historic Kievan Rus' and Galicia-Volyn state
- Place of Kievan Rus and Galicia-Volyn state in the history of the Ukrainian people.
- Origin and spread the name "Ukraine».
- Origin and development of national symbols.
- international significance of Kievan Rus and Galicia-Volyn principality.
1. Place of Kievan Rus and Galicia-Volyn state in the history of the Ukrainian people
- language, everyday life, customs and obryadiv rusychiv 10-13 century. on the territory of Kyiv, Chernihivschyny, Galicia and Volhynia - central lands of Kievan Rus and Galicia-Volyn state - give reason to call them davnimy Ukrainian.
- roots of our people - in the eastern tribes, who for 5-7 centuries. rozselyalysya actively to new lands.
- first eastern Slavic state - Kievan Rus - was medieval empire.
- Along with old Ukrainian - state, host nation - there are other residents - Slavic and Baltic, Finnish, Turkic peoples.
- of close coexistence in one state with them were able to clearly understand their identity, nepodibnist to other nations, which ultimately helped the formation of consciousness of the people or, say researchers , national identity .
- immediate successor Kievan Rus was Galicia-Volyn principality .
- formed in 1199 Roman Mstyslavovych, it served as the backbone of Ukrainian statehood during the next century and existed till 1340
- Saved Galicia-Volyn principality Ukrainian state traditions were accepted by the Ukrainian gentry, and later the Cossacks, and revived in the Ukrainian Cossack state.
- is why prominent Ukrainian historian Hrushevsky argued that Galicia-Volyn principality directly inherited political and cultural traditions of princely Kyiv .
Thus, the value of Kievan Rus - the state created by the Ukrainian people on the stage of princely history, according to that same Hrushevsky, is that it is the first form of Ukrainian statehood.
2. Origin and spread the name "Ukraine»
- Ukraine is used for the first time in Kiev during litopysu 1187
- him in bytvi against Polovtsian killed Pereyaslavs'kyi Hlibovych Prince Vladimir.
- proclaiming sad about that event, the chronicler wrote that the prince « Ukraine potuzhyla many ».
- Researchers say that in those times, the name "Ukraine" in Kyiv region covered, and Pereyaslav Chernihivschynu.
- 1189 in the same name taken litopysu « Galician Ukraine » on Galician knyazivstva.
On the origin of the name
- Ukraine there are several assumptions.
- However, most associate researcher origin of the name Ukraine USED word «-end country » in the meanings « Homeland region, country, earth ».
3. Origin and development of national symbols
The main element of modern emblem of Ukraine - trident - a sign of princely dynasty Rurik dynasty, inherited from earlier times,.
- This is indicated by the oldest archaeological finds Trident depiction that their RELATE to 1 tablespoon. BCE.
- Nayvidomishe Trident depiction period of Kievan Rus - images on coins of Volodymyr the Great.
- Overall, this generic character for several centuries was widespread in all of Kyiv Rus knyazivstvah, always keeping the value of a symbol of power of the Prince.
- This princely family symbol is transmitted by inheritance intact, as is the case with the coats of arms (a sign is to transfer the arms of his descendants in steady form), and each new prince added to image any changes.
- about 40 versions of, which explains its history. Some believe that the mark originated in nations, neighbors, others - that is spokonvichnyy symbol of our ancestors.
- princely intestine wars - trident - the state has lost value.
- Each prince sought to create their own symbols, which later consolidated in the emblem of the Ukrainian lands.
- In Kyiv land trident image replaced St. Archangel Michael, is considered the patron saint of soldiers and a symbol of victory.
- new mark gained distribution in early 12 century. Archangel Michael was the patron of Grand Duke Mikhail Sviatopolk-II of Kiev, which he built in his honor St. Michael's Cathedral in Kiev.
- eldest son of Vladimir Monomakh, Grand Prince of Kyiv Mstislav used stamp with the image of St. Michael.
- Since the picture of Archangel Michael with princely seals moved to the city emblem.
- heyday of Galicia-Volyn principality reached and the emblem of modern city.
- lion symbolizes courage, power, victory, magnanimity.
- Researchers believe that the sign lion as the emblem could take Leo D.. His grandson, Leo Yu, also enjoyed it.
- According to scientists, the lion was the emblem of Galician Principality.
- oldest documented verified lion in the emblem of the city meet on the seal attached to the document by 1359
- Banner Rus looked like elongated triangles.
- With 168 images of flags in evidence Radzyvilivskomu chronicles 147 colors red flag.
- rest - blue, green, brown or white. With the introduction of Christianity in The flag became saint - patrons of a prince or of the land as well as Prince signs, crosses, sun and stars.
During the disintegration
- land spread square flags.
- When land entrenched arms, they began to repeat on flags.
4. The international importance of Kievan Rus and Galicia-Volyn state
The role of Kievan Rus in that time the world is largely determined with its location on major trade routes.
- The question, particularly the way "From the Greeks Varangian" which linked the Baltic and Black Sea.
- was also an important overland route that ran from Kyiv to the West, via Prague and Krakow in southern Germany, to the city of Regensburg on the Danube.
- particular importance was trading partnership Rus lands of Byzantium - the time the most developed state.
- greater political role of Russia in Europe at that time eloquently branched dynastic marriages Rus princes.
- Military power of the Kyiv state gave the opportunity for centuries to successfully defend itself from attacks by nomadic peoples, in particular Pechenegs and Polovtsian.
- Kievan Rus became a shield to protect the peoples of Central and Western Europe from the Mongol invasion.
- greatest influence on the culture of Rus lands was Byzantium.
- especially encouraged and consolidation of orthodox Christianity.
- Scientists stress the existence in Europe of two cultural areas - the Latin and Greek-Slavic (Byzantine-Ruthenian).
- Actually, the leading center and was last Kievan Rus and Galicia-Volyn state.
- evidenced by the international authority of Galicia-Volyn principality was the coronation of Prince Daniel Romanovich.
This event shows
- European foreign policy orientation of Galicia-Volyn principality.