disintegration of Kievan Rus
- causes and nature of disintegration of Kievan Rus.
- Kyiv Principality: historical and geographical situation and the peculiarities of political life.
- -Sivers'k Chernihiv principality: historical and geographical situation and the peculiarities of political life. "Tale of Igor».
- Pereyaslavskoe principality. Features of political life.
Hike Novgorod-Seversky against Prince Igor Polovtsian, later described in his poem "The Tale of Igor»
The earliest mention of the name "Ukraine" in the Chronicle
basic concepts and terms
Doba disintegration researchers called the period in the history of Kievan Rus in the mid 12 to mid 13 century. Earlier, the Rus, through strife and discord remained centralized monarchy, then the mid-12 century. it began to manage the strongest association of princes - the princes of autonomous principalities. Congress legalized Lubech patrimonial system developed so that the separate rulers increasingly felt in their possessions by independent owners. Actually, in strengthening the independence of autonomous principalities and is the essence of integrity.
Feudalism - social system which has such social phenomenon as a combination of political power of land ownership, the dependence of peasants on feudal, feudal hierarchy and vasalitet, feudal fragmentation.
barony - feudal land ownership, which peredavalos inheritance, it could sell, exchange and sharing.
1. Causes of disintegration of Kievan Rus
Historians explain the different causes of disintegration of Kievan Rus.
- is called among them
- large size of the territory of,
- variegated ethnic composition,
- knyazivski usobytsi,
- absence sustainable manner stolonasliduvannya,
- decline trade route "from the Varangian to Greeks».
- main cause of most researchers believe development of feudal land tenure, strengthening his patrimonial forms.
- autonomous rulers were not interested in a strong power of Grand Duke of Kiev. Even more - they wanted for themselves the same authority.
- wonder in 12 century. title "Grand Prince" next to Kiev had Chernihiv, ascend and some other princes.
- winners autonomous principalities to guide their own internal politics, in its discretion to decide questions of war and peace, concluded agreements with neighbors.
- such autonomous principalities in the mid 12 century. was about 15, 5 of which were formed in the Ukrainian territory: Kiev, Chernihiv, Pereyaslavskoe, Volyn and Galician.
- autonomous land borders with the territories of tribal unions of east tribes throughout the day consisted of settling (5-7 cent.) inspired scientists to think that a lot of weight in the disintegration of Kievan Rus different ethnic composition of its territory .
Slowed down for some time a strong centralized government maturation processes of the three Slavic nations - Ukrainian, Belarusian and Russians became more active, just power and weakened when the favorable conditions prevailing in economic life.
- soundness of this opinion indicates that among the first to submit stopped Kyiv principality Polotsk (Belarus), Novgorod and Vladimir-Suzdal Principality (Russian territory).
Yet, despite the irreversibility of decay and the increasing independence of land-principalities, Kievan Rus to the mid-13 century. where the only state sources - and the only area with common laws and only church.
- Kyiv remained, although more and more formally, a capital city, and for the right poknyazhyty it competed Rus princes from different principalities.
- during Monomakh princes assembled at the Congress, where he addressed the controversial issues - mainly related to the organization of joint campaigns against the Polovtsian.
- Each autonomous prince soon won Kyiv table, trying to use his position to strengthen the great centralization of power and restore state.
fragmentation interprets not as the collapse of the state as a change in its structure and form of government. Disintegration times of Kievan Rus researchers called federal monarchy. form of government characteristic of Kievan Rus disintegration times, defined as collective suzerainty : instead of one large power Prince performs most influential association of princes.
2. Kyiv Principality
territory and resources
The most pressing mizhknyazivski dispute over the 12th century the first half of 1913. Kyiv flashed on the table.
- No wonder this was not because Kyiv remained at that time one of the largest and richest European cities.
- It housed numerous courts boyars i kuptsiv, big remisnychi maysterni.
In Kiev, lived about 50 thousand souls.
- In Kiev remained mytropolytiv residence.
Greatness of a capital city
- adequate and adjacent land.
- Kiev principality was the most populated principality of Kievan Rus.
- Litopysy called 80 cities i mistechok located here.
- source of wealth Kyiv land were black and rodyuchi poliski useful resources.
- richok linked network of Kyiv land nayviddalenishymy corners and susidnimy Rus peoples.
race for Kyiv
By the Kyiv principality Lyubetskii Congress recognized otchynoyu Izyaslavich.
Becoming a consolidate
- in Kiev, Vladimir Monomakh Kyiv tried to turn on Monomahovychiv patrimony.
- But all efforts were in vain: during the disintegration for the right knyazhyty competed in Kiev, Chernigov princes arms, Volyn Pereiaslav, Rostov-Suzdal, Smolensk ...
- rulers in Kiev zastupaly one another 6-8 years or even more often.
- and none had a peaceful reign, had to struggle against armed harassment of applicants.
- happens in Kiev and conspiracy, which took an active part Kiev Boyars.
- Yes, the year 1146 after the death of Prince Vsevolod, the representative branch of Chernihiv princes who ruled in Kiev from 1139, Kyiv table took Igor Olhovychs .
- Boyars conspiracy against him by inviting the city of Prince Pereyaslav Izyaslav Mstyslavych.
- When he and his wife came to Kyiv, boyars opened switched to his side, and Igor Olhovychs tonsured a monk.
By the way, Izyaslav Mstyslavych reign was one of the most successful of the turbulent era.
- it against the background of almost continuous and mostly victorious campaigns and battles on the rebellious princes and Polovtsian.
- addition, Prince Izyaslav tried to gain greater independence for the Ruthenian Orthodox Church: the year 1147 as the fastest rider seat metropolitan, he insisted, to the post chose Rusyches - climate Smolyatych.
- longest disintegration lasted for days reign in Kiev co Sviatoslav (1177-1194 biennium) and Rurik ( 1180-1202 biennium) .
- These rulers belonged to the two most influential families - the Smolensk and Chernigov Olhovychs Rostyslavychiv.
- spivpravlinnya agreed on, they put an end to bitter quarrels mizhknyazivskym, improving domestic situation.
- co-organized the joint marches against Polovtsian prince and finally achieved that nomads left in the lower course of the Seversky Donets.
Under the successors
co Kyiv continued political authority die away. Kyiv earth podribnylasya a significant number of shares owned, and the last Kyiv prince, whose reign was an era of disunity to learn about powerful convergence forces Mongols - nomads, invaders, and later under attack Kievan Rus which ceased to exist, fled the city.
3. Chernihiv principality-Sivers'k
Territory and the main city
- finally formed in the 11 century. the will of Yaroslav the Wise, although the land belonged to the ancient Chernihiv Branch of the Rus.
- the early 12 century. Chernihiv principality comprised the territory of left-bank lands in the basins of the Desna and the Sejm, and the upper Oka Sozh. From Kiev Chernihiv land separated Dnieper.
- the second half of the 12 century. Chernihiv princes belonged Tmutarakan city - a large port in the Kerch Bay.
- By day Chernihiv principality elaboration was divided into smaller portions. The most influential among them was Novgorod principality Sivers'k.
- In Chernihiv Principality was a lot of cities. The largest among them - Chernigov, Novgorod-Seversky, Putyvl, Bryansk, Kursk, Starodub - mentioned in the sources because of the many events Ruthenian history.
- a capital inferior size Chernihiv Kiev alone.
- Chernihiv was well fortified and had a good connection with other cities.
- Chernihiv princes zealously cared about building the city.
- For 12 centuries. was built in the famous Boris Cathedral - one of the best in Russia, St. Michael's, Annunciation, Bloc, Assumption Church, each of which was worthy to be called the pearl of Old Rus architecture.
Chernihiv land under the will of Yaroslav the Wise, belonged Sviatoslav.
- his sons Oleg and David became the founders of dynasties Chernihiv princes - O. (Chronicle calls them Olhovychs) and Davidovich .
- That representatives of these dynasties vershylasya fate Chernigov lands.
- of Sviatoslav Yaroslavych Chernigov princes did not leave dreams of Kyiv.
- on the power of the Chernigov principality by the fact that some of the princes really fortunate to rule in Kiev. This was particularly Olhovychs Vsevolod, who ruled in Kiev from 1139 to 1146
- interesting fact of political life Chernigovschiny hides some hostility with which the chroniclers you aware of Kiev in Kiev, Chernigov reigning princes.
- Eastern Chernigov land directly bordering the world of the nomads.
- Chernihiv princes, seeking peaceful relations, often resorted to the dynastic marriage to Princess polovtsi.
- geographically related with the nomads, and sometimes hard, they are readily attracted Polovtsian horde for their vanity plans.
- Such a policy could not find support in Kiev, so often they stood, not wanting to recognize the Chernihiv princes for his. Yet the general background of the history of Old Rus following events occurred infrequently. Many more references to persistent defense Chernihivites homeland of the nomadic invaders.
«Tale of Igor»
Chernihiv directly associated with the event, her greatest work immortalized in ancient Ukrainian literature - a poem «Tale of Igor».
The main event was a member of Novgorod-Seversky Prince Igor.
- Year 1185 he was with his brother Vsevolod, son and nephew of Vladimir Sviatoslav campaign went on Polovtsi.
- author of "The Tale of Igor" said of the purpose of the military operation: « I want to hack or spears in the field and Polovtsian nalozhyty head or helmet to drink water from the Don ».
- But one knight enthusiasm was not enough. Igor Polovtsian intended to jump suddenly.
- But already from the beginning of the battle plan had to change because the nomads were ready to fight.
- first day of battle brought victory Rus. Polovtsov began to depart in the steppes.
- Igor rashly ordered to pursue them. So sleep Russians wife were forced to Polovtsi plains.
- It had tragic consequences. Polovtsov collected large forces in the morning and started to attack. Complete trip ended in defeat - so shameful that such land is not remembered Ruska: army almost all died, and four princes captured .
- hike implications were so tragically, it opened the way for Polovtsy Chernigov, and Kiev Pereiaslav land.
- relative calm at the southern border of the Rus land was taken jointly by many princes, headed by Kyiv Prince Svyatoslav and Rurik has been frozen.
brilliant poet of the 12 century. advantage of the unsuccessful campaign of Novgorod-Seversky conceited Prince Igor, to appeal to the Ruthenians with unity and reservations call the evil, that pushed him to the ground Rus mizhknyazivski strife and discord.
4. Pereyaslavskoe principality
- Pereyaslavskoe principality formed by Yaroslav.
- his territory compared to other principalities was small.
- the east and south lands Pereyaslav directly bordered on the steppes.
- This geographic location is largely determined pereyaslavtsiv life, because their land served as a shield for the rest of the Kyiv Rus territories.
- Pereiaslav Principality of major princes of Kiev were constructed powerful protective fortifications.
- mostly as military fortresses and cities arose Pereyaslav.
- secure stronghold was, in particular, and Pereyaslav.
- City was located near the Dnieper River, where the river Alta in Trubizh conspicuous, and few are so strong reinforcement that Kuman, often in Pereiaslav invaded the land, the city could not take.
features of political life
immediate proximity to Kyiv effects included and feature position Pereiaslav princes: volodaryuyuchy in Pereiaslav, if they waited for opportunity to gain Kyiv table.
- Move some of the princes from distant lands to Pereyaslav meant that a new powerful contender in Kyiv.
- This fact explains why Pereyaslavskoe principality in general did not have political independence and almost entirely dependent on Kyiv.
- What to Pereiaslav princes, the prominent personalities among them were many. It is worth mentioning Vladimir Monomakh, which knyazyuvav Pereyaslav in 20 years.
- During disintegration rise Pereyaslavsky bind principalities, especially with Prince Vladimir Hlibovychi.
- He was a constant participant of many campaigns antypolovetskyh, earned fame of a valiant warrior and a gifted commander.
- As Novgorod-Seversky Prince Igor, Vladimir Hlibovychi immortalized author of "Words ...», but not marnoslavnist and political nerozvazhlyvist, and as the organizer of Defense Pereyaslav.
- Persistence, which defended Vladimir Hlibovychi Pereiaslav from Polovtsian land, found sympathy and Kiev chronicler. When notifying the year 1187 when the death Pereyaslav prince, he noted: « because he loved his wife, and gold is collected, property not pitied, and added his wife for it was prince valiant and all manner of virtues was full. According to him Ukraine also many potuzhyla ».
In the story of the death of Prince Vladimir Pereyaslav Hlibovychi chronicler in 1187 has taken the name "Ukraine". This - the oldest mention the name "Ukraine" in written sources.
After the death of Vladimir Hlibovychi Pereyaslav unlucky not to princes. They were or were not obeyed and Pereyaslav Kyiv, or correcting those who did not leave behind a visible mark in history.