Kievan Rus by descendants of Yaroslav. Vladimir Monomakh
- covenant sons of Yaroslav the Wise.
- Board Yaroslavychi.
- fight for Kyiv table between Yaroslavichem.
- Lubech congress of princes.
- mizhknyazivskyh dispute intensified after Lyubetskii Congress.
- Establishment of Kiev Vladimir Monomakh table.
- Government schemes Vladimir Monomakh.
- Board Mstislav Vladimirovich.
Chronology of events
reign in Kiev Izyaslav Yaroslavych
Defeat Russians wives Izyaslav, Svyatoslav and Vsevolod Yaroslavychi was on Alto. Performance against Kiev Prince Izyaslav
Vishgorodska meeting of the princes. Adoption Truth Yaroslavychi
Begin struggle between Kyiv table Yaroslavichem
reign in Kiev Sviatoslav Yaroslavych
reign in Kiev Izyaslav Yaroslavych
reign in Kiev Vsevolod Yaroslavych
1093 -1113 he
reign in Kiev Sviatopolk Izyaslavich
Lubech Congress princes
1113 - 1125 рр.
reign in Kiev, Vladimir Monomakh
1125 - 1132 рр.
reign in Kiev Mstislav Vladimirovich
basic concepts and terms
Monarchy (from gr. autocracy) - State in which the highest power concentrated in the hands of the sole ruler of hereditary and handed to representatives of the ruling dynasty.
Vladimir Monomakh (Vladimir-Basil Vsevolodovich; 1053-1125 biennium) - the outstanding statesman of Kievan Rus, Grand Prince of Kyiv (1113-1125 biennium), soldier and writer. Son and daughter of Vsevolod Yaroslavych vizantantiyskoho Emperor Constantine Monomakh. This Rus prince was undoubtedly one of the most gifted. Interestingly, the very success of its monomials is explained by some exceptional abilities and great diligence and zeal, and these qualities he wanted to educate the children. Started active work prince 13 years boy, soon became monomials «sword in the hands of his father,» - sage scribe who «sydya home learned five languages» and apparently was not doable to military campaigns. And participation in Monomakh eighty three battles (the number of calls following their prince in his sermon for children ") did not say, distracted by it the love of words of wisdom to the portrait. So Vladimir Monomakh be called harmoniesNoah personality, in which individual excellence combined with spiritual perfection.
1. Will the sons of Yaroslav the Wise
Do you remember who was the thorny path of Yaroslav the Wise of Kiev to the table.
- To protect his own sons units princely intestine wars, he took care of the new principle stolonasliduvannya that was based on seniority.
- chronicler during 1054 learn that Jaroslav gave Kyiv eldest son Izyaslav, Chernihiv - Sviatoslav Pereyaslav - Vsevolod, Vladimir-Volyn - games and Smolensk - Wenceslaus zapovivshy them «not overstep brotherly drawing of lot».
- idea lies in the fact that each of the children was in Kiev pocherezhno table: table in the newly freed kotriys of land, as was brother to move the stage higher and closer to Kyiv. Main, by order of Yaroslav, was to have senior of the brothers.
in historical science there is no unanimity in assessing covenant Yaroslav.
Some believe his far-sighted and prudent decision that, if compliance would ensure the territorial unity of the state.
Others see the testament of Prince measure pushed to the disintegration of a single state into separate autonomous principality. It is the text that he cites the chronicler, is not mentioned nephew Yaroslav - sons and grandsons of his brother, who, of course, also claimed the great legacy and, feeling offended, are promoting the new intestine wars.
There is also a belief that the covenant did not exist as such, and the text inserted in the chronicle was composed in order Yaroslav beloved son Vsevolod, which fell knyazhyty in Kiev last of Yaroslavychi.
2. Board Yaroslavychi
After the death of Yaroslav the Wise in the history of Rus is the time many characters, as sole holder of power was not strong enough for long.
- earth, as mentioned above, was concentrated in the hands of senior Yaroslavychi - Izyaslav, Sviatoslav and Vsevolod.
- Junior - Games and Vyacheslav - received minor possession and also died shortly .
- no better fate had one more overbearing relative Yaroslaviv - Vseslav Bryachyslavych , the grandson of Yaroslav older brother, the Prince of Polotsk.
Possessing the most important areas, older Yaroslavychi initially ruled a nation quite smoothly.
- Kiev prince was Izyaslav - and this role gives him the chronicler, constantly stressing, however, that he had consulted with his younger brother willingly.
fight against nomads
The biggest hassle brothers were Yaroslavychi nomads. At first they had to fight Torquay .
- However, these Turkic tribes had been a significant force for themselves suffered from militant Polovtsian , which came in the first half of 11 century. in the Black Sea steppes of Prykaspiyu.
- to Ruthenian borders Kuman first came in 1055 At that time there were no clashes: Pereyaslavs'kyi Prince Vsevolod managed to break away from Polovtsy peacefully.
- But when in 1062 Polovets'ka horde again approached Pereiaslav, it appears that the very wife only to repel the attackers Vsevolod enough. And even then if Kuman tested force.
- This battle took place, the 1068 on the River Alta.
- United Yaroslavychi three army suffered a crushing defeat.
- princes fled.
- Vsevolod afraid to stay in Pereyaslav and went to Izyaslav in Kyiv.
- helplessness enraged princes of Kiev. Natural protests and discontent grew into rebellion.
Rise of Kiev in 1068
In the face of attacks on people of the city Polovtsian gathered for assembly and approved defend yourself.
- with the requirement to give them horses and weapons, testified as the chronicler, they went to the prince's palace.
- Izyaslav refused to do the will of the insurgents - and was forced to flee. Instead, people of "remembered" about a prisoner in Polotsk prince Vseslav coupe (his imprisonment Yaroslavychi probably hoped spekatysya unwanted bidder on the great heritage), fired him and announced the Kiev prince.
- remarkable that Svyatoslav and Vsevolod no means opposed to illegal activities Vseslav, and vice versa - were sitting quietly in their possession, until the aggrieved Izyaslav poneviryavsya in exile.
Izyaslav Return to Kyiv
- refuge senior Yaroslavych not found in siblings, and distant relative - the Polish King Boleslaw II.
- recovering from Kiev events, in 1069 he went out to Russ Boleslav.
- Kiyani, frightened by the approach of Polish soldiers, turned for help to Svyatoslav and Vsevolod.
- Yaroslavychi demanded Izyaslav so that it does not lead to Kyiv strangers and not harm Kiev. But the bloodshed is still not escaped.
- chronicler told that before Izyaslav sent a son and he took revenge for her father, cruelly rozpravyvshys of the most active participants in last year's uprising.
Restoring power three
- Izyaslav returned to Kyiv. Apparently we should have been updated three former board Yaroslavychi coherent.
- next few years if brotherly friendship really took precedence over ambition.
- Izyaslav, zbahatyvshys unhappy experience in 1068, ordered to move merchandise, which held rallies on the Hill - under the supervision of Prince and his wife.
- not escaped retribution and Vseslav: the same year Izyaslav drove him from Polotsk, the city gave to his son.
Among the most visible national events was Vishgorodska meeting princes 1072
- dedicated to moving the relics of saints, Boris and Gleb to the newly constructed church, she gathered, but the princes, also metropolitan bishops, abbots of the largest monasteries.
- honoring saints and princes consulted about worldly affairs. Then it was approved, including a set of laws Rus «Truth Yaroslavychi», together with articles made of Yaroslav the Wise "Ruska Pravda".
3. The fight for Kyiv table between Yaroslavichem
But even as the ceremony was arranged Vishgorodska meeting, it ended the contradictions between Yaroslavych.
- Year 1073 among the sons of Yaroslav the Wise was a split. With the support of Vsevolod, Sviatoslav went to Kyiv, drove Izyaslav and became the Grand Duke of Kiev.
During the three-year reign
- he reallocate the land for the benefit of his family, climbed a numerous family, revealing a strong ability to master.
- indicative of this relationship is Svyatoslav of Kiev clergy. The group most dissatisfied reign of Sviatoslav belonged Superior Cave Monastery Theodosius .
- As the record, he openly condemned the violence against the prince of Chernihiv, committed over Iziaslav. But within a year Svyatoslav able to change attitude so that Theodosius gave his monastery under his care.
- Exactly Svyatoslav allocated funds for building the monastery celebrated the Assumption Cathedral.
- and implementation plans Sviatoslav prevented death: he died in late 1076
- tragic event opened the way to Kyiv younger Yaroslavych. However, it gave hope to the outcasts Izyaslav , which this time of trouble in peresydzhuvav Boleslav II , to return home.
And while the
- Izyaslav lashtuvavsya to march to Kyiv, the Kyiv Prince was Vsevolod.
- advantage of big powers, he reallocate tables, transferring Svyatoslav son Oleg in Volyn and Chernigov gave her - Vladimir Monomakh.
- to Russ moved Izyaslav of the Polish army. Vsevolod met with his brother and peacefully zalahodyv conflict.
- So in 1078, the senior finished third Yaroslavych Kyiv table . Svyatoslavovitch was deprived of the most important possessions.
- Not having lost any hope of return, they took up arms. In the internecine strife was drawn offended many relatives, but also external enemies of Russia - Polovtsian.
- fratricidal war in August 1078 he put the head of Iziaslav. Kiev became the sovereign ruler Vsevolod .
- main focus of its internal operation was overcome mizhknyazivskyh squabbling.
- In foreign policy matters of life and death remained Polovets'ka threat.
Despite adverse circumstances, Vsevolod reign in Kiev was a success. And those already successful elderly owner had to thank his son Vladimir .
- activities that required the use of military force, led by order of Vladimir Monomax father, and he took care of Vsevolod spiritual life.
- In his reign was completed
- construction and painting of the Assumption Cathedral Cave Monastery,
- founded by Andrew (Yanchyn) Monastery of the first women's school,
- built the Cathedral of St. Peter and St. Michael in Vidubichi more.
temptation of power
After the death of Vsevolod 1093 nothing seemed to not mind Vladimir Monomakh occupy Kyiv table .
- At that time he owned Chernihiv, had the backing Pereiaslav knyazyuvav where his younger brother, Rostislav, revered Kiev.
- monomials not consented to the seductive proposal and invited the Kyiv table Yaroslavych older son - Sviatopolk Izyaslavich the only one on the principle of seniority had priority rights in Kyiv.
- Monomakh had to renounce and Chernihiv. After the death of Vsevolod offended Oleg of Chernigov said of his rights by threatening a new internal wars.
- To avoid bloodshed, Vladimir Monomakh refused Chernihiv possessions and took Pereyaslav a table in which empty through the tragic death of Rostislav.
- Twenty years reign in the southernmost Ruthenian lands passed to Monomakh in continuous worry, the main of which were Kuman .
4. Lubech Congress princes
Fighting Polovtsi attackers needed to attract wives of other princes. Just amity could end princely quarrels.
- Realizing this, Vladimir Monomakh maintained close relationships with brothers and nephews. him , in particular, initiative belonged to the Congress of Princes in Liubech 1097
- On Lyubetskii Congress approved the principle of princely otchyny - ie possession which belonged to her parents.
- Otchynni land tied to certain branches of the princely family and could be transmitted by inheritance to children and grandchildren.
- Yes, Kyiv was recognized otchynoyu Izyaslav descendants in the person of the Grand Prince Sviatopolk Izyaslavich, was incorporated Svyatoslavovitch and Pereyaslav - Vladimir Vsevolodovich (Monomakh).
5. Aggravation mizhknyazivskyh contention after Lyubetskii Congress
- Although consensus was that, according to chroniclers, with the decision Lyubetskii Congress, they do not put an end to disputes of princes.
- zakriplyuvalosya only three children and grandchildren Yaroslavychi - Izyaslav, Svyatoslav and Vsevolod.
- princely brothers was content with meager possessions, besides those who were zahalnorodoviy property managers is recognized otchyn owners.
- to the group "deprived" of princes, but many Yaroslaviv nephew, and got his grandson David I. direct.
- Not surprisingly, the latter took an active part in the brutal intestine wars that erupted immediately after the Congress in Liubech.
- victim was, in particular, Terebovlia Powered Prince, eldest son of Rostislav Vladimirovich Yaroslaviv grandchildren, blinded by the will of David Ihorovych and the most resented, Sviatopolk Izyaslavich.
So, life was much more difficult in the turgid speech to Congress Lyubetskii. Yet the positive result was that gathering: after meeting Prince Lyubech collected regularly. On them princes most contradictory issues discussed, including the issue of allotments.
6. Establishment of Kiev Vladimir Monomakh table
The first decade of the 12 century. runaway in the confrontation with Polovtsy.
- Rus princes won more confident. In addition, the fighting ever occurred more frequently in the desert: Polovtsian annual visits to the lands their own rulers ubezpechuvaly possession of sudden and violent attacks.
- most active participant in the fight against Polovtsian remained Pereyaslavs'kyi Prince Vladimir Monomakh . His brilliant victories he earned fame protector Rus lands.
- So when 1113 in Kiev prince died Svyatopolk, Kiev, disappointed its not a very good rule, revolted, demanding him to Prince Vladimir Monomakh.
Researchers tend to see in Kiev uprising of 1113 delicate calculation princes - candidates for Kyiv table, especially Monomakh. Indeed, according to the law of estates Vsevolodovich Vladimir of Kiev could not take the table. Pevny legality of its establishment in Kiev, in fact, provided the insurgency and the will of Kiev.
- As the chronicle of monomials first refused to Kyiv, but when the rebels began to threaten widespread lawlessness, a wise prince agreed. Kyiv met Vladimir Monomakh as his Prince April 20, 1113 «with great honor».
7. National measures Vladimir Monomakh
- main purpose of his reign of Vladimir Monomax saw the great power in consolidating and strengthening the political unity of Russia.
- In his immediate possessions were vast territory. In Pereiaslav Novgorod and Kyiv monomials captured Turov-Pinsk land later dawdle.
- Authority prince was undeniable, so no one dared oppose his will. In addition to establishing peaceful relations between Rus Prince Vladimir Monomakh used marriages.
Among the measures the prince, to improve the political situation, only a few of its important legislation.
- At the meeting in the village of Berestove, in which was also his wife Monomakh, high military officers in Kyiv, Belgorod, Pereiaslav and representatives of the Prince of Chernihiv, was approved «Charter», that was a complement to «Rus truth» .
- limit of moneylenders and landlords,
- significantly improving the situation of urban dwellers and peasants.
- «Charter" also encouraged buyers. Envisaged, for example, benefits to those of them who lost property during the war or fire.
- External links Rus Monomakh times were strikingly different. As Yaroslav the Wise, Vladimir dealings dynastic marriages with European masters. Mizhdynastychni connections combined Kyiv from Byzantium, England, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Germanic Empire, Hungary.
- As Kievan Prince Vladimir Monomakh made several successful campaigns against the Polovtsian. However, during Monomakh they are not too aggressive, often resolved disputes in a peaceful manner - those still-dynastic marriage.
- Vladimir Monomakh died 1125
- buried prince (just like his father) in St. Sophia Cathedral, which was an expression of his enormous authority - so big that no objection provided the consolidation of Kiev Mstislav table - senior Monomahovychiv.
8. Mstislav Vladimirovich Board
Mstislav was a worthy father. Over the seven-year reign in Kiev (1125-1132 biennium) subsequently poshanovuvaly name Great .
- Mstislav skillfully managed the state, strengthened the great power, holding in subjection obstinate relatives.
- several successful campaigns against the Polovtsian who tried to "draw the head » after the death of Monomakh, ensure peace on the southern border of the state.
- By Mstislav revival seen west foreign policy.
- in Kiev was laid stone church of St. Theodore and Mary Pirogoschey, consecrated the church of St. Andrew Yanchynoho monastery.
- Mstislav descendants still remembered because he was the last prince of Kiev, whose power can be characterized as monarchical . In his death in Kievan Rus started night disintegration - strengthening the independence and autonomous principalities of power autonomous princes.