Mongol invasion of Ukrainian lands
- rise of the Mongolian state and its aggressive policy. Battle of the River Kaltsi.
- Hike Mongols in the south-western Rus' land.
- defense of Kyiv.
- Hike Mongol hordes of Galicia and Volhynia.
- Golden yoke.
- Mongolian supremacy over the Galicia-Volyn principality.
- implications Golden Yoke.
wives defeat Russians in battle with the Mongols on Kaltsi
smash Pereyaslav Mongols and Chernihiv
siege and destruction of Kyiv troops of Batu Khan
invasion of Galicia-Volyn principality
trip to Prince Daniel Romanovich Horde
basic concepts and terms
Mongol-Tatars. Warriors of Genghis Khan called himself Mongols. Ruski same chroniclers called them Tatars, not knowing that the latter had to suffer the most from Mongol bows and swords. In the 19 century. in historical science has acquired distribution term "Mongol Tatars, which, however, recently in the scientific literature hardly used. Though, in textbooks it posluhovuyutsya in order to make the documents more understandable that time where the Mongol conquerors often called Tatars.
Horde - the army of nomads, and the place where the rate was Hanoi.
1. The rise of the Mongolian state and its aggressive policy. Battle of the River Kaltsi
At the end of 12 century. in the steppes of Central Asia formed a powerful military-feudal Mongolian state.
- Year 1206 khan of all Mongolia was proclaimed Temuchyna (Genghis Khan).
- conquest He started to make policy as a result of which in 1221 was conquered Central Asia and Khorezm.
- In 1222 the Mongols invaded the Caucasus through the Black Sea steppes and defeated at the Battle of Polovtsy Don.
- polovtsi Khan Kotyan retreat to the Dnieper and enlisted the help of Rus princes.
- at the Congress rulers in Kiev was decided to speak with Polovtsy against the Mongols. In April 1223 his wife went hiking Rus princes, who were led by Mstislav Romanovich Kyiv, Mstislav Mstyslavovych prosperous Galician and Mstislav of Chernigov Chernihiv.
- Battle of the key forces Mongols held May 31 1223 on the river Kalka.
- Galician and Volyn wife of Prince Mstislav prosperous and Prince Daniel Romanovich and Kuman Kalka went and started the battle without waiting for other princes.
Polovtsov fled from the battlefield, causing disorder in the army of Rus. This benefited the Mongols and defeated them.
- then surrounded the camp Horde wife of the Grand Prince Mstislav Romanovich, which stood on the right bank of the river and has not participated in the battle.
- after three days of storm, unable to overcome resistance and to capture the camp, the Mongols offered a truce. When the peace terms were accepted and princely wife left camp, they waited for death.
- loss Ruthenian troops were huge, only one in ten Rus warrior who took part in the march, returned home.
- however, the Mongols suffered large losses. That year they did not dare to continue to hike deep into Russia, but turned back.
- trip to Russia led by Genghis Khan's grandson Batu .
- Batyyeva horde of Russians moved to the ground in late 1237
- During 1237-1238 he was defeated troops Ryazan and Vladimir-Suzdal princes.
- Mongols took by storm and set fire to Ryazan, Vladimir, Moscow, Tver and other cities. North-Eastern Russia was devastated.
2. Hike to the Mongols in the south-western Rus' land
- After successful campaign to the north-eastern Rus land, the Mongol hordes in 1238 wasted away in the Polovtsian steppe to renew strength and rest.
- spring 1239 they moved to southwest.
- first on the way Batyyevoyi hordes stood Pereyaslav . The Mongols took the city, destroyed and burned it.
- same year, a sad fate befell Chernihiv .
- end of 1239 Mongolian cavalry vderlasya in Crimea, pursuing her Polovtsian losers. Conqueror captured almost the entire peninsula.
- In early 1240 the rest of the Mongol troops close to Kyiv. How to notify the chronicler, the Mongol warlord Menhuhan sent to the Prince of Kiev - Kiev then on the table sat Michael Vsevolodovich Chernihiv - ambassadors from the requirement to hand over the city.
- Prince Michael commanded to kill the messengers, and he - or afraid of their own act, or understanding that does not have adequate support, - went to Hungary.
- act of defiance, however, that once a capital city mynuvsya: Menhuhan dared those forces that had them, to Kyiv.
- seizing booty and prisoners in the surrounding villages, he went in connection with the main forces Hordes.
- In late 1240 the Mongols again pidstupyly to Kyiv and surrounded the city.
- then extended his power Danilo Galician. So the defense of the city from Mongol invasion care has fallen captain Daniel Prince - Palatine Demetrius .
- very same prince went to Poland and Hungary, with the intention to organize neighbors to collective action against aggressors.
3. Defense Kyiv
For a list of chronicles, taking Mongols held in Kyiv Mykolyn Day, or December 6, 1240
- Otherwise do not list any given date and only states that the city stuck to 10 weeks and four days.
- Considering that Kyiv had a very strong fortress, scientists tend to believe that the siege was protracted, and assault - hardened.
- brunt Batu directed from the south near Lyadsky gate.
- continuously, day and night Mongols beat rams gate and walls, until the plot took a shaft and broke into the limits "of Yaroslav.
- Resistance Kiev was so desperate, and invaders such large losses that Batu had to order the cease fighting and gave respite to his forces.
- defenders Kyiv. He went away on the border "city of Vladimir, they overnight ukripylysya on new positions.
- next day battle began again. Kiyani zealously defending every street, every house, but the forces were too unequal.
- Mongols broke through the fortifications around St. Sophia gate - because they then started calling Batyyevymy.
- Conqueror Desiatynna surrounded the church and attacked its walls murolomnymy machines.
- temple collapsed, buried under the ruins of its heroic defenders. Thousands of Kiev were killed in an unequal struggle.
- Almost all residential and commercial buildings, palaces and cathedrals Kyiv turned to the still smoldering.
- P-40 masonry temples that had to Kyiv Mongolian trampling, according to scientists remained, and even the very damaged, some 5-6.
- of over 8 thousand yards, in the words of Plano Carpini, about 200 survived. Thus, residents' Mother of all Rus cities "decreased from 50 - 60 to two thousand.
4. Hike the Mongol hordes of Galicia and Volhynia
From Kyiv main force went to the Batu Vladimir and Galich, while others remained Mongolian troops plunder Kyiv region.
- With fire and sword the Mongols were in the Kyiv, Volyn and Galicia lands.
- Vishgorod and Belgorod, hillforts on Teteriv happened, Horyn, Southern Bug rivers and other paintings reflect heroic defense and destruction of these cities.
- protracted and fierce battle was for Vladimir.
- enemy with much difficulty took the city.
- Under Mongol hordes came Galich connected by a three-day siege and after they took him by storm.
- Year 1241 the Mongols came to the western frontiers of Russia.
- part of the Mongol army vderlasya in Poland.
- same Mongol forces entered the border of Hungary and the Czech Republic went on.
- However in 1242 Batu stop trip to the West and through Bosnia, Serbia, Bulgaria and Russia withdrew its troops in the lower course of the Volga.
- reason for this was the death of the chief Mongol Khan Uhedeya, Batu, and wanted to take an active part in the election of a new one.
- However, reasons for discontinuation were intense campaign: Batu had no forces to keep in subjection all the conquered countries of Eastern and Central Europe, too suffered heavy losses of its army.
5. Golden yoke
Mongol Empire was redistributed into four parts (ulus).
- Batu possession constituted the westernmost part - ulus Dzhuchi: there was a state Golden Horde.
- Under the rule of the country, covering territory from the Urals and Western Siberia to the Black Sea, appeared all Rus-Ukraine.
- unrecognizably Mongol invasion changed the Russians land. The most devastation suffered Kyiv, Chernihiv and Pereyaslavskoe-Sivers'k principality.
After the hike
- Batu they were dependent on the Golden Horde.
- Power princes in these lands remained, but the right to reign the Mongol Khan confirmed his label - Diploma, permits to own land - in exchange for recognition of their superiority and commitment to provide troops and pay tribute .
- According to sources, the Mongols demanded payment of the total population tenth - both products and property and their own people.
- to terrible "human Tithes fell and those who could not settle in the normal way. Removed people caught in slavery, they were mostly handed over to the Mongolian army.
- for calculating and collecting tribute watched Mongolian officials. Senior government officials in the conquered lands called baskakom .
- In his possession were the troops that were continually in the citadel - baskatskomu town. Researchers believe that one of these towns was located not far from Kyiv, in the tract Batyyevomu - where stored and still interprets the name.
- conquered land by Mongol tradition, was redistributed in part (ulus) between subordinates Batu less powerful khans.
- Yes, the Dnieper was redistributed between khans and Mautsi Kuremsoyu: first kochuvav Zadniprov'yi in the second - the Right Bank across the steppes.
- Golden rulers constantly interfering in the internal affairs of the principalities, hyping intestine wars between princes, and not stopping before the destruction of the princes who came to horde capital.
- So, when Prince Michael Vsevolodovich Chernihiv attempted to establish itself in Kiev, he had to appeal to Hanoi.
- chronicler tells you that Prince Michael went in for the Mongol Horde label , where the September 20, 1246 for refusing to perform pagan rituals on the orders of Batu was executed along with his boyar Fedor.
- In 1243 the first of the princes acknowledged the supremacy of the Mongols and took out a shortcut to the city of Kyiv and Vladimir Yaroslav Vsevolodovich.
- destroyed Kyiv prince did not go and sent the governor there.
- After the death of Prince Yaroslav Vsevolodovich right "to Kyiv and all Rus land" was his son Alexander Nevsky named. But he refused and the capital.
- Pereiaslavs'ka hit the earth even more dependent on the Horde. In the second half of 40's of 13 century. here was his prince.
- lost their grandeur and Chernihiv principality. At the end of 13 - 14 during the first half century. rozpadalosya on it and new portions.
6. Mongolian supremacy over the Galicia-Volyn principality
- Compared with other Ruthenian lands less devastation of the Mongol invasion suffered Galicia-Volyn principality.
- It was not redistributed to the administrative district of the Mongols, the other principalities, not in it and the governors-baskakiv.
- in Galicia and Volhynia ruled by their own rulers are able to extend the deal to unite the Ukrainian principalities.
- Not role played here and a prominent figure of the ruler of Galicia and Volyn State - Prince Daniel Romanovich.
- His actions caused resentment Batu Khan, who made the request before the prince to visit the Horde.
- In October 1245 Daniel went to the Horde.
- journey was long. According to chronicle, Daniel spent 25 days in the Horde.
As a result of negotiations
- Mongols adopted its Galician-Volyn prince:
- Payment of tribute was not envisaged, and the dependence of Galicia-Volyn principality from the Golden Horde was to participate in the prince's army campaigns Mongol army.
So, while Daniel R. was in a relationship of Batu Khan Mongolian high and mighty were still far from complete conquest of the Galician-Volyn land.
7. Implications Golden Yoke
- To fully assess the impact of Mongol invasion on the Ukrainian land, remember that it is not only destructive campaigns of 1238-1242 biennium, but also - and mainly it! - Stay on the centuries under the rule of the Mongol khans.
- huge human and material losses they suffered Ukrainian principality during the first - the most powerful blow, grew over the years since the Mongol hordes from time to time nakochuvalys waves on land conquered by predatory raids.
- The researchers note that during such raids Ukrainian lands lost princes, priests, artisans, warriors, which inflicted great damage sustained development of the nation, impeded economic and cultural life.
- loss of political independence, the princes of the role of men 'Golden captains will prytlumlyuvaly the state traditions dalosya felt over the next centuries.
- After weakening Russia as a result of the Mongol invasion rushed to take western neighbors, especially Poland, Hungary, Lithuania, Teutonic Order, and bleeding Ukrainian lands were not doable due to resistance.
This ultimately led to division of Ukrainian lands among several states - and in this tragic consequence Golden hardship.