§ 4. Kievan Rus in the reign of her and Sviatoslav
Upon learningthis paragraph, you'll learn:
Princess Olga of activity;
military campaigns of Prince Sviatoslav;
the significance of Princess Olga andPrince Svyatoslav of Kiev for the development of the state;
that such "reform", "Balkan campaigns.
The task to repeat
1. What steps to strengthen the central government has takenPrince Oleg?
2. What was the policy first Duke of Kievstate on the Byzantine Empire?
3. Name the East Slavic tribal unions whopaid tribute to the Khazars.
1. Princess Olgaits internal reform. After the death of Prince Igor with his only knownchronicle son Svyatoslav was a boy, so Kyiv throne in 945, thetook his wife, Olga. She rules Rus to 964, when power passedhis son grew up.
Princess Olga Monument in Kiev. Sculptor IIKavaleriadze (view early twentieth century.)
Princess Olga (C. 910-969) chronicler called "wiser than all men"described as beautiful, intelligent, energetic woman, and, simultaneously,pragmatic, cold and very cruel ruler. Where and when bornKiev future princess is not known. Chronicle reported only that "broughtIgor wife from Pskov named Olga. Consider that it was not onlyPrince's wife, and his wise and helper in the right, in the absence of Igor hasincur all efforts with governance. Having taken the throne of Kyiv, manymade to strengthen the Kievan Rus.
His ruleOlga started to crush the rebellion and revenge derevlyanskoho his assassinsman. In those days the bloody revenge was an unwritten law. Those who do notassassins to avenge their loved ones, ever regarded as discredited. Described inchronicles four Olga revenge her husband's murderer is actually causeddrevlyanskogo destruction reign.
The story of Nestor the Chroniclerevents following the assassination of Prince Igor is understandable so that Drevlyaneembraced it as their own victory and decided to seize power over Kyiv.Twenty derevlyanskyh envoys arrived in Kyiv and asked Olga to leavemarried to their Little Prince. Princess cracked down on them purely feminine guile.She pretended allegedly receives ambassadors from the extraordinary honor, and declared thata sign of special respect for people of their bear in a boat on hand. And then the proudmessengers such honors thrown into a large pit dug in the courtyard of the palace, andburied alive.
Rozpravyvshys withmatchmakers, Olga asked Drevlyany forward for talks with her most notablemen of princely family, the boyars and merchants. When they arrived to Kyiv, Princesssuggested that they relax after a long journey and sweat in the sauna, which thenshut and lit with the ambassadors.
Third revengehis cruelty surpassed the previous. Olga told, that wishes to exercisefuneral for her husband and ordered Derevlyany boil honey and prepare forthem. Then the princess promised to marry the prince derevlyanskoho small.Nearby Iskorosten - derevlyanskoyi capital - with its huge order Moundmound. During the ritual meal on it Olga waited until Drevliany ponapyvalysya,and commanded all the gravel. Killed, writes the chronicler five thousand Derevlyany.
Next yearOlga gathered troops and with minor son Sviatoslav moved toderevlyanskoyi conquest of land. Battle was won, but closed in Drevlyaneits capital. The siege lasted a year and exhausted Drevlyane offered Olgahoney and fur. But she gave up such a great tribute, informing her thatenough for three pigeons and three sparrows from each yard. Derevlyany providedPrincess what she demanded. Go to the paws of each bird Olga ordered bindburning tinder, and when posuteniye, to set at liberty. Birds flew in the covertIskorosten houses, and the city erupted from all sides. I ran with Drevlyanecity Olzhyni people caught them ...
Elders princessordered to execute or deliver into slavery, and the rest has imposed a heavy tribute.
DerevlyanskyyFig prince ended his life in captivity Kiev. Mention of it leftMalin Town, its hereditary possession in derevlyanskiy land that still has thisname. There is quite plausible version of that daughter of Prince derevlyanskoho Malusha,by Olga made her Keyes became the mistress of Prince Svyatoslav and birthfrom him the future of Prince Vladimir Sviatoslavovych.
However, deathIgor sharply raised the issue of public administration reform in Russia and,particular order levying tribute.
Terms and definitions
Reforms - Transformation, change, innovation in any fieldsocial life.
Olgapolyuddya streamlined. It clearly outlines the land from which the spacingdefined time were charged tribute. For the princely treasury was fixed "lovyscha -land rich in fur-bearing animals, which ensured its permanent income. Installed an"Lessons" and "handling", which should perform with her in the amount notdeprived of their livelihood. Introduction of "statutes" was probably orderedadministrative and judicial action on the ground princely combatants. Ulashtovuvalysya also"Position" and princely "pohosty - storage centers and collected tributecentral government.
Under the reign ofOlga rozbudovuvavsya and decorated its capital city. In Kiev, a newprincely residence - Olzhyn yard with "stone palace. Archaeologicalexcavations showed that it was probably a two-storey, covered with red slatestone palace, decorated with marble and decorative ceramics.
2. Foreign PolicyOlga activity. Princess Olga conducted an active foreign policy.However, unlike its predecessors, it preferred diplomacybefore the war.
In 946 (perother data - was 957) she visited Constantinople. These were the first in historyvisiting head of the Kyiv state-led peace embassy capitalByzantium. Princess probably wanted to restore the old privileges for Russiansmerchants and pay tribute to the Byzantines in Kyiv.
Reportedlychronicler in Constantinople Olga was baptized. Was reachedagreement that the Russians will serve the emperor's wife, and Byzantium for itpay tribute to Russia. In its implementation of Russians Olga send soldiers,helped in the war with Byzantium 961, the Arabs, against Norman andBulgarians.
Baptism of Olga (photo from the Chronicle)
Princess Olgamade the first attempt to establish diplomatic ties with Western Europe. In 949, she sent envoys to the Holy Roman Emperor OttoAnd - the most powerful ruler of contemporary Europe to provide a bishop forBaptism of Rus. Shortly thereafter came to Kyiv Christianmission, led by a monk Adalbert. She acted in Russia during the years 961-962, butby discouraging the pagan aristocracy, under the threat of physical violence hadflee. Since pagan sentiments were strong enough not Olgadared to declare Christianity the state religion.
Presumably, thisOlga weakened the position of failure, and power passed to her son Svyatoslav, whowas a supporter of paganism.
3. PrinceSvyatoslav. Hike against Khazar Khanate. Sviatoslav, son of Igor and Olga,Kyiv took the throne rather late - in the 964 was, at the age of 30 years.Svyatoslav's reign was not long period of almost continuous battles and warhikes.
Prince Svyatoslav (C. 931-972) were famous primarily as a brave warriorand talented commander. By becoming an independent ruler, carried Svyatoslavseveral trips in order to strengthen the Kievan Rus and forced the neighboring countriesreckon with its interests. Nestor the chronicler of the great love of tellingPrince, comparing it with the courage of cheetah. Sviatoslav militancycorrespond to periods when the force of arms medieval rulers formedterritory of their countries. During its relatively short rule heraids took place from the Middle Volga to the Caspian Sea and on the Northern Caucasus andBlack to the Byzantine possessions in the Balkans, breaking at least8000-8500 km.
UnlikeOlga Sviatoslav was a pagan. Prompting mother baptized categoricallyrejected, arguing that this will laugh all the prince's warriors.
Mark the Prince Svyatoslav
In 964-966 yearsSviatoslav deployed against Khazar Khanate. He conquered the East Slavicv'yatychiv tribal union, who lived on the river Oka and paid tribute to the Khazars.Sviatoslav also freed from dependence on the Khazars and forced to pay tributeKyiv non-Slavic tribes meryu, Muro, mescheru, cheremysiv, Mordvinians, and burtasivVolga Bulgars. Then the army of Prince went down the Volga to its mouth, where thereKhazar Khaganate center and defeating the Khazars, their possessioncapital city Ityl. He also conquered and assessed by a tribute to the tribes of the Alans, oryasiv (ancestors of Ossetians) and Adyga or Kasogi (Adygeytsy ancestors and Circassians)Tamatarha annexed city on the Taman peninsula (had received a new name -Tmutarakan) and Khazar fortress Sarkel (was called White Tower).
Ruins Sarkela (Photo excavations 1930)
A Tale of pastYears of Prince Svyatoslav and his struggle with the Khazars
In the year 964. WhenPrince Svyatoslav grew and matured, he became the warriors gather, and many men,because he himself was a brave and easy. Walking by as pardus (Cheetah), many wars hedid. Carts at the same it is not a driving or did not take a boiler, no meat is cooking,but potonku narizavshy horse or beast or Wolowyna spikshy and coal, ithe ate. Even he had no tents and pitnyk fame and put a saddle at the head. The sameand all the other warriors with him. And he sent messengers to other lands, saying: "I wantyou go. "
He went onOka-Volga river and on, and found v'yatychiv, he said: "To give you gifts?"They replied: "Khazars. By Rala shelyahu Did we give. "
In the year 965. MovedSvyatoslav the Khazars. Upon hearing this, went against the Khazars of his prince ...zstupylysya troops and fight, and there was battles between them and odoliv Svyatoslavkagan, and their capital city Ityl and garden White Tower picked up, and he won yasiv,and kasochiv, and came to Kyiv.
In the year 966.Defeated Svyatoslav v'yatychiv and tribute imposed on them.
Inquiries to document
1. What are the facts mentioned recorder indicateSviatoslav simplicity and courage?
2. Locate on the map are names Nestor peoplecountries, cities, etc. Follow directions and military campaigns of Svyatoslav in 964-966he
Mainresults in a conflict with Sviatoslav Khazars in 964-966 he was weakening anddecline of Khazar Khanate. It helped to eliminate threats to KhazarKievan Rus and, simultaneously, opened the way to its borders with the new nomadsEast, especially Pechenegs.
4. Balkanhikes. Use military power and talent Sviatoslav decided Byzantinesturned to him for help in quelling the rebellion Bulgarians. In 968 the Prince of60000th army went to his first trip to the Balkan Bulgaria. Hebroke under Dorostolom strong Bulgarian army, captured 80 towns and sat downknyazyuyuchy here in Pereyaslavtsi. Frightened Svyatoslav refused to leaveBulgaria won and his intentions to move its capital to the DanubeState Byzantines stirred for an attack on Kyiv Pechenegs.
In 968Pecheniz'ka horde has besieged Kyiv. Kiyani messenger sent to the prince,reproaching that strange land searching, he left her. Sviatoslav hastilyreturned home and drove from his Pechenegs capital city.
Tostrengthen the power of a prince during his absence, left his Svyatoslavgovernor in Kiev eldest son Yaropolk in drevlyan land - Oleg andrule Novgorod sent his illegitimate son of Princess derevlyanskoyiMalushi Vladimir.
Byzantine horsemen pursued Rus (photo fromByzantine chronicle)
In 969, theSvyatoslav went to the second and last trip to Bulgaria. This trip had suchsuccess as the first. Prince had to fight not only the Bulgarians but also withByzantines. In 971, the Byzantine forces, which has prevailed besiegedSviatoslav with his army in the Bulgarian city Dorostol. But the Byzantines asand failed to win the city. Rusychi repeatedly came out about him and Dorostolyawalls were fighting the enemy. Thus Byzantines had to agree to bargainpeace agreement with Svyatoslav. By its terms, let Byzantine army of PrinceDorostolya weapons and even provided him with food on the way back.But Svyatoslav had to give commitment to become an ally of the Byzantines andclaim to Byzantine possessions in the Crimea and the Danube.
K. Lebedev. Meeting of the Grand Prince Svyatoslav ofByzantine Emperor Tsymishiyem.
Byzantinehistorian Lev Diakon, which alone saw Sviatoslav left a description of its appearance: "Atappearance was as follows: average height, not too high nor too low, withbushy eyebrows, with blue eyes, a flat nose, with a shaved head andthick long hair that hung on the upper lip. His head was completelybare, and only on one side of her hanging hair strand, meaning nobility kindand a thick neck, shoulders wide and the entire state rather slim. He looked sullen andsevere. In one ear hung up his gold ring, adorned with twopearls with ruby, inserted between them. Clothes on it was white, that anythingbut clean, no different from other clothing.
Signing of peaceByzantines, Svyatoslav went to Russia. But even defeated Rusprince-warriors remained dangerous. Pechenegs Byzantines bribed them toSviatoslav killed. In the spring of 972, when Rusyches returned to Kyiv, nearDnieper rapids they were ambushed arranged Pechenegs khanChickens. Svyatoslav was killed in action. According to legend, the khan ordered to make itsskull cup okuvavshy his gold. There, though, was the inscription: "the emergencywishing that its lost.
Conclusions.Internal measures Olga promoted closer association of formerEast of individual tribal holdings in a single state body. Inforeign policy of the Duchess Olga identified new approaches, providingprecedence over the war by peaceful means.
In its state foundation of the princeSviatoslav preferred active foreign policy, which was mainlyconquest oriented. Talent is not always complemented by the commanderpolitical foresight. Numerous wars have caused depletion of SviatoslavRus was lost diplomatic relations with leading Christian statesOlga established.
With the death of Svyatoslav important historicalRussia completed the night distant military campaigns. Successor Warrior Princefocused on the development of previously conquered lands and building a strong democracy.
Remember the date
946 - ActivityConstantinople (Constantinople) Rus embassy, headed by Princess Olga.
968 - FirstBalkan campaign of Prince Svyatoslav.
969-971 years - the secondBalkan campaign of Prince Svyatoslav.
Questions and Tasks
1. When Olga's reign began?
2. What city was the capital city derevlyanskoyiearth?
3. When the first ever visitConstantinople, head of the Kievan Rus led peace embassy?
4. Name the tribes and peoples who conqueredSvyatoslav and forced to pay tribute.
5. What were the results of the first Balkancampaign?
6. What ended the Second Balkan trip?
1. Tell me about revenge Olgakilling her husband.
2. What reform? What kinds of reforms undertaken byPrincess Olga of Russia?
3. Describe foreign policyOlga and its importance for Russia.
4. Tell us about hiking Sviatoslav against the Khazarsand the Balkans. What were their consequences?
5. Compare policies and Olga Sviatoslav.Identify the common and different.
Continuedrafting table princes of Kievan Rus' (see § 3).
For the curious
Ukrainianhistorian Hrushevsky called Prince Svyatoslav "Spartans of ancient Rus'and "the first Zaporozhets at Kiev table. Explain how you understand thesecharacteristics.