Kiev during the state of Prince Volodymyr the Great. The introduction of Christianity as state religion

Plan presentation

  1. affirm Svyatoslavich Vladimir in Kiev.
  2. Formation of state territory. The territorial division.
  3. introduction of Christianity as state religion: the connection between power and faith during the Middle Ages, the choice of faith, chronicles the legend of the baptism of Vladimir and the introduction of Christianity in Russia, the spread of Christianity in the lands of Rus the value of the introduction of Christianity as state religion.
  4. Other domestic measures Vladimir: development of capital; chasing first Rus coins organizing laws.
  5. Foreign Policy of Prince Vladimir.

basic concepts and terms

Detinets - part of the medieval fortified city chateau.

Tithing - in medieval Europe - tenth of the crops or other income, which was paying the church population in the maintenance of local churches, parish clergy and the poor. In Kievan Rus - deductions in favor of the church with all the prince's income and gains possession of all landowners. The first tithe set Kyiv prince Volodymyr Svyatoslavovitch after the baptism of Russia to rebuild and keep the church tithes.

Chronology of events

978 - 1015 рр.

reign of Vladimir Svyatoslavich

988

introduction of Christianity in Russia as a state religion

989 - 996 years

construction of church tithes

1. Consolidation in Kiev

  • Vladimir became established in Kyiv 980, is already having considerable experience of a statesman. With stories chronicler learn that knyazhyty he began in Novgorod, from which, however, was ousted older brother Yaropolk.
  • Deprived estates, Vladimir poneviryavsya years in exile. The years of exile were not for him nothing, because back to Russia Vladimir Varangians with detachments. With their support, he not only conquered Novgorod, and possession of lands and older brothers, taking, in addition, and Polotsk.
  • legendary chronicler details embellished story of how Vladimir toruvav velyknyazivskoho way to the table.
  • had to overcome many challenges Walter, until he, in the words of the chronicler, «knyazhyty was in Kiev a» .

2. Formation of state territory. Territorial division

  • Possession of Kiev princes - Vladimir predecessors were quite conventional.
  • Each of Kiev princes had to make extraordinary efforts to restore its authority over tribal disobedient princes.
  • to stable domains Svyatoslav, which although significant were his temporary conquest belonged only to Kyiv from the surrounding lands, territories and derevlyanski Novgorod.
  • When Vladimir captured Kyiv extended his rule to their own these lands, and on earth has just conquered polochan.
  • So he set about gradually add to Kyiv new territory is not limited to the formal establishment of dominance in the form of tribute payments.

    • vykorinyuvav Kyiv ruler in the lands conquered tribes any signs of local authorities rodopleminnoyi, transferring their ownership in their sons or government officials-governor.
    • Subordinated territory lost tribal name, but they gradually began to call land behind the city: Kyiv earth, Chernigov land Pereiaslavs'ka land, land, etc. Novgorod.
    • the reign of Vladimir the Great was replaced rodopleminnoho division of Kievan Rus territorial.

    • about territorial acquisitions of Vladimir striking tangible vidsunennya Kievan state borders in the west.
    • In
    • 981 , Vladimir gripped cities: Przemysl, Volyn, June and Belz.
    • to Volodymyr's possessions included and Transcarpathia.
    • In the northern territories
    • Kyiv prince had access to the Baltic Sea.
    • not waning interest while Vladimir and to the south, as the Byzantine Empire remained a powerful nation, and the eastern nomadic world was so close that neglect it meant deliberately expose themselves to danger of destruction.
    • These circumstances prompted
    • of the Grand Prince to strengthen their position on the Taman peninsula - in Tmutarakansky ground that it was attached to the Kievan prince Svyatoslav state.

Note! large expanse of state Vladimir suggest an important role among the events of Prince played military marches. Chronicle and really gives them a lot, datuyuchy, however, mostly first years of the reign of Volodymyr.

Modern scholars are inclined to think that those trips would have to be much larger and, obviously, they were held for the entire board of Prince I Vladimir. However, the lack of other sources in historical literature are mostly the date certified by the chronicler.

During the reign of Volodymyr Kyiv conquered vast territory, setting the borders of their state along the Dniester, the Western Bug, Neman, Western Dvina in the west, the Volga and Oka Rivers in the east, Peipus, Ladoga and Onega Lakes and the Gulf of Finland to the north, Black Sea and Azov Sea region in the south. Given the territorial division and abolition of local tribal authorities that have not been namriyana and very real empire - the largest state of contemporary Europe.

3. The introduction of Christianity as state religion. The relationship between power and faith during the Middle Ages

  • on lands inhabited by Vladimir united various tribes and peoples. All of them kept their ancestral customs and traditions, believed in their gods, who mostly were different even in related tribe, language variation, life, and most remote - and lifestyle.
  • Under these conditions, the territorial unity of the state, supported only by force of arms was quite illusory. To bring up a powerful empire - namely Vladimir had such intent - he had to take care of ideological justification of his rule.
  • in ancient times was considered the right to govern the gods bestowed. Similar representations have complied and our ancestors. When the rule of pagan cults Vladimir open to the danger of permanent opposition to the tribes that each worship their god and obey god blessed by the same ruler.
  • Kyiv prince destroyed tribal indexes but left the gods ... and they mouth-Magi priests persuaded the people to the eternal order of renovation.

Volodymyr's empire was incompatible with pagan polytheism. For the whole country had to be the only God who willfully gave the right to govern the Kiev prince.

choice of faith

  • Duke fell to live at a time when widespread acquired Christianity.
  • therefore not surprising that among the Ruthenians were many Christians. As Christians we know Princess Olga - Volodymyr's grandmother.
  • Sources
  • to this day kept the legend of how he and Vladimir weighed carefully chosen new faith for himself and his country.
  • At first it seemed
  • generally tried to do without innovation and set about reform of paganism.
    • chronicler relates, inter alia, that Vladimir Becoming a consolidate in Kiev, commanded the princely palace set nearby gods Perun Khors, Dazhdbog, Stribog, Symarhla and Mokosha were placed - most respected words & rsquo ; Slavic gods.
    • This
    • gods, intended prince had to worship all the tribes. But the attempt was unsuccessful.
    • Then
    • Vladimir summoned representatives of various nations that professed faith in one God - Islam, Judaism, Roman (Catholic) and Byzantine Christianity , or, as then said, Greek (Orthodox) Christianity.
    • After hearing the statement of principles
    • every creed, Vladimir still delayed declaration of its will, although the choice already made. To permanently ensure the correctness of the choice, he sent envoys to various countries for «test of faith» .
    • only heard of each report, the Prince announced his decision to join the Byzantine Christianity.
    • fact introduction of Christianity as state religion was identified themselves over the life .

  • dubbed Russia's intention, as you remember, had yet Prince Askold and Princess Olga. But then a political move not won the support of influential policy makers.
  • also join the Christian states could only with the consent of their rulers. The winners of the Byzantine Empire, for example, felt that after the introduction in some state of Byzantine Christianity, it automatically becomes a subordinate of Byzantium.
  • Princes of Kiev, which competed with over a century Constantinople, could not disregard this fact.

So, according to the researchers, chronicles the legend is the echo of complex international negotiations that are carried out by the government before an act of baptism of Vladimir of Russia.

legend of baptism mentioned in Chronicles of Vladimir and the introduction of Christianity in Russia .

    Introduction
  • chronicler of Christianity has associated with a campaign of Vladimir on the Greek city of Chersonese (Korsun) in Crimea, which then belonged to the Byzantine possessions.
    • forcing residents to open the gate, Vladimir asked the rulers of Byzantium with the requirement to give his wife, their sister.
    • marriage prevented pagan prince of Kiev. Baptized and married in the Chersonese with Anna - the so-called Byzantine princess, Vladimir returned to Kyiv.
    • With a
    • Kyiv prince brought Korsuns'ka clergy, books, icons, crosses, relics of Pope St.. Clement.
  • Then he resorted to drastic measures for the baptism of Kiev. Grand Duke sent messengers to the city the following day to come to the Dnieper.
  • Most Kiev with children came to the river and entered the water. In the presence of Vladimir priests baptized them.
  • Christianity baptism of Kiev started throughout the country.

spread of Christianity in the lands of Rus

  • Introduction of new faith required time.
  • Researchers claim that the Ruthenian Church still in 12 century. were special places for baptism of adults.
  • Originally
  • to Christianity pryluchalysya largest cities.
  • Chronicle brings single witness outbreaks of discontent actions Prince. And Vladimir neshytnu found the will and determination, so, the introduction of Christianity made him, unlike his predecessors Askold and Olga irreversible.
  • And the new faith won a supporters peacefully, the fact that many ancient traditions have remained in the home, Rus, pereplitayuchys with Christian rites.
  • example, among the songs - velychalnyh songs in honor of the birth of Jesus Christ - and yet many of these occurred even in pre-Christian times.

Value introduction of Christianity as state religion in Rus acceptance of Christianity had a huge impact on the further development of the country.

  • the direct consequences of the introduction of Christianity in Kievan state in the domain of domestic policy include - strengthen the power of the Grand Prince, closely unite around Kyiv riznopleminnyh areas generated by overcoming the local pagan beliefs and attitudes of insularity and separation from other areas .
  • in international life consequences of the introduction of Christianity - in establishing equal relations with the Christian countries , primarily from the Byzantine Empire.
  • the direct effects of Christianity as state religion is the establishment of Vladimir church organization .
  • implications Vladimir measures to extend education were directly associated with the introduction of Christianity, but clearly were a few decades - when our area literary culture thrived .
  • Just remote in time was development of the art architecture and painting, jewelry and music , without which no more fancy displays of celebration in the Christian church.
  • most distant in time are consequences of the introduction of Christianity in the field of human relations . Even today are still as important guidelines of Jesus Christ : his teachings are the foundation of modern civilization .
  • Our understanding of good and evil, mercy and cruelty, loyalty and betrayal, honor and shame, laziness and diligence, integrity and irresponsibility, lawlessness and justice based on Christian values.
  • with Christianity in our land stronger family locked children to respect parents, gained a great respect woman-mother. Gradually people learned to be responsible for their actions, because each according to Christian doctrine will be a report about his life before God.

4. Other domestic measures Vladimir

Building Kyiv

  • During Vladimir Kyiv Detinets increased several times. He defended the strong wall, rampart and ditch.
  • to «city of Vladimir» - so called Detinets devised Vladimir, could get through the gates.
  • inaccessibility gates added high defensive rampart and deep ditch, through which, over bridge.
  • decoration inside "the city of Vladimir was a brick church of the Virgin, construction of which lasted from 989 for seven years.
    • That was the main and the first stone church of Kievan Rus.
    • to sustain the Church Prince Vladimir ordered to give a tenth of its profits. Therefore, testified chronicler, called her tithes.
    • Along with the church of God located luxury princely palaces - this is where Vladimir exercised a big banquet, the memory of which still lives in the herb.
  • On kremlin lived and wealthiest magnates Kiev.
  • In Kiev
  • tail archaeologists found that among its residents were merchants and artisan people - potters, Kozhemyaka, jewelers and more.
  • Most of hem occupied Kiev torhovysche, where guests gathered , ie Merchants from around the world. It is at the hem shvartuvalysya their ships, because it was located Kiev harbor.

first minting of coins and manage Rus laws

  • on pragmatic intentions of Prince Volodymyr the state indicated by the fact that he first began to mint coins Russians.
  • Archaeologists have found coins from silver Vladimir - sribnyk and with gold - zlatnyk.
  • Vladimir is also the glory of first compiler Rus laws.

5. Foreign policy of Vladimir the Great

annexation Kievan state to the Christian world contributed to the establishment of closer relations with many countries. In Byzantium , to the partners of Russia belonged Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, the Germanic Empire, Bulgaria . Vivid relationship with zav'yazalysya Rome as the center of the Christian church.

special place in foreign policy relations with Vladimir sat Pechenegs. For protection from their attacks Vladimir initiated a new system of defense. In his plan, and the system was composed of powerful earthworks and a number of fortresses on the southern border of the Rus.

  • to the 'Prince Vladimir was built hundreds of miles of protective walls and ditches.

Thus, foreign policy and the Great Prince Vladimir of Kiev contributed to strengthening the state.