populationtook decisions on important social and public affairs.
This authoritypreserved as a remnant of the old relations and Slavic tradition continuedtribal assembly. Declaration of intent rallies intended to bring the masses to believeGrand Prince of Kiev or his deputies. However, the role of rallies during the periodexistence of a centralized monarchy in Russia was very minor.
2. Becomingfeudal relations. The main population. In countriesCentral and Western Europe, the Middle Ages, as you know was the periodestablishment of feudal relations. According to the Kievan Rus feudal society formedalso in the eastern Slavs. Its formation was a long time and passedseveral stages.
Feudalism inEast Slavs formed based on decomposition rodopleminnyh relations. Firstfree peasants-congregation gave them a number of manufactured products asnatural duty rodopleminniy its nobility. In the IX century. right to collect tributewith all the free people of East lands transferred to KievPrince and his wife. Gathering of tribute was called polyuddya.
The nextstage in the X century., Kiev princes seized and appropriated community-based land. By and largeKiev prince recognized the right of supreme possession of Kiev all the earthRuss. At the end of X century. domenialnyh possessions began forming autonomousprinces.
Terms and definitions
Domain - Private medieval feudal land ownership.
Portion - In the so-called Kievan Russubdivision, which governed the prince, dependent ongreat Kiev prince.
This was causedadministrative reform of Prince Vladimir, as a result of which he removedmanage tribal lands and princes gave your children. Initially thesepossession was conditional, and great Kyiv Prince at any time they couldtaken.
The next stepin the formation of feudal relations is the emergence in the XI century. land ownership,top served the nobility (boyars) and the Orthodox Church. In X-XI centuries. in Russia areformed vassal relations: the faithful service rendered prince and his boyarsdruzhinnik right "feeding" - the right to retain the taxes that paid peoplea territory.
Later,probably end XI Art. boyar estates appear that their ownerscould transmit to their descendants have inherited. The source of their origin couldbe the land from which taxes are levied (for drujina top), or landtribal communities (for rodopleminnoyi know).
Form the Localtenure, when the prince gave the boyars, or land not in full druzhinnikproperty and subject to performance of duty, and according to some researchers, there was atRus XII Art.it did not provide for a transfer of an estate owner in the land inheritancesale, donation, etc. without the consent of the Prince.
Terms and definitions
Barony - Feudal land ownership, which can be freelyshare in inheritance, sell, donate more.
Put - Feudal landed property, which provided for the service inarmy or at court, which could not bequeath, sell more.
Becomingfeudal relations influenced the composition of the society of Kievan Rus. They formedkind of social pyramid, which defined the situation of differentpopulation.
Social stratum - A large group of people whose situation in societydetermined certain amount of common rights and obligations.
The social pyramid (the main population and the systemdependence) of Kievan Rus
GreatPrince of Kyiv
free(Smerds) Burghers Farmers dependent (ryadovychi, shopping)
Featureof feudal relations in Russia is that, unlike Western andCentral Europe is not formed an extensive system of relationships betweenseniors and vassals in the form of "feudal ladder. High seniors, oroverlord that had the right to land was a great Kyiv prince. All otherautonomous princes, boyars and warriors were its vassals. Allot land autonomousprinces and boyars had no rights.
Suzerain - During the great feudal feudal seigneur, who wasmaster of the soldiers.
CommunityKievan Rus was divided on the ruling and dependent population. By rulinggroups belonged to the princes, boyars and warriors, addicted to - burgers, free anddependent farmers yard valetry (SLAVES). Ruthenian clergy, which was formedafter the adoption of Christianity, also was part of the ruling class. Itdivided into the higher clergy (metropolitan, bishops, etc.). and ordinaryclergy.
The greatest partpopulation were smerds - personally free peasants-congregation that had actuallyfarm plots of land and paid tribute to Prince. Temporarily dependentpeasants were shopping and ryadovychi. Purchases referred to those villagers who through variouscircumstances have lost their farm and were forced to work for the landownerby lending money (a lot). Those farmers who have entered into an agreement with the landowner (number)about hiring and working under him in his house, calledryadovychamy. Just been deprived of their rights and yard valetry SLAVES. Servants belonging topersons who lost his farm and worked on the feudal lord. They could sellGift or transfer in inheritance. Serf were mainly prisoners of war.Their situation is reminiscent of the situation of slaves, which the owner could even get awaykill.
In the burghersthe majority were free artisans and tradesmen, who paidTaxes and performed duties in favor of cities. In the XI century. urban artisans andmerchants were united in cooperatives associations and unions for professional signs.
3. Developmenteconomy. At the end of X - in the first half of XI century. leadingbranch of Kiev Rus' remained, as before, ruraleconomy. Especially great development achieved agriculture. Farmers plantedrye, wheat, millet, barley, oats, peas. For cultivation of the soil, depending onsoils, using a plow, or ralo sohu. Land cultivated bytraction power - horses and oxen. In forest areas of Russia remained pidsichnafarming system, and highly - steam system and dvopilnoyutrypilnoyu rotation. In the first half of XI century. , the first mill.
East Slavic agricultural implements.
From vegetables plantedcabbage, cucumbers, turnips, garlic, onions. In gardens grown cherries, plums, apples andpears. Successfully developed homestead farming: the Right Bank bredmainly cattle, the Left - pigs.
Among the industriesmost common were hunting, fishing and beekeeping. Productshunting, especially furs, Ruthenian merchants were removed to other countries. Rusychilong been used in food made with honey and drinks it. With wax candles do.Honey and wax were removed also for trade abroad.
Craftdeveloped as in rural areas and in cities. In Kievan Rusthere were over 60 crafts. The greatest success the Russians have achieved in the mastermetallurgy and processing of iron. According to archaeological studies of iron inthis period produced about 150 types of various products. Long afterappreciated outside of Kievan Rus Rus smiths made swords.Horezmskyy scholar al-Biruni wrote that they are "strange and exceptional."
Refinement andperfection determined Russians jewelry made in the technique and the mobcloisonn
German monkTeorfil in XI century. called Kievan Rus country, which opened art mastersmob and cloisonn
Kolt. Gold, enamel.
Ceramic ware XI—XII Art.Kyiv.
Intensivelydeveloped pottery. Most products on the market is supplied by potters. Itwere pots, pitchers, lamps, candlesticks, ceramic tiles, toys, etc..At the turn of the X-XI centuries. Russians have mastered the technique of producing masters glazedceramic products: tableware and decorative tiles, which went ondecoration of temples and palaces.
High Leveldevelopment has reached as glass blowing. He learned the secrets of the masters of the Russiansend of X - in the first half of XI century. In glazing workshops producedwindow glass, dishes, bracelets, necklaces, rings and other things. In Russia there were alsoadvanced crafts of leather, wood, bone, stone, footwear,kravetstva, brick and lime.
Important role ineconomic development of Kievan Rus trade played. It helped thatthat passed through its territory of several important international tradeways. "Greek" way ("Varangians to the Greeks") combined with the Baltic Rusand Black Sea markets. "Salt" by maintained ties with the countriesCentral and Western Europe. "Zaloznym" - from the Caucasus and the ArabEast.
The maincommodities that Russians merchants exported abroad, were furs, honey, wax, skin,jewelry, craft items (swords, chain mail, locks, etc.), flax,agricultural products. From Byzantium to Russia brought the gold vesselssilk fabrics, jewelry, wine, icons, crosses. From the East - spices,weapons, textiles, jewelry. From North and West Europe - herring,beverages, arms, expensive dishes, silver, woolen fabrics, finecanvas.
Trade Developmentcaused the revival of money circulation. Used Arab, Byzantine andWestern European coins.
Silver Hryvnia Kievan type
The first coinown coin, as you already know, was the adoption of Prince VladimirChristianity. But before the XI century. the monetary circulation of Kievan Rusdominated Arab silver coins - dyrhemy. Along with them, according to manyresearchers as a means of exchange used fur of wild animals - martens,adjustment and more. From durable dyrhemy wear, and sometimes theircut edge of fraudsters. So at the beginning of XI century. of them began to produce silverbars - the hryvnia. Kiev hryvna had hexagonal and a lot about
In residentialSettlements of Kievan Rus were special places where there was trade. In particular,German soldier Titmar Mahdzeburzkyy reports that in 1018 in Kyiveight torzhysch and Russians chroniclers called two - Babin Torzhok on the Mount andTorhovysche at the hem.
In Kyiv XI—XII Art.
4. Casuallife of different groups. Most Rusyches settled near rivers, near theforest. In the forest they hunted, gathered mushrooms and berries, hiding from the attackers incase of danger. A large number of settlements that time consisted of one hutdeep in the forest. Along with their homes people built farm buildings, arrangedfield, pasture, sinozhat, forest. There were also settlements of two or three hatynok. Ofsometimes some of them turned on a farm in ten or more huts.
Peasant Familyconsisted of 12-15 people and led self-management. The work was extremelysevere and debilitating.
Especially difficultLabour was math. Were mowing "salmon" - oblique, which is not slaughtered, but the grass pidsikalablow. In math (spit-"salmon" is preserved to the new times) really hurt neckacross, tendons, stress-ill people abdomen, back and hands vkryvalysyaulcers. Bread sickles reap. As a result of hard work was about one family3.2 tons of winter food and could sell some of it.
Cities in KievRussia emerged for different reasons. Some people united around the princely courts (Kyiv, Chernihiv)introduced in other counts, such as Yur'yiv. Many small towns inPorossi emerged from the castle guard. Some, such as DrevlyanskyIskorosten - a center of tribal knyazhin.
Center cityRussia was well fortified castle (Detinets). Located aroundtrade and craft positions. In case of danger the inhabitants sought protectionkremlin. In the princely town all the streets leading to the kremlin, in other cities - toroads leading to nearby cities and on the wharf. Roads were then very littleused mostly by river routes. In most cities a large area of Russiawere busy towns and gardens, also remained undeveloped spaces -marshes, meadows, heathland. Absence of the strait, as in Western citiescaused that the houses were low, which rarely reached the princely buildingsthree floors.
Habitationsurban poor were often napivzemlyanky. In IX-X century. in Kiev and aroundhim, but in the eleventh century .- still toward the south from northern areas of Russia havespread ground log and framed homes with pine or spruce trees.Most of the buildings in sporudzhuvatysya was made of wood and stonebuildings were very rare. Rich had the porch of the building - an open terracesecond floor and palace - as if the tower, where rooms were located. There wasalso stand - a separate room where he kept things. From furniture were distributedbenches, tables and chests. Wealthy city dwellers have chairs and beds, and slept on simplechests or on the floor, on mats and simple ukryvalysya nicely. In richbed homes have been refined: it covered with silk bedspreads and pillows,sable blanket Perina down and feathers. Benches were covered with carpets, tables -tablecloths. In each house were icons. Ordinary people lit home luchiny(Wood chip), and wealthy - wax candles. Intrade and craft positions in almost every house was a handicraft workshopbench or trade.
Prosperous andRusyches always been the poor can be recognized by attire. Peasants wore braidedLychak (Lapta), poor city dwellers - shoes (shoes, stitched with cherev'ya - softbelly skin of animals). Quite often, poor and rich city dwellers wore boots(Then they were called in Turkic "Sapohiv, word boots appeared much later).Boots-Sapohiv there were simply decorated with embroidery and pearls colorsap'yanovoyi skin.
Apparel simpletownspeople themselves kroyily and sewn with linen and wool homespun, and wealthy -ordered a dress from expensive foreign fabrics tailors. The vastmost disadvantaged Rus wore shirts, belted belts, andtight pants. Top dress shirts. In cool weather and city dwellers and peasantsentourage wore floor coat coarse cloth, and dressed in winter coat.
Nobility in ubyralasyaCaptan, which reached below the knees, rozshyvalysya rich embroidery and fur obshyvalysyaon the sleeves and hem. He also dressed in a shirt with a thin blade and narrowpants. Kaftan pidperizuvaly zone and raise the top long coat without sleeves,attached buckle on the right shoulder. A characteristic feature of all the townspeople dresswere colored fabric, so there were many workshops krasylnykiv.Women and girls over a long shirt dress spare sack, and thethem - long caftan with wide sleeves and pidperizuvaly their belt. Hairconnected thin scarf, top hat or put on jewelry - tiara.
Most Ruswere unpretentious in food. They take a lot of game and fish, are fried,baked, boiled. Some time later to eat the flesh of livestock. However, simplepeople could not use it often. She cooked a variety of cereals. In richfamilies baked wheat and rye bread, the poor - oatmeal. Drinking cow andsheep milk and cheese made from it. Songs dish greased with vegetable oil, aboutNo mention butter. Eat a lot of vegetables: turnip, peas, cucumbers,garlic, onion and so on. With the drinks were the most common variety kissels, Media andbeer. For wealthy wine brought from Byzantium.
Conclusions. By formof government at the end of X - in the first half of XI century. Kievan Rus wascentralized monarchical authority solely from the great Kiev prince.
In X-XI centuries. in Russia formed feudalrelationship and therefore formed the social pyramid. But feudalism in Russiahad certain features that distinguish it from the feudal order thatestablished in Western countries.
Kievan Rus reached Facilitieshigh level of development. The main occupation of the rural population of Russia waseconomy.
Daily LifeRus explained by their membership of a particular social stratum,The unique environmental conditions and existing cultural traditions.
Remember the date
X-XI centuries .- Installationfeudal relations in Russia.
Questions and Tasks
1. What is centralized monarchy?
2. What is the Sovereign Council?
3. What is different form the Localtenure of patrimonial?
4. He belonged to the dominant populationRus?
5. He belonged to the dependent populationRus?
6. Which branch of industry was leading toRussia at the end of X - in the first half of XI century.?
7. What kinds of handicrafts were the most commonRus?
8. What are the main products were removed Rusmerchants abroad?
1. What is different from the centralized monarchy"Drujina state" as a form of government?
2. What facts lead to the conclusion thatGrand Prince of Kyiv at the end of X - in the first half of XI century. a majorfigure the system of government?
3. As was becoming feudalrelations in Russia?
4. Describe the situation of fundamental groupspopulation of Kievan Rus.
5. What was daily life of various stratapopulation of Kievan Rus?
Make a simplePlan for Development of Kiev Rus second half of the X - the first halfXI century. "And prepare a story behind it.
For the curious
Foldcomparative table "Formation of feudal relations in Western Europeand in Kievan Rus. Identify the common and different.