§ 7. Kievan Rus in the reign of Prince Yaroslav (textbook)

§ 7. Kievan Rus in the reign of Prince Yaroslav

      Upon learningthis paragraph, you'll learn:

      as there was internecine struggle betweensons of Prince Vladimir and Yaroslav establishment in Kiev;

      of domestic and foreign policies of PrinceYaroslav;

      Prince Yaroslav the contribution incultural, educational and church life of Kievan Rus;

      of Prince Yaroslav the Wise as a personand statesman;

      that such "internecine struggle", "RuskaTruth, legal norms, "Lavrov", "Metropolitanate", "Metropolitan", "bishop".

      Agendarepetition

1.   As the power struggle unfolding childrenSviatoslav after the death of his father?

2.   How was the formation of national territoryKievan Rus by Vladimir's reign?

3.   What was done to strengthen the princelySviatoslav and Vladimir power?

4.   What was the Prince's judicial reformVladimir?

5.   What is "marriage diplomacy"? With the purpose ofcarried out by Prince Vladimir?

 

1.   Internecinestruggle between the children of Vladimir. The promotion of Yaroslav in Kiev. Shortly before his deathVladimir appointed heir of the throne of his young grandson Boris. However, when the prince died in 1015, authorities captured him in Kievstepson Svyatopolk Yaropolkovych using the absence of Boris. Among childrenVladimir Svyatoslav, Mstislav, Boris, Gleb and broke Sviatoplukfierce internecine struggle for the great power.

 

      Datesand concepts

Internecinestruggle - Misunderstanding,internal discord and war between any of the social groups or individuals instate.

 

In the internecinesons died fighting Vladimir Boris, Gleb and Svyatoslav. Chroniclerclaims that the brothers were killed on the orders Sviatopolk. Against his killerhalf brother, who seized power in Kiev, Yaroslav made that then reigned inNovgorod. Yaroslav supported Novgorod and Varangians and Sviatopolk - pechenigs.

 

The icon with the image of Boris and Gleb - the first Rutheniansaints.

 

      Documentstell

A Tale of pastYears on the raid on Yaroslav Sviatopolk and the beginning of his reign in Kiev

In the year 1016.Jaroslav Sviatopolk come on, and they are facing on both sides of the Dnieper. Neitherodvazhuvalysya not these people move on, or those still on, and they were three months aloneagainst the other.

And the governorSvyatopolk canine tail quirk of Novgorod, near the coast and yizdyachysaying: "Why do you come from shkandyboyu a truth? (Yaroslav was lame - author.) Acarpenters are you! Here we pledge to build our mansion you! "This hearing NovgorodYaroslav said: "Tomorrow perepravymos them. If someone does not go with us,we alone thrust.

And it was already infreeze, and stood between two lakes Svyatopolk and all night that slept with upyvshyswife. Jaroslav same the next day, cooking for my wife, before the lightcrossed, and vysivshy ashore odpyhnuly Did they boats offshore. Thentroops against one other, and when assembled together, it was sicha furious and can not bewas because of the lake Pechenegs Sviatopluk help. And pressed Svyatopolkovyhwarriors to the lake, and they stepped on the ice, and ice from odlomyvsya voyamy Svyatopolkovymy,vtopylosya in many waters and began odolivaty Jaroslav. Seeing this,Svyatopolk ran. And odoliv Jaroslav. A Svyatopolk fled to Poles.

Jaroslav sat down inKiev otchim table. Yaroslav was then thirty-eight years.

 

Inquiries to document

1.   How, according to the chroniclers, there wasBattle of Yaroslav Sviatopluk?

2.   In the season, probably a battle?

3.   What do you think is the attitude of the chronicler todescribed events? Why do you say that?

4.   Yaroslav the Wise died at the age of 76 years. Bygiven passage of the chronicle specify dates of birth and death of the prince.

 

Svyatopolk fled toPoland to seek help from his father in law of King Boleslaw the Brave. Last pretexthelp zyatyu Chervensk first conquered city, and along with Sviatoplukconquered Kyiv. In winter 1018-1019 he was sacked Jaroslav Kyiv. Svyatopolk fled toPechenegs and spring 1019 with a troop moved to Kyiv. In the decisive battleRiver in Alta Pereyaslavs'kyi land Sviatopolk Yaroslav defeated, he fled frombattlefield and soon died.

In 1023 againstYaroslav spoke with his brother Mstislav Tmutarakani. He tried to grabpower in Kiev, but "it did not take Kiev. Because Lystvenskoyi battle that occurred1024 between Yaroslav and Mstislav near Chernigov, agreed to dividehalf the territory of South Russia on the Dnieper River and govern together. Of KyivRight Bank remained under Yaroslav and Chernigov from left bank - byMstislav. Since then, the brothers lived in harmony. After the death of Mstislav 1036Yaroslav was the rule and stood alone, according to the chronicler, "samovladtsemRus Land.

 

2.   InternalYaroslav the activity. Day of Grand Prince Yaroslav the Wise named later,was the highest period of prosperity and the rise of Kievan Rus. In the stateactivity he was worthy successor of his father, Prince Vladimir.

Portrait Sculpture of Yaroslav the Wise. Reconstruction M.Gerasimov.

 

      Figurein history

Yaroslav (978-1054) - sonVladimir Sviatoslavovych. He was the father of the governor originally planted toRostov, and then to Novgorod. After the death of Vladimir, winning the war onbrothers, became prince of Kiev. However, in 1036 ruled together with his brother RusMstislav. Yaroslav went down in history as the ruler of Kievan Rus, whichdokladav many efforts to strengthen state protection of its borders, the developmenteconomy and expansion of international relations. Died in Kiev and was buried inSt. Sophia Cathedral.

In hisYaroslav's reign had to make great efforts to protect the Kievan RusPechenegs from attacks. Continuing their parents, he strengthened the southernborders of the state and "put the city on Russia." However, Pechenezhsky bands couldovercome these fortifications and in 1036, as the chronicler says, broke toKyiv (there is also thought that these events may have occurred in 1071).

     

Documents tell

A Tale of pastyears "about the battle of Prince Yaroslav the Pechenigs near Kyiv

But if Yaroslavwas in Novgorod, the news came to him that pechenigs standing, oblozhyvshyKyiv. And Jaroslav, collecting many warriors, and Slovene Varangians came to Kyivwent into his garden.

And it was Pechenegswithout number. Jaroslav then made a city, prepared to my wife. Andhe set Varangians middle and on the right side of Kiev, and livim wing - Novgorod,and they stood before the city. A pechenigs started to go on attack, and they zstupylysyain the same place where lo is now Sophia Cathedral, Metropolitanate Ruthenian, but then it wasfield outside the city. And there sicha furious, and barely odoliv Yaroslav the evening, andPechenegs ran in different directions, and they knew not where to flee, and those fleeing,Sytomli pulled in the river, and others - in other rivers. And so they died and the rest of theirsomewhere and fled to the present.

Inquiries to document

1.   As Prince Yaroslav arranged their troops?

2.   Where the battle?

3.   What was the outcome of the battle?

 

 Devastation Pechenegswife of Prince Yaroslav. Picture of the record.

 

BecauseJaroslav win ever drove Pechenegs from the borders of Russia. Onbattlefield was built Hagia Sophia (the name comes from the Greek word"Sofia"), dedicated to the Lord of Wisdom.

Under the reign ofYaroslav was awarded first written summary of legal norms in Russia, which had receivedcalled "The Ancient Truth or Truth Yaroslav. It contained 18 articles and camethe "Ruska Pravda" - first written summary of old standardslaw.

     

Terms and definitions

Legal norms - Obligatory rules of conduct thatestablished and protected by the state.

 

"The truth Yaroslav"protect human life, established and penalties for killing and humiliation ofdignity. This death is not included, but usually bloodcontinued to work revenge, as before.

A. Kivshenko. Reading people "Ruska Pravda"

Bilibin. Court during the "Rus truth.

 

Page Ruska Pravda

 

Yaroslavhelped to strengthen the central government, which has weakened during the internecine strugglebetween the children of Vladimir. Pillar Prince were boyars and the main cities of KievRussia, he put his sons.

 

Many effortsJaroslav dokladav for new and developing existing cities. Many fundshe spent on construction in Kiev, trying to turn it into a contenderConstantinople. Prince fortified Kyiv, erecting a "city of Yaroslav" - systemfortification with earthworks and ditches high 14 м with strong oakwalls and towers that stretches for 3,5 km. The power of these fortifications was not equalin Russia. Territory "of Yaroslav" seven times higher than the area of "cityVladimir ".

Golden Gate of Kyiv. Reconstruction.

 

For exampleByzantine capital was built the Golden Gate - the main front entrance toKyiv, built St. Sophia Cathedral, St. George and laid Irpynskyymonastery. Probably around 1051 monk Antony on the slopes of the Dnieper River nearKyiv founded a monastery - Kiev-Pechersk Lavra. Over time, thismonastery into a leading center of culture and a model forfollowing the establishment of other monasteries of Kievan Rus.

 

 

      Datesand concepts

Lavra - The name of the great and influential Orthodox menmonastery, under the command of Major church directlypower.

 

3.   Church andcultural and educational life. Associated with the name Yaroslav flourishing cultural life,first book-learning. The chronicler wrote that the prince himself read books day andnight, organized translation works with "hrechyzny Slavic language." ByYaroslav created the first literary set of 1037-1039 he was the Prince personallytranslated many books and gathered a large library, which prevailed atSt. Sophia Cathedral.

 

 

St. Sophia Cathedral in Kiev (reconstruction and modernappearance)

 

      InterestingFacts

Destiny LibraryYaroslav the Wise and today remains one of the unrevealed secretshistory. Still it was not found. Some scientists believe that it was kept inSt. Sophia Cathedral and killed during the storming of the Mongols Kyiv in December 1240But it remained unclear why he survived while Cathedral. Historians and amateurjournalists put forward the version library allegedly hidden in undergroundMezhyhirsk monastery on the outskirts of Kyiv. However, confirmation of this assumptionno. Modern Ukrainian historian M. Kotlyar considers logical to assume thatafter his death, Prince book collection was divided between the largestchurch and monastery libraries of Kyiv. However, remain thosewho does not lose hope to find a library Yaroslav.

 

 

Yaroslavcharge of the church, giving it a tenth of its profits. Church andmonasteries were centers of education: school worked with them. Prince always stressedthat priests should "teach the people."

After the baptism ofKiev Rus was founded by the mother, which adhere tothe Patriarch of Constantinople. Metropolitan became a bishop, whoseadministered from Constantinople. His residence was in the reign of YaroslavSaint Sophia Cathedral.

     

Terms and definitions

Metropolis - Church Administrative Region, which managesMetropolitan.

Metropolitan - Above the rank of Orthodox bishops.

Bishop - The highest spiritual rank in the Christian church.

 

In 1051 bythe insistence of Prince Yaroslav the Ruthenian bishops cathedral first elected withoutagreement with the Patriarch of Constantinople, the all-MetropolitanRusyches Hilarion. Unfortunately, his fate is unknown, but in 1054 the Kievagain led the Greek metropolitan, which sent the patriarch of Constantinople.

 

4.   OutdoorYaroslav the policy. Special attention is paid Jaroslav foreign policy.Using interpersonal in Poland after the death of King Boleslaw the Brave,he won back in 1030-1031 he was the Poles' Chervensk city. In the northernWest Prince expanded the borders of their state to the Gulf of Finland and founded inconquered lands Yur'yiv city (its name comes from the Christian namePrince).

By Yaroslavkey direction of foreign policy remained south of Kievan Rus.For almost the entire period of his rule relations with Byzantium remainedfriendly. Ruski wife fought with the Byzantines thousands of kilometers awayHomeland. In particular, in 1038-1041 he was with the help of the Ruthenian troopsByzantines managed to retain the island of Sicily, who tried to capture the Arabs.

In 1043broke Ruthenian Byzantine war caused the deterioration of relationsByzantine Ruthenian with merchants and the Byzantine unfriendly behaviorEmperor of Yaroslav. Marine Rus march on Constantinople endeddefeat. But after a while the Byzantines were forced to seek ways of reconciliationPrince of Kiev, as needed his help in the fight against Pechenegs.

Important role inforeign policy Yaroslav occupied "marriage diplomacy. In particular, he gave himself forPolish king Casimir third on Vladimir daughters, his sister Mary-Dobrohnevu,and her son and her sister married Izyaslav Kazimierz. This alliance strengthened byKiev prince "Chervensk city.

Vladimireldest son Yaroslav, was married to Guido, the daughter of KingHarold, defeated by William the Conqueror. Rus-Byzantine agreement in 1046by which regulated relations between the two countries after the war in 1043, wassoon sealed marriage son Yaroslav Vsevolod with daughter MaryByzantine Emperor Constantine IX Monomakh. The marriage of his son Svyatoslavgranddaughter of the German Emperor Henry II of Kiev helped to strengthen relationsRussia with Germany.

Yaroslavna Anne - Queen of France. MedievalFrench engraving.

 

Rhine Gospel - the book brought Anna to whichFrench kings were sworn in

 

For Europeanrulers married with three daughters of Prince: Anna - for the French kingHenry I, Anastasia - by Hungarian King Andrew I, Elizabeth - In NorwegianKing Harald III.

Conclusionprofitable alliances by marriage with members of the families of rulers of various countries contributedstrengthening the authority of the Kievan Rus and was evidence of foresight Yaroslav.

 

 

      Conclusions

      Ruling of Yaroslav the Wise was the periodfurther rise of Kyiv Rus. At this time completed development of itsstate: stable borders, have been improved system management and orderlylegal norms developed culture, education and church life.

      Kievan Rus reached its zenithprosperity, becoming on a par with countries of Medieval Europe:Byzantine and German empires.

 

      Rememberdate

1036 - defeatYaroslav Pechenegs near Kyiv.

1051 - firstmention in the annals of the Kiev Caves Monastery.

     

Questions and Tasks

Check yourself

1.   What is the internecine struggle?

2.   When Yaroslav's reign began in Kiev?

3.   What were the consequences of battle Lystvenskoyi 1024he?

4.   When the battle with Yaroslav Pechenegsnear Kyiv?

5.   What is "Russkaya Pravda"?

6.   What was done to strengthen Yaroslavcentral government?

7.   Who was elected metropolitan of Kiev in1051?

8.   Who married three daughters of PrinceYaroslav?

      Thinkand answer

1.   Tell me there were internecine struggleamong the sons of Prince Vladimir and Yaroslav establishment in Kiev.

2.   Describe the internalYaroslav activity.

3.   What was the contribution of Prince Yaroslav incultural, educational and church life of Kievan Rus?

4.   What were the features of foreign policyPrince Yaroslav?

      Dotask

1.   Compare with maps of the Kievan Rusend of the reign of Vladimir and Yaroslav. Make a conclusion about their contributionthe formation of the national territory of Russia.

2.   End of Table "Prince of KievRussia "(see § 3).

      Forcurious

Historians oftenPrince Yaroslav called "father in Europe." Explain why.